METHODS: F. deltoidea and vitexin was administrated orally to six-weeks STZ-induced diabetic rats over 8 weeks period. The glucose and insulin tolerances were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose (2 g/kg) tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin (0.65 U/kg) tolerance test (IPITT), respectively. Subsequently, insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and the insulin/triglyceride-derived McAuley index. The histological changes in the pancreas were then observed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Further, the pattern of fatty acid composition and infrared (IR) spectra of the serum and pancreas were monitored by gas chromatography (GC) method and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
RESULTS: F. deltoidea and vitexin increased pancreatic antioxidant enzymes and promoted islet regeneration. However, a significant increase in insulin secretion was observed only in rats treated with F. deltoidea. More importantly, reduction of fasting blood glucose is consistent with reduced FT-IR peaks at 1200-1000 cm-1.
CONCLUSIONS: These results accentuate that F. deltoidea and vitexin could be a potential agent to attenuate pancreatic oxidative damage and advocate their therapeutic potential for treating DM.
METHODS: The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of F. deltoidea were prepared and subjected to standardization using preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50-5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and rats found diabetic were orally administered with the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 14 days. Levels of blood glucose and insulin were measured in control as well as diabetic rats on 0, 7 and 14th day. In addition, glucose metabolism regulating gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR.
RESULTS: HPLC analysis revealed that the methanol extract is enriched with C-glycosylflavones particularly, vitexin and isovitexin. In oral glucose tolerance test, oral administration of the methanol extract increased the glucose tolerance. The methanol extract showed significant (P
METHODS: Sprague-Dawley female rats (12 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups (n = 6): healthy; nontreated OA; OA + diclofenac (5 mg/kg); OA + extract (200 mg/kg); and OA + extract (400 mg/kg). Two weeks after bilaterally ovariectomy, OA was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate into the right knee joints. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were evaluated for knee OA via physical (radiological and histological observations), biochemical, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gene expression analysis, for inflammation and cartilage degradation biomarkers.
RESULTS: The osteoarthritic rats treated with the extract, and diclofenac showed significant reduction of cartilage erosion (via radiological, macroscopic, and histological images) compared with untreated osteoarthritic rats. The elevated serum interleukin-1β, prostaglandin E2, and C-telopeptide type II collagen levels in osteoarthritic rats were significantly reduced by F deltoidea leaf extract comparable to diclofenac. The extract significantly down-regulated the interleukin-1β, prostaglandin E2 receptor, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expressions in the osteoarthritic cartilages, similar to diclofenac.
CONCLUSIONS: F deltoidea leaf extract mitigated postmenopausal osteoarthritic joint destruction by inhibiting inflammation and cartilage degradation enzymes, at an effective extract dose equivalent to about 60 mg/kg for humans. The main bioactive compounds are probably the antioxidative flavonoids vitexin and isovitexin.