Recently we reported experimental and simulation results on an increase in resonance frequency of a SAW resonator caused by mass loading of micropillars made of SU-8, attached normal to the surface of the resonator. We concluded that SAW resonator and the SU-8 micropillars in unison form a system of coupled resonators. We have now extended this work and performed a finite element method simulation to study the resonance frequency characteristics of the SAW-based coupled resonator. In this paper we report the effect of the resonance frequency of the micropillars on the resonance frequency of the system of coupled resonators, and observe the coupling of micropillar resonance and the propagating SAW as described in the well known Dybwad system of coupled resonators.
This study presents an efficient finite element analysis technique which shows great versatility in
modelling of precast composite flooring system subjected to static loadings. The method incorporates sliding and opening in the analysis of composite structures using the interface element which was specifically designed to simulate the actual behaviour at the interfaces between contacting materials. A three-dimensional finite element model of the precast composite slab which exhibits discontinuous behaviour was performed to demonstrate the potential and applicability of the proposed method of analysis. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the overall response of a discontinuous system to external loading is significantly affected by the bonding condition at the interfaces between the contacting materials.
This study focused on developing a 3D finite element model of functionally graded femoral prostheses to decrease stress shielding and to improve total hip replacement performance. The mechanical properties of the modeled functionally graded femoral prostheses were adjusted in the sagittal and transverse planes by changing the volume fraction gradient exponent. Prostheses with material changes in the sagittal and transverse planes were considered longitudinal and radial prostheses, respectively. The effects of cemented and noncemented implantation methods were also considered in this study. Strain energy and von Mises stresses were determined at the femoral proximal metaphysis and interfaces of the implanted femur components, respectively. Results demonstrated that the strain energy increased proportionally with increasing volume fraction gradient exponent, whereas the interface stresses decreased on the prostheses surfaces. A limited increase was also observed at the surfaces of the bone and cement. The periprosthetic femur with a noncemented prosthesis exhibited higher strain energy than with a cemented prosthesis. Radial prostheses implantation displayed more strain energy than longitudinal prostheses implantation in the femoral proximal part. Functionally graded materials also increased strain energy and exhibited promising potentials as substitutes of conventional materials to decrease stress shielding and to enhance total hip replacement lifespan.
This paper proposes an alternative approach to extract transformer's winding parameters of resistance (R), inductance (L), capacitance (C) and conductance (G) based on Finite Element Method (FEM). The capacitance and conductance were computed based on Fast Multiple Method (FMM) and Method of Moment (MoM) through quasi-electrostatics approach. The AC resistances and inductances were computed based on MoM through quasi-magnetostatics approach. Maxwell's equations were used to compute the DC resistances and inductances. Based on the FEM computed parameters, the frequency response of the winding was obtained through the Bode plot function. The simulated frequency response by FEM model was compared with the simulated frequency response based on the Multi-conductor Transmission Line (MTL) model and the measured frequency response of a 33/11 kV, 30 MVA transformer. The statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Absolute Sum of Logarithmic Error (ASLE) were used to analyze the performance of the proposed FEM model. It is found that the simulated frequency response by FEM model is quite close to measured frequency response at low and mid frequency regions as compared to simulated frequency response by MTL model based on RMSE and ASLE analysis.
This study aimed at investigating and establishing stress distributions in graded multilayered zirconia/alumina ceramic cores and at veneer-core-cement-dentin interfaces, using finite element analysis (FEA), to facilitate the structural design of ceramic cores through computer modeling. An intact maxillary premolar was digitized using CT scanning. An imaging software, Mimics, was used to reconstruct 3D models based on computed tomography (CT) data saved in DICOM format. Eight different 3D models were created for FEA, where each 3D model was meshed and its bottom boundaries constrained. A static load was applied in the oblique direction. The materials were assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. Highest von Mises stress values were found in areas directly below the load application point, and stress gradually decreased in occlusal loading direction from the external surface toward the dentin. Stress levels occurring at veneer-ceramic core-cement-dentin interfaces were shown to be lower in multilayered ceramic cores than in single-layer models.
In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher) than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
This paper investigated the static behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) built-up hollow and concrete filled built-up beams tested under four-point bending with a span-to-depth ratio of 1.67, therefore focusing their shear performance. Two parameters considered for hollow sections were longitudinal web stiffener and strengthening at the web-flange junction. The experimental results indicated that the GFRP hollow beams failed by web crushing at supports; therefore, the longitudinal web stiffener has an insignificant effect on improving the maximum load. Strengthening web-flange junctions using rectangular hollow sections increased the maximum load by 47%. Concrete infill could effectively prevent the web crushing, and it demonstrated the highest load increment of 162%. The concrete filled GFRP composite beam failed by diagonal tension in the lightweight concrete core. The finite element models adopting Hashin damage criteria yielded are in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of maximum load and failure mode. Based on the numerical study, the longitudinal web stiffener could prevent the web buckling of the slender GFRP beam and improved the maximum load by 136%. The maximum load may be further improved by increasing the thickness of the GFRP section and the size of rectangular hollow sections used for strengthening. It was found that the bond-slip at the concrete-GFRP interface affected the shear resistance of concrete-GFRP composite beam.
In an open fracture, the external fixator is one of the definitive treatment options as it could provide the initial stabilisation of the fractured bone. Limited literature discussing on the biomechanical stability between unilateral, hybrid and Ilizarov configurations, principally in treating a femoral fracture. Thus, this study aims to analyse the biomechanical stability of different external fixators via the finite element method (FEM). The present study portrays that different configurations of fixators possess different biomechanical stability, hence leading to different healing rates and complication risks. For the methodology, three-dimensional models of three different external fixators were reconstructed where axial loads were applied on the proximal end of the femur, simulating the stance phase. From the results, the unilateral configuration provides better stability compared to the hybrid and Ilizarov, where it displaced the least with an average percentage difference of 50% for the fixator's frame and 23% for the bone. The unilateral configuration also produced the least interfragmentary movement (0.48 mm) as compared to hybrid (0.62 mm) and Ilizarov (0.61 mm) configurations. Besides, the strain and stress of the unilateral configuration were superior in terms of stability compared to the other two configurations. As a conclusion, the unilateral configuration had the best biomechanical stability as it was able to assist the bone healing process as well as minimising the risk of pin tract infection while treating a femoral fracture.
The stiffness response or load-deformation/displacement behavior is the most important mechanical behavior that frequently being utilized for validation of the mathematical-physical models representing the mechanical behavior of solid objects in numerical method, compared to actual experimental data. This numerical study aims to investigate the linear-nonlinear stiffness behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites at material and structural levels, and its dependency to the sets of individual/group elastic and damage model parameters. In this regard, a validated constitutive damage model, elastic-damage properties as reference data, and simulation process, that account for elastic, yielding, and damage evolution, are considered in the finite element model development process. The linear-nonlinear stiffness responses of four cases are examined, including a unidirectional CFRP composite laminate (material level) under tensile load, and also three multidirectional composite structures under flexural loads. The result indicated a direct dependency of the stiffness response at the material level to the elastic properties. However, the stiffness behavior of the composite structures depends both on the structural configuration, geometry, lay-ups as well as the mechanical properties of the CFRP composite. The value of maximum reaction force and displacement of the composite structures, as well as the nonlinear response of the structures are highly dependent not only to the mechanical properties, but also to the geometry and the configuration of the structures.
External fixators have been widely used in treating open fractures and have produced excellent outcomes, as they could successfully heal bones. The stability of external fixators lies greatly in their construction. Factors that associated with the stability of the external fixators includes stress, displacement, and relative micromotion. Three-dimensional (3D) models of bone and external fixators were constructed by using 3D modelling software, namely Materialise and SolidWorks, respectively. Three different configurations of external fixators namely Model 1, Model 2, and Model 3 were analysed. Three load cases were simulated to assess the abovementioned factors at the bone, specifically at the fracture site and at the external fixator. Findings showed that the double-cross configuration (Model 3) was the most promising in axial, bending, and torsion load cases as compared to the other two configurations. The no-cross configuration (Model 1) had the highest risk of complication due to high stress, relative micromotion, and displacement in the bending and torsion load cases. On the other hand, the single-cross configuration (Model 2) had the highest risk of complication when applied with axial load. In conclusion, the double-cross locking construct (Model 3) showed the biggest potential to be a new option for medical surgeons in treating patients associated with bone fracture. This new double-cross locking construct showed superior biomechanical stability as compared to single-cross and no-cross configurations in the axial, bending, and torsion load cases.
Effects of different surface textures on the interface shear strength, interface slip, and failure modes of the concrete-to-concrete bond are examined through finite element numerical model and experimental methods in the presence of the horizontal load with 'push-off' technique under different normal stresses. Three different surface textures are considered; smooth, indented, and transversely roughened to finish the top surfaces of the concrete bases. In the three-dimensional modeling via the ABAQUS solver, the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) is used to simulate the interface shear failure. It is observed that the interface shear strength increases with the applied normal stress. The transversely roughened surface achieves the highest interface shear strength compared with those finished with the indented and smooth approaches. The smooth and indented surfaces are controlled by the adhesive failure mode while the transversely roughened surface is dominated by the cohesive failure mode. Also, it is observed that the CZM approach can accurately model the interface shear failure with 3-29% differences between the modeled and the experimental test findings.
Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are common pathological problems of the human bone tissue. There are some cases of pilon fractures associated with these 2 pathological conditions. In terms of treatment, for a normal and healthy bone with pilon fracture, the use of the Delta external fixator is a favorable option because it can allow early mobilization for patients and provide stability for the healing process. However, the stability of the external fixator differs when there is low bone stiffness, which has not been previously investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the stability of the external fixator to treat pilon fracture associated with osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, particularly to differentiate the stress distribution and micromovement of fracture fragment. Three-dimensional finite element models of the ankle and foot bones were reconstructed based on the computed tomography datasets. The bones consisted of 5 metatarsal, 3 cuneiform, and 1 each of cuboid, navicular, calcaneus, talus, fibula, and tibia bones. They were assigned with linear isotropic behavior. The ankle joint consisted of ligament and cartilage, and they were assigned with the use of linear links and the Mooney-Rivlin model, respectively. During simulation of the gait cycle, 70 N and 350 N were applied axially to the tibia bone to represent the swing and stance phases, respectively. The metatarsal and calcaneus bones were fixed to prevent any movement of the rigid body. The study found that the greatest von Mises stress value was observed at the pin-bone interface for the osteoporosis (108 MPa) model, followed by the osteoarthritis (87 MPa) and normal (44 MPa) models, during the stance phase. For micromovement, the osteoporosis model had the largest value at 0.26 mm, followed by the osteoarthritis (0.09 mm) and normal (0.03 mm) models. In conclusion, the greatest magnitudes of stress and micromovement were observed for the osteoporosis bone and extra care should be taken to treat pilon fracture associated with this pathological condition.
The finite element method is gaining acceptance in predicting mechanical response of various loading configurations and material orientations for failure analysis of composite laminates. Both fabrication of laminate samples and experimental procedures are often expensive and time consuming, and hence impractical, especially during the initial design stage. Finite element analyses require minimal amounts of input data, and the resulting stress and strain distributions can be determined throughout each individual ply. Using ANSYSTM, a commercially available finite element package, failure loads were predicted by simulating a uniaxial tensile loading on HTS40/977-2 Carbon/Epoxy composite with [+/-4512s lamination scheme. Two built-in failure theories in ANSYSTM features, viz., Maximum Stress and Tsai-Wu were applied in the simulation. The stress-strain and load-extension curves for both actual testing and FEA were then compared and the results are in good agreement. This paper is intended for researchers who have used or are considering using ANSYSTM for the prediction of failure in composite materials.
This paper investigates the behaviour of C-shaped and L-shaped angle shear connectors embedded in solid concrete slabs. An effective finite element model is proposed to simulate the push out tests of these shear connectors that encompass nonlinear material behaviour, large displacement and damage plasticity. The finite element models are validated against test results. Parametric studies using this nonlinear model are performed to investigate the variations in concrete strength and connector dimensions. The finite element analyses also confirm the test results that increasing the length of shear connector increases their shear strength proportionately. It is observed that the maximum stress in L-shaped angle connectors takes place in the weld attachment to the beam, whereas in the C-shaped angle connectors, it is in the attached leg. The location of maximum concrete compressive damage is rendered in each case. Finally, a new equation for prediction of the shear capacity of C-shaped angle connectors is proposed.
A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a 'sine-like' function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.
The use of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) system is currently preferred because LRT is sustainable,
improves travel options and facilitates swift mobility in urban areas. Hence, the structural stability
and safety of this public transportation system against seismic occurrences are indispensable. Given
that these structures cannot be considered conventional frames because of their complex architectural
design, focussing meticulously on reliable seismic design codes and structural rehabilitation techniques
is vital for the design of the lateral resistance system. One Malaysian LRT station is considered in this
study, and the seismic response of this train station when equipped with supplementary viscous damper
devices is evaluated. Thus, the LRT station is modelled through finite element simulation. The methods
of seismic analysis are limited to linear seismic analyses, namely, response spectrum and time history
analyses. Results derived in this study show a significant improvement in structural response when the
station is fitted with dampers; approximately 40% reduction in displacement is observed at the top joint
of the roof. Furthermore, the lateral base shears decrease by approximately 70%.
This work was carried out with the aim to optimise the tool path by simulating the removal of material in a finite element environment which is controlled by a genetic algorithm (GA). To simulate the physical removal of material during machining, a finite element model was designed to represent a thin walled workpiece. The target was to develop models which mimic the actual cutting process using the finite element method (FEM), to validate the developed tool path strategy algorithm with the actual machining process and to programme the developed algorithm into the software. The workpiece was to be modelled using the CAD (ABAQUS CAE) software to create a basic geometry co-ordinate system which could then be used to create the finite element method and necessary requirement by ABAQUS, such as the boundary condition, the material type, and the element type.
The takraw ball is a very unique interwoven ball used in the action game of sepak takraw. The traditional takraw ball is manufactured by conventionally weaving split rattan strips into a spherical basket. Modern takraw balls are manufactured by forming strips of plastics materials into interwoven hoop. These interwoven hoops form 12 pentagon holes and 30 intersections. The purpose of this study is to construct a finite-element (FE) model of a takraw ball in particular for normal impact simulation on flat surfaces under low speed conditions. Two FE models were developed to observe the dynamic behavior including impact forces, contact time, coefficient of restitution and deformation of the ball. The first model consists of a single solid hollow ball with 12 pentagon holes and the second model consists of six center strips and 12 side edge strips of
extrusion hoops to form 12 pentagon holes and 270 cross-sections. The models were also compared with results of experimental impact tests whereby the ball was impacted normal to a rigid plate at three different heights. The ball is described in the FE model as a linear elastic material.
It was found that the FE analysis solution of the ball model was found to be reasonably close with the experimental results. However further improvement need to be done by taking into consideration the nonlinearity of the takraw ball under large deformation as well as at high impact velocity.
In this paper, an extensive work on the natural frequency of perforated plate has
been made by introducing micro-holes on the plate. The micro-holes, which is known
to have a remarkable performance in several applications, were arranged diagonally
among the perforated holes in order to make a new combination of micro-macro
perforated plate. A 3D geometrical model of the plate was made in the Autodesk
Inventor and the Finite Element (FE) simulation was employed to calculate the
natural frequency and visualize the mode shape. Four models were made with
various micro-holes diameter starting from 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 and 0,9 mm, respectively.
The macro holes diameter, however, was kept constant to be 1,5 mm purposely to
know the effect of micro holes in particular. The results from the models were then
compared to a single perforated plate (PP) for clarification. It is found that the micro
holes gives considerable effect to the perforated plate natural frequency. Similar to
the author previous findings, the diameter of the micro holes is proportional to the
natural frequency reduction.
Numerical simulation of the behaviour of blood flow through a stenosed bifurcated
artery with the presence of single mild stenosis at parent artery is investigated. The
flow analysis applies the incompressible, steady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
for non-Newtonian generalized power law fluids. Behaviour of blood flow is simulated
numerically using COMSOL Multiphysicsthat based on finite element method.The
results showthe effect of severity of stenosis on flow characteristics such as axial velocity
and its exhibit flow recirculation zone for analysis on streamlines pattern.