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  1. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Oskoueian A
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:349129.
    PMID: 24175289 DOI: 10.1155/2013/349129
    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (P < 0.05). The total VFA concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β -glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage*
  2. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Zamora-Ros R, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Wark PA, Obon-Santacana M, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2016 Oct 01;139(7):1480-92.
    PMID: 27184434 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30190
    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage*
  3. Rengarajan T, Yaacob NS
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2016 Oct 15;789:8-16.
    PMID: 27377217 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.07.001
    Epidemiological studies show that consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lower risks of cancer. This evidence has kindled interest into research on bioactive food components and has till date resulted in the identification of many compounds with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential. Among such compounds is fisetin (3,7,3,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol that is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, grapes, kiwis, strawberries, onions and cucumbers. Fisetin has been shown to inhibit or retard the growth of various cancer cells in culture and implanted tumors in vivo. Fisetin targets many components of intracellular signaling pathways including regulators of cell survival and apoptosis, tumor angiogenic and metastatic switches by modulating a distinct set of upstream kinases, transcription factors and their regulators. Current evidence supports the idea that fisetin is a promising agent for cancer treatment. This review summarizes reported anticancer effects of fisetin, and re-emphasizes its potential therapeutic role in the treatment of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
  4. Mohtar N, Taylor KM, Sheikh K, Somavarapu S
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2017 Apr;113:1-10.
    PMID: 27916704 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.11.036
    This study has investigated complexation of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, with three types of cyclodextrins to improve its solubility. Sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) showed the highest complexation efficiency while maintaining the in vitro antioxidant activity of fisetin. Addition of 20%v/v ethanol in water improved the amount of solubilized fisetin in the complex 5.9-fold compared to the system containing water alone. Spray drying of fisetin-SBE-β-CD complex solution in the presence of ethanol produced a dry powder with improved aerosolization properties when delivered from a dry powder inhaler, indicated by a 2-fold increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to the powder produced from the complex solution containing water alone. The pitted morphological surface of these particles suggested a more hollow internal structure, indicating a lighter and less dense powder. Incorporation of 20%w/w leucine improved the particle size distribution of the powder and further increased the FPF by 2.3-fold. This formulation also showed an EC50 value equivalent to fisetin alone in the A549 cell line. In conclusion, an inhalable dry powder containing fisetin-SBE-β-CD complex was successfully engineered with an improved aqueous solubility of fisetin. The dry powder may be useful to deliver high amounts of fisetin to the deep lung region for therapeutic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage*
  5. Chang AS, Yeong BY, Koh WP
    Nutr. Rev., 2010 Apr;68(4):246-52.
    PMID: 20416020 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00283.x
    Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the Symposium on Plant Polyphenols: Nutrition, Health and Innovations, which was cosponsored by the Southeast Asia Region branch of the International Life Sciences Institute and the Nutrition Society of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 22-23, 2009. The symposium provided a timely update of research regarding the protective effects of polyphenols in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, as well as the development of innovative polyphenol-containing food products with enhanced nutritive and health properties. Presentations covered polyphenols from a wide range of food sources such as tea, coffee, nuts and seeds, cocoa and chocolate, soy, and Asian fruits, vegetables, and spices. The symposium was attended by a large and diverse group of nutritionists, dietitians, researchers and allied health professionals, as well as management, research and development, and marketing personnel from the food and beverage industry. Their enthusiastic participation was a testament to the increasing awareness and interest in polyphenols in the prevention and control of chronic diseases. Presented here are some of the highlights and important information from the symposium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage*
  6. Moghaddam E, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Chik Z, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:5452.
    PMID: 24965553 DOI: 10.1038/srep05452
    Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage*
  7. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
  8. Subramanian P, Jayakumar M, Jayapalan JJ, Hashim OH
    Pharmacol Rep, 2014 Dec;66(6):1037-42.
    PMID: 25443732 DOI: 10.1016/j.pharep.2014.06.018
    Elevated blood ammonia leads to hyperammonaemia that affects vital central nervous system (CNS) functions. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, exhibits therapeutic benefits, such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
  9. Zamora-Ros R, Knaze V, Rothwell JA, Hémon B, Moskal A, Overvad K, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Jun;55(4):1359-75.
    PMID: 26081647 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0950-x
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.

    RESULTS: Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.

    CONCLUSION: This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
  10. Yahya HM, Day A, Lawton C, Myrissa K, Croden F, Dye L, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Aug;55(5):1839-47.
    PMID: 26210882 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1001-3
    BACKGROUND: Establishing and linking the proposed health benefits of dietary polyphenols to their consumption requires measurement of polyphenol intake in appropriate samples and an understanding of factors that influence their intake in the general population.

    METHODS: This study examined polyphenol intake estimated from 3- and 7-day food diaries in a sample of 246 UK women aged 18-50 years. Estimation of the intake of 20 polyphenol subclasses commonly present in foods consumed by the sample studied was done using Phenol-Explorer(®) and USDA polyphenol databases. Women were participants in the Leeds Women's Wellbeing Study (LWW) (n = 143), a dietary intervention study aimed at overweight women (mean age 37.2 ± 9.4 years; mean BMI 30.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)), and the Diet and Health Study (DH) (n = 103) which aimed to examine the relationship between polyphenol intake and cognitive function (mean age 25.0 ± 9.0 years; mean BMI 24.5 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)).

    RESULTS: The estimated intake of polyphenol subclasses was significantly different between the two samples (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
  11. Carpentier P, van Bellen B, Karetova D, Hanafiah H, Enriquez-Vega E, Kirienko A, et al.
    Int Angiol, 2017 Oct;36(5):402-409.
    PMID: 28206732 DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.17.03801-9
    BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disorders (CVD) is estimated to affect 30% to 50% of women and 10% to 30% of men. The most widely prescribed treatment for CVD worldwide is micronized purified flavonoid fraction 500 mg (MPFF). The aim of this clinical trial was to develop a new once daily 1000-mg oral suspension of MPFF.

    METHODS: In an international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, symptomatic individuals classified CEAP C0s to C4s were randomized in either treatment arm and treated for 8 weeks. Lower limb symptoms (discomfort, pain and heaviness) were assessed using Visual Analog Scales (VAS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the CIVIQ-20 Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: A total of 1139 patients were included in the study. Both MPFF treatment regimens were well tolerated and associated with a significant reduction in lower limb symptoms. A non-inferiority of MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension once daily compared to MPFF 500-mg tablet twice daily (P<0.0001) was found for lower limb discomfort (-3.33 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.37 cm for MPFF 500 mg), leg pain (-3.27 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.31 cm for MPFF 500 mg) and leg heaviness (-3.41 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.46 cm for MPFF 500 mg). The patients' QoL was improved by about 20 points on the CIVIQ scale in both groups (19.33 points for MPFF 1000 mg and 20.28 points for MPFF 500 mg).

    CONCLUSIONS: MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension and MPFF 500-mg tablets treatments were associated with similar reductions in lower limb symptoms and QoL improvement. The new once daily MPFF1000-mg oral suspension has a similar safety profile to two tablets of MPFF 500 mg, with the advantage of one daily intake, potentially associated with improved patient adherence and easier CVD management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage*
  12. Ravishankar D, Salamah M, Attina A, Pothi R, Vallance TM, Javed M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 18;7(1):5738.
    PMID: 28720875 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-05936-3
    The constant increase in cardiovascular disease rate coupled with significant drawbacks of existing therapies emphasise the necessity to improve therapeutic strategies. Natural flavonoids exert innumerable pharmacological effects in humans. Here, we demonstrate the effects of chrysin, a natural flavonoid found largely in honey and passionflower on the modulation of platelet function, haemostasis and thrombosis. Chrysin displayed significant inhibitory effects on isolated platelets, however, its activity was substantially reduced under physiological conditions. In order to increase the efficacy of chrysin, a sulfur derivative (thio-chrysin), and ruthenium-complexes (Ru-chrysin and Ru-thio-chrysin) were synthesised and their effects on the modulation of platelet function were evaluated. Indeed, Ru-thio-chrysin displayed a 4-fold greater inhibition of platelet function and thrombus formation in vitro than chrysin under physiologically relevant conditions such as in platelet-rich plasma and whole blood. Notably, Ru-thio-chrysin exhibited similar efficacy to chrysin in the modulation of haemostasis in mice. Increased bioavailability and cell permeability of Ru-thio-chrysin compared to chrysin were found to be the basis for its enhanced activity. Together, these results demonstrate that Ru-thio-coupled natural compounds such as chrysin may serve as promising templates for the development of novel anti-thrombotic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
  13. Kumar S, Alagawadi KR
    Pharm Biol, 2013 May;51(5):607-13.
    PMID: 23363068 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2012.757327
    Alpinia galanga Willd (Zingiberaceae) (AG) is a rhizomatous herb widely cultivated in shady regions of Malaysia, India, Indochina and Indonesia. It is used in southern India as a domestic remedy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, cough, asthma, obesity, diabetes, etc. It was reported to have anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/administration & dosage
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