Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 133 in total

  1. Mansor MA, Ahmad MR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015;16(6):12686-712.
    PMID: 26053399 DOI: 10.3390/ijms160612686
    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry/methods*
  2. Dhaliwal JS, Malar B, Quck CK, Sukumaran KD, Hassan K
    Singapore Med J, 1991 Jun;32(3):163-5.
    PMID: 1876889
    Immunoperoxidase staining was compared with flowcytometry for the enumeration of lymphocyte subsets. The percentages obtained for peripheral blood lymphocytes using immunoperoxidase (CD3 = 76 CD4 = 27.9, B = 10.7 CD4/CD8 = 1.8) differed significantly from those obtained by flowcytometry (CD3 = 65.7 CD4 = 39.4, CD8 = 25.6, B = 16.7, HLA DR = 11.9 CD4/CD8 = 1.54) for certain subsets (CD3, CD4, B). There was no significant difference in lymphocyte subsets between children and adults using the same method. These differences are probably due to the different methods used to prepare lymphocytes for analysis. Other factors that should also be considered are the presence of CD4 antigen on monocytes and CD8 on natural killer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry/methods*
  3. Tay SP, Cheong SK, Hamidah NH, Ainoon O
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Jun;21(1):37-43.
    PMID: 10879277
    A comparative study was conducted to evaluate three different permeabilization methods: FACS Permeabilizing Solution (FPerm), CytoFix/CytoPerm Kit (CFP) and Paraformaldehyde-Tween 20 (PFT) reagents, in cytoplasmic labeling of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Peripheral blood cells from 23 healthy subjects were fixed and permeabilized according to the proposed procedures, prior to direct immunofluorescence staining with CD14, CD45, IgG1, IgG2 and MPO monoclonal antibodies (McAb). Subsequent flow cytometric analysis was performed on FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, BD). As far as the antigenic expression of MPO in normal samples is concerned, FPerm and CFP demonstrated better cytoplasmic staining by inducing minor effects on light-scattering properties of the cell populations, whereas PFT-treated samples showed a diminished ability to distinguish the cell types. However, the simple and rapid FPerm method required an earlier processing of samples since the stored whole blood samples (for more than 8 hours) tended to show a significant decrease of fluorescence intensity. We also have demonstrated that P/N ratio possesses added value in evaluation of cell reactivity in immunophenotyping, based upon the apparent nonspecific cytoplasmic staining of MPO in the lymphocyte population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  4. Chin SF, Cheong SK, Lim YC, Mok KL, Hamidah HN
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Dec;15(2):125-30.
    PMID: 8065173
    The applications of antibodies, be it monoclonal or polyclonal, in the diagnostic and research fields are well established. The disadvantage is the high cost of commercially available antibodies. In a diagnostic establishment like ours which also functions as a training ground for laboratory related personnel, it is beneficial to be able to produce in-house reagents. Therefore, we have undertaken this project to produce a rabbit polyclonal antibody against B lymphocytes. We found that the rabbit was a good choice because the titre of antibody produced was high and positive reactions were still detected at a dilution of 1:38400. The antibody showed significant positive reaction only with the lymphocyte subpopulation. A positive reaction was observed between the immunized rabbit serum and B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytes. This shows that the antibody was B lymphocyte specific. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of B lymphocytes labelled using the commercial anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody and the in-house polyclonal antibody (n = 13, r = 0.7, p = 0.02). However, the percentage of cells labelled by the in-house polyclonal anti-B was lower than that by the commercial monoclonal anti-CD19. The fluorescence intensity of the polyclonal antibody was lower than that of the monoclonal. In general, the performance of the in-house polyclonal antibody can be considered as satisfactory. The rabbit serum was stored at -20 degrees C and no significant loss of activity was detected for over a period of 19 months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  5. Nurasyikin, Y., Suria, A.A., Ng, Soon Peng, Leong, C.F.
    Medicine & Health, 2015;10(2):112-122.
    Fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) may occur following a sensitizing event, during pregnancy or at delivery. In cases of rhesus (Rh) incompatibility between mother and the fetus, it can thus subject to the haemolytic disease of the newborn. The Kleihauer test for quantification of FMH lacks standardization and results are less accurate. Furthermore, it cannot differentiate the foetal cell from the adult HbF. Flowcytometry analysis using monoclonal antibodies, is a new technique for the quantification of FMH and it allows larger number of cells to be analysed. It is also able to differentiate the foetal cell from maternal HbF, and thus is more sensitive and accurate. The objective of our study was to determine the FMH using the flowcytometric analysis of anti-HbF antibody and to correlate the FMH using flow cytometry and the standard Kleihauer test. Ninety eight peripheral blood samples from pregnant women at more than 20 weeks of pregnancy and post delivery were analyzed by both methods. The percentage of the foetal cells were recorded and the FMH were calculated. We found a fair correlation between the two methods with the correlation coefficient r = 0.633 (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  6. Abu Bakar N
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):485-93.
    PMID: 26695209 MyJurnal
    Studies show that the pH of the malaria parasite's digestive vacuole (DV) plays a key role in the physiological functions of this organelle and antimalarial drug accumulation, and yet is technically difficult to measure. In this study, a flow cytometry-based technique was developed to measure the DV pH using a ratiometric pH indicator, FITC-dextran loaded into the DV of saponin-permeabilized parasites. To calculate the DV pH, a standard pH calibration curve was generated by incubating the saponin-permeabilized cells in buffers with different pH in the presence of an ionophore, CCCP. The measured average pH of the DV was 5.27 ± 0.03 that is approximately the same in the parasites observed microscopically by Hayward et al. (2006) (5.50 ± 0.14) using the same probe. The removal of glucose from the medium, causing a rapid depletion of parasite ATP, resulted in an alkalization of the DV. The DV was reacidified upon restoration of glucose to the medium. This technique provides a rapid, simple and quantitative measurement of the DV pH on a large number of cells. It will also be useful in future attempts to evaluate the effect of antimalarial drugs (i.e. chloroquine and artemisinin-based drugs) in pH changes of the DV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry/methods*
  7. Jose S, Tan SW, Tong CK, Vidyadaran S
    Cell Biol. Int., 2015 Dec;39(12):1355-63.
    PMID: 26194799 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10516
    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry/methods*
  8. Chin SF, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Jun;16(1):69-73.
    PMID: 16329579
    Several fixation and permeabilization techniques that enable the flow cytometric analysis of the cell contents have been introduced in recent years. These methods allow sensitive detection of intracellular antigens that facilitates the diagnosis of certain diseases. We have undertaken in this study to evaluate a simple method of fixation and permeabilization using 2% paraformaldehyde and Tween 20. Intracellular antigens in three different leukaemia cases were analysed. We found that the method was reliable and easy. Intracellular kappa light chains were found in abundance in a case of plasma cell leukaemia. CD3 and CD22 were found in greater amount intracellularly than on the surface in pre-T-ALL and pre-pre B-ALL respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry/methods*
  9. Raja-Sabudin RZ, Hamid AA, Yusof N, Alauddin H, Aziz SA, Kulaveerasingam S, et al.
    Saudi Med J, 2012 Oct;33(10):1131-3.
    PMID: 23047221
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry*
  10. Mohadese Hashem B, Ramasamy R, Sabariah MN, Seman Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):77-80.
    PMID: 22582553 MyJurnal
    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of haematological malignancies categorized by ineffective hematopoiesis that result in dysplasia. Although morphological diagnosis is a traditional and standard technique that is used for the diagnosis of MDS, the heterogeneous blood and bone marrow characteristics of MDS patients can potentially obscure the right diagnosis. Thus, we have utilized flow cytometric immunophenotyping as a supportive mechanism to obtain a more accurate and faster method for detection of abnormal markers in MDS. Flow cytometry was used for analyzing bone marrow samples from newly diagnosed MDS patients to investigate the abnormal antigen expression patterns in granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, lymphoid lineages and myeloid precursors. The results were compared with those obtained from cases that had Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) as a control. The most common abnormality found in the granulocytic lineage was the decrease of CD10. Low expressions of CD13 were the most frequent abnormality in the monocytic lineage. The erythroid lineage was found to have low expression of CD235A+/CD71+, reduce of CD71 and decreased CD235a. In conclusion, this method is useful for confirming cases in which it is difficult to make a diagnosis by morphology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry/methods*
  11. Ambayya A, Zainina S, Salmiah MS, Sabariah MN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Apr;69(2):64-9.
    PMID: 25241814 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia (APL) is associated with devastating coagulopathy and life threatening condition which requires immediate medical attention. It is crucial to establish an expedited diagnosis as early therapeutic intervention has led to optimal patient management. In this study, we assessed the type and frequency of antigen expressions in APL and correlated these findings with genetic studies.

    METHODS: Multiparametric immunophenotyping was performed on 30 samples and findings were correlated with karyotypes, FISH for t(15;17) translocation and RT-PCR for PML-RARΑ for detection of breakpoint cluster regions (bcr1,bcr2 and bcr3).

    RESULTS: On SSC/CD45, APL cells displayed high to moderate SSC, with the expression of CD33 (100%), CD13 (96.8%), cMPO (71%) but lacked CD34 (3.2%) and HLA-DR (9.7%). Aberrant expression of CD4 was seen in 12.9% and CD56 in 6.5% of the cases. A significant association between cumulative aberrant antigen expression and bcr1 were observed bcr1 (X2(2) =6.833,p.05) and (X2(2)=4.599,p>.05) respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometry is a rapid and effective tool in detecting APL. It is interesting to note that there is significant association between cumulative aberrant antigen expression and genotype analysis. Further validation is required to corroborate this relationship.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  12. Choong PF, Mok PL, Cheong SK, Then KY
    Cytotherapy, 2007;9(3):252-8.
    PMID: 17464757
    The unique potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated much research interest recently, particularly in exploring the regenerative nature of these cells. Previously, MSC were thought to be found only in the BM. However, further studies have shown that MSC can also be isolated from umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue and amniotic fluid. In this study, we explored the possibility of MSC residing in the cornea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  13. MyJurnal
    The present study was to evaluate the toxicity of damnacanthal, nordamnacanthal, betulinic acid and zerumbone isolated from local medicinal plants towards leukemia cell lines and immune cells by using MTT assay and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. The results showed that damnacanthal significantly inhibited HL-60 cells, CEM-SS and WEHI-3B with the IC50 value of 4.0 µg/mL, 8.0 µg/mL and 3.3 µg/mL, respectively. Nordamnacanthal and betulinic acid showed stronger inhibition towards CEM-SS and HL-60 cells with the IC50 value of 5.7 µg/mL and 5.0 µg/mL, respectively. In contrast, Zerumbone was demonstrated to be more toxic towards those leukemia cells with the IC50 value less than 10 µg/mL. Damnacanthal, nordamnacanthal and betulinic acid were not toxic towards 3T3 and PBMC compared to doxorubicin which showed toxicity effects towards 3T3 and PBMC with the IC50 value of 3.0 µg/mL and 28.0 µg/mL, respectively. The cell cycle analysis exhibited that damnacanthal exerted its toxicity effect towards HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis with value of 25% after 72 hours treatment. Thus, these compounds could be the potential anticancer drug with less toxic side effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  14. Sani MM, Ashari NSM, Abdullah B, Wong KK, Musa KI, Mohamud R, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2019 Sep;37(3):138-146.
    PMID: 29981564 DOI: 10.12932/AP-191217-0220
    BACKGROUND: Terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) T cells exert potent effector function after activation. The proportions of CD4+ T cell subsets especially memory cells in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients sensitized to house dust mites (HDMs) have not been extensively studied.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the mean percentages and absolute counts of CD4+ memory T cell subsets between: (i) non-allergic controls and AR patients; (ii) mild AR patients and moderate-severe AR patients.

    METHODS: Sensitization to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were determined in 33 non -allergic controls, 28 mild AR and 29 moderate-severe AR patients. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of CD4+ na?ve (TN; CD45RA+CCR7+), central memory (TCM; CD45RA-CCR7+), effector memory (TEM; CD45RA-CCR7-) and TEMRA (CD45RA+CCR7-) T cells from the peripheral blood. The absolute counts of CD4+ T cell subsets were obtained by dual platform method from flow cytometer and hematology analyzer.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean percentages and absolute counts of CD4+ T cell subsets between non-allergic controls and AR patients sensitized to HDMs. However, there were significant reduction in the mean percentage (p=0.0307) and absolute count (p=0.0309) of CD4+ TEMRA cells in moderate-severe AR patients compared to mild AR patients sensitized to HDMs and 13/24 (54.2%) moderate-severe AR patients sensitized to HDMs had persistent symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Reduction in the mean percentage and absolute count of CD4+CD45RA+CCR7- TEMRA cells were observed in moderate-severe AR patients compared to mild AR patients in our population of AR patients sensitized to HDMs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  15. Abdolmaleki M, Yeap SK, Tan SW, Satharasinghe DA, Bello MB, Jahromi MZ, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:1386.
    PMID: 29973933 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01386
    The intestinal intraepithelial natural killer cells (IEL-NK) are among the earliest effectors of antiviral immunity in chicken. Unfortunately, their role during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection remains obscure. Previous study has reported the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) known as 28-4, which is specifically directed against the CD3- IEL-NK cells. In the present study, we used this mAb to investigate the effects of velogenic and lentogenic NDV infection on avian IEL-NK cells. Our findings revealed that chickens infected with velogenic NDV strains have a reduced population of purified CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells as determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells from chicken infected with velogenic NDV strains were shown to have a downregulated expression of activating receptors (CD69 and B-Lec), effector peptide (NK-LYSIN), and IFN gamma. On the contrary, the expression of the inhibitory receptor (B-NK) and bifunctional receptor (CHIR-AB1) were upregulated on these purified CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells following velogenic NDV infection. Meanwhile, the lentogenic NDV demonstrated insignificant effects on both the total population of CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells and the expression of their surface receptors. In addition, using real-time PCR and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells were susceptible to velogenic but not lentogenic NDV infection. These findings put together demonstrate the ability of different strains of NDV to manipulate the activating and inhibitory receptors of CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells following infection. Further studies are, however, required to ascertain the functional importance of these findings during virulent or avirulent NDV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  16. Mohd Nor NH, Berahim Z, Azlina A, Kannan TP
    Clin Oral Investig, 2019 Nov;23(11):3959-3966.
    PMID: 30847574 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02827-x
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to differentiate and characterize fibroblast-like cells from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The differentiation of fibroblast-like cells from SHED was carried out by using specific human recombinant connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). To characterize fibroblastic differentiation, the induced cells were subjected to morphological changes, proliferation rate, gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The commercial primary human gingival fibroblasts served as positive control in this study.

    RESULTS: The results from characterization analysis were compared with that of commercial cells to ensure that the cells differentiated from SHED were fibroblast-like cells. The results showed the inductive effect of CTGF for fibroblastic differentiation in SHED. SHED-derived fibroblasts were successfully characterized despite having similar morphological appearance, i.e., (i) significant proliferation rate between fibroblast-like cells and SHED, (ii) high expression of fibroblast-associated markers in qRT-PCR analysis, and (iii) positive staining against collagen type 1, fibroblast-specific protein 1, and human thymic fibroblasts in flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescence staining. The same expression patterns were found in primary human gingival fibroblasts, respectively. SHED as negative control showed lower expression or no signal, thus confirming the cells differentiated from SHED were fibroblast-like cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the protocol adopted in this study suggests CTGF to be an appropriate inducer in the differentiation of SHED into fibroblast-like cells.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The fibroblast-like cells differentiated from SHED could be used in future in vitro and in vivo dental tissue regeneration studies as well as in clinical applications where these cells are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  17. Lau MF, Vellasamy S, Chua KH, Sabaratnam V, Kuppusamy UR
    EXCLI J, 2018;17:186-199.
    PMID: 29743857 DOI: 10.17179/excli2018-1011
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is often administrated to disrupt carcinogenesis, was found to elevate blood glucose level among CRC patients. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the influence of rosiglitazone on antiproliferative effect of 5-FU using cellular model. Two human colonic carcinoma cell lines (HCT 116 and HT 29) were cultured in the presence of 5-FU, rosiglitazone or in combination under normal and high glucose concentration. The drug cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay whereas the assessment of cell cycle was carried out using the flow cytometry technique. Combination index (CI) method was used to determine the drug interaction between rosiglitazone and 5-FU. High glucose diminished the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU but at a high drug dosage, this effect could be overcome. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that 5-FU and rosiglitazone caused G1-phase arrest and S-phase arrest, respectively. CI values indicated that rosiglitazone exerted synergistic effect on 5-FU regardless of glucose levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the influence of rosiglitazone on cytotoxicity of 5-FU under normal or high glucose level. Rosiglitazone may be a promising drug for enhancing the efficacy of 5-FU in the treatment of CRC associated with hyperglycemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  18. T-Johari SAT, Hashim F, Ismail WI, Ali AM
    Int J Cell Biol, 2019;2019:3059687.
    PMID: 30923553 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3059687
    Combination of natural products with chemodrugs is becoming a trend in discovering new therapeutics approach for enhancing the cancer treatment process. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptosis induction of Gelam honey (GH) combined with or without 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) on HT-29 cells. The cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to assess cytotoxicity. Morphological changes and apoptosis were determined by the inverted microscope, Annexin V-FITC, and DNA fragmentation via flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrate that combined treatment revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in comparison with GH and 5-FU alone. Flow cytometry analysis showed that early apoptosis event was more pronounced in combined treatment. In addition, compared to 5-FU alone, apoptosis of HT-29 cells treated with combinations of GH and 5-FU demonstrated increasing percentages of fragmented DNA. Our results suggest that GH has a synergistic cytotoxic effect with 5-FU in HT-29 cell lines in vitro. Although the actions of the molecular mechanisms are not yet clear, the results reveal that the combination of GH and 5-FU could have the potential as a therapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  19. Takenaka S, Weschke W, Brückner B, Murata M, Endo TR
    Front Plant Sci, 2019;10:548.
    PMID: 31114602 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00548
    Three transgenic HOSUT lines of winter wheat, HOSUT12, HOSUT20, and HOSUT24, each harbor a single copy of the cDNA for the barley sucrose transporter gene HvSUT1 (SUT), which was fused to the barley endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO; the HOSUT transgene). Previously, flow cytometry combined with PCR analysis demonstrated that the HOSUT transgene had been integrated into different wheat chromosomes: 7A, 5D, and 4A in HOSUT12, HOSUT20, and HOSUT24, respectively. In order to confirm the chromosomal location of the HOSUT transgene by a cytological approach using wheat aneuploid stocks, we crossed corresponding nullisomic-tetrasomic lines with the three HOSUT lines, namely nullisomic 7A-tetrasomic 7B with HOSUT12, nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B with HOSUT20, and nullisomic 4A-tetrasomic 4B with HOSUT24. We examined the resulting chromosomal constitutions and the presence of the HOSUT transgene in the F2 progeny by means of chromosome banding and PCR. The chromosome banding patterns of the critical chromosomes in the original HOSUT lines showed no difference from those of the corresponding wild type chromosomes. The presence or absence of the critical chromosomes completely corresponded to the presence or absence of the HOSUT transgene in the F2 plants. Investigating telocentric chromosomes occurred in the F2 progeny, which were derived from the respective critical HOSUT chromosomes, we found that the HOSUT transgene was individually integrated on the long arms of chromosomes 4A, 7A, and 5D in the three HOSUT lines. Thus, in this study we verified the chromosomal locations of the transgene, which had previously been determined by flow cytometry, and moreover revealed the chromosome-arm locations of the HOSUT transgene in the HOSUT lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
  20. Ku Nurul Aqmar Ku Bahaudin, Ahmad Bazli Ramzi, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Suriana Sabri, Adam Leow Thean Chor, Tewin Tencomnao
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:3077-3084.
    Flavonoid is an industrially-important compound due to its high pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical values. However,
    conventional methods in extracting and synthesizing flavonoids are costly, laborious and not sustainable due to small
    amount of natural flavonoids, large amounts of chemicals and space used. Biotechnological production of flavonoids
    represents a viable and sustainable route especially through the use of metabolic engineering strategies in microbial
    production hosts. In this review, we will highlight recent strategies for the improving the production of flavonoids
    using synthetic biology approaches in particular the innovative strategies of genetically-encoded biosensors for in
    vivo metabolite analysis and high-throughput screening methods using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).
    Implementation of transcription factor based-biosensor for microbial flavonoid production and integration of systems
    and synthetic biology approaches for natural product development will also be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flow Cytometry
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