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  1. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics*
  2. Mohd-Elias NA, Rosli K, Alias H, Juhari MA, Abu-Bakar MF, Md-Isa N, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 12 08;11(1):23661.
    PMID: 34880337 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-03028-x
    Rafflesia is a unique plant species existing as a single flower and produces the largest flower in the world. While Rafflesia buds take up to 21 months to develop, its flowers bloom and wither within about a week. In this study, transcriptome analysis was carried out to shed light on the molecular mechanism of senescence in Rafflesia. A total of 53.3 million high quality reads were obtained from two Rafflesia cantleyi flower developmental stages and assembled to generate 64,152 unigenes. Analysis of this dataset showed that 5,166 unigenes were differentially expressed, in which 1,073 unigenes were identified as genes involved in flower senescence. Results revealed that as the flowers progress to senescence, more genes related to flower senescence were significantly over-represented compared to those related to plant growth and development. Senescence of the R. cantleyi flower activates senescence-associated genes in the transcription activity (members of the transcription factor families MYB, bHLH, NAC, and WRKY), nutrient remobilization (autophagy-related protein and transporter genes), and redox regulation (CATALASE). Most of the senescence-related genes were found to be differentially regulated, perhaps for the fine-tuning of various responses in the senescing R. cantleyi flower. Additionally, pathway analysis showed the activation of genes such as ETHYLENE RECEPTOR, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 2, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3, and ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, indicating the possible involvement of the ethylene hormone response pathway in the regulation of R. cantleyi senescence. Our results provide a model of the molecular mechanism underlying R. cantleyi flower senescence, and contribute essential information towards further understanding the biology of the Rafflesiaceae family.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics*
  3. Ng CY, Wickneswari R, Choong CY
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(3):6037-49.
    PMID: 25117361 DOI: 10.4238/2014.August.7.18
    Calamus palustris Griff. is an economically important dioecious rattan species in Southeast Asia. However, dioecy and onset of flowering at 3-4 years old render uncertainties in desired female:male seedling ratios to establish a productive seed orchard for this rattan species. We constructed a subtractive library for male floral tissue to understand the genetic mechanism for gender determination in C. palustris. The subtractive library produced 1536 clones with 1419 clones of high quality. Reverse Northern screening showed 313 clones with differential expression, and sequence analyses clustered them into 205 unigenes, including 32 contigs and 173 singletons. The subtractive library was further validated with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Homology identification classified the unigenes into 12 putative functional proteins with 83% unigenes showing significant match to proteins in databases. Functional annotations of these unigenes revealed genes involved in male flower development, including MADS-box genes, pollen-related genes, phytohormones for flower development, and male flower organ development. Our results showed that the male floral genes may play a vital role in sex determination in C. palustris. The identified genes can be exploited to understand the molecular basis of sex determination in C. palustris.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics*
  4. Wee SL, Tan SB, Jürgens A
    Phytochemistry, 2018 Sep;153:120-128.
    PMID: 29906658 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.06.005
    The plants of the enigmatic genus Rafflesia are well known for their gigantic flowers and their floral features such as pungent floral scent and vivid dark color, which mimics the food/brood sites of carrion. However, information on the pollination biology of this plant group remains limited and mostly anecdotal. In the present paper, we studied the floral volatiles of R. cantleyi Solms-Laubach and their role in pollinator attraction. To achieve these aims, the floral scent was collected in situ in the field using a dynamic headspace method followed by chemical analysis via GC-MS. The olfactory preferences of pollinators to the identified chemical compounds, were tested singly and in blends, in flight tunnel bioassays and compared with responses to headspace floral extracts. In addition, flower-visiting calliphorid flies and the local carrion fly community were sampled and identified. Five species of calliphorid flies (subfamilies of Chrysomyinae and Calliphorinae), all females, were found on the flowers, whereas nine species were found in the traps that were baited with tainted meat in the surrounding habitat. However, only flower visitors of one blow fly species, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, were observed to carry R. cantleyi pollen after visiting male flowers. The floral volatiles emitted by male flowers in full bloom were dominated by two sulphur-containing compounds, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). These were accompanied by other minor compounds such as benzenoids (4), monoterpenoids (4), trace amounts of aliphatic compounds (1), and sesquiterpenes (1). In flight-tunnel bioassays, a female-specific positive response of C. chani flies to individual DMDS, DMTS, and a blend of DMDS and DMTS was evident. Our findings suggest that R. cantleyi biochemically mimics carrion and that relative ratio of oligosulfides in the floral scent play a key role in sex-biased pollinator specialization, attracting only female C. chani carrion flies to the flowers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  5. Valdiani A, Talei D, Javanmard A, Tan SG, Kadir MA, Maziah M
    Gene, 2014 Jun 1;542(2):156-67.
    PMID: 24680780 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.03.039
    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) is a self-pollinated medicinal herb with a wide range of pharmaceutical properties, facing a low diversity in Malaysia. Cross-pollination of AP accessions leads to considerable rates of heterosis in the agro-morphological characteristics and anticancer phytochemicals of this eminent medicinal herb. However, the poor crossability of the plant at the interpopulation or intraspecific levels is an obstacle from the evolutionary and breeding points of view as an average of 4.56% crossability was recorded for AP in this study. Hence, this research aimed to elicit the impact of parental genetic distances (GDs) on the rate of crossability of AP using seven accessions in 21 possible cross combinations. To this end, a set of 55 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a total of 13 agro-morphological markers were employed to test the hypothesis. Twenty-two out of the 55 RAPD primers amplified a total of 257 bands of which 107 bands were found to be polymorphic. The principal component analysis (PCA) based on the RAPD markers revealed that the studied AP accessions were distributed to three distinct groups. Furthermore, it was noticed that even a minor increase in GD between two parents can cause a decline in their crossability. Unlike, the morphological-based GDs acted neutrally to crossability. This finding suggests that, despite the low genetic diversity among the Malaysian APs, a population prescreening using RAPD markers would be useful to enhance the rate of fruit set through selecting the genetically adjacent parents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  6. Bahari M, Rafii MY, Saleh GB, Latif MA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:543158.
    PMID: 22566772 DOI: 10.1100/2012/543158
    The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  7. Yeoh SH, Satake A, Numata S, Ichie T, Lee SL, Basherudin N, et al.
    Mol Ecol, 2017 Oct;26(19):5074-5085.
    PMID: 28749031 DOI: 10.1111/mec.14257
    Elucidating the physiological mechanisms of the irregular yet concerted flowering rhythm of mass flowering tree species in the tropics requires long-term monitoring of flowering phenology, exogenous and endogenous environmental factors, as well as identifying interactions and dependencies among these factors. To investigate the proximate factors for floral initiation of mast seeding trees in the tropics, we monitored the expression dynamics of two key flowering genes, meteorological conditions and endogenous resources over two flowering events of Shorea curtisii and Shorea leprosula in the Malay Peninsula. Comparisons of expression dynamics of genes studied indicated functional conservation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and LEAFY (LFY) in Shorea. The genes were highly expressed at least 1 month before anthesis for both species. A mathematical model considering the synergistic effect of cool temperature and drought on activation of the flowering gene was successful in predicting the observed gene expression patterns. Requirement of both cool temperature and drought for floral transition suggested by the model implies that flowering phenologies of these species are sensitive to climate change. Our molecular phenology approach in the tropics sheds light on the conserved role of flowering genes in plants inhabiting different climate zones and can be widely applied to dissect the flowering processes in other plant species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  8. Ooi SE, Sarpan N, Abdul Aziz N, Nuraziyan A, Ong-Abdullah M
    Plant Reprod, 2019 06;32(2):167-179.
    PMID: 30467592 DOI: 10.1007/s00497-018-0350-5
    KEY MESSAGE: Transcriptomes generated by laser capture microdissected abnormal staminodes revealed adoption of carpel programming during organ initiation with decreased expression of numerousHSPs,EgDEF1, EgGLO1but increasedLEAFYexpression. The abnormal mantled phenotype in oil palm involves a feminization of the male staminodes into pseudocarpels in pistillate inflorescences. Previous studies on oil palm flowering utilized entire inflorescences or spikelets, which comprised not only the male and female floral organs, but the surrounding tissues as well. Laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the specific transcriptomes of male and female floral organs from normal and mantled female inflorescences. A higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in abnormal versus normal male organs compared with abnormal versus normal female organs. In addition, the abnormal male organ transcriptome closely mimics the transcriptome of abnormal female organ. While the transcriptome of abnormal female organ was relatively similar to the normal female organ, a substantial amount of female DEGs encode HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes (HSPs). A similar high amount (20%) of male DEGs encode HSPs as well. As these genes exhibited decreased expression in abnormal floral organs, mantled floral organ development may be associated with lower stress indicators. Stamen identity genes EgDEF1 and EgGLO1 were the main floral regulatory genes with decreased expression in abnormal male organs or pseudocarpel initials. Expression of several floral transcription factors was elevated in pseudocarpel initials, notably LEAFY, FIL and DL orthologs, substantiating the carpel specification programming of abnormal staminodes. Specific transcriptomes thus obtained through this approach revealed a host of differentially regulated genes in pseudocarpel initials compared to normal male staminodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  9. Yeang HY
    Yale J Biol Med, 2019 06;92(2):213-223.
    PMID: 31249482
    The widely held explanation for photoperiod-controlled flowering in long-day plants is largely embodied in the External Coincidence Hypothesis which posits that flowering is induced when activity of a rhythmic gene that regulates it (a putative "flowering gene") occurs in the presence of light. Nevertheless, re-examination of the Arabidopsis flowering data from non 24-hour cycles of Roden et al. suggests that External Coincidence is not tenable if the circadian rhythm of the "flowering gene" were entrained to sunrise as commonly accepted. On the other hand, the hypothesis is supported if circadian cycling of the gene conforms to a solar rhythm, and its entrainment is to midnight on the solar clock. Data available point to flowering being induced by the gene which peaks in its expression between 16 to 19 h after midnight. In the normal 24 h cycle, that would be between 4 p.m. and 7 p.m., regardless of the photoperiod. Such timing of the "flowering gene" expression allows for variable coincidence between gene activity and light, depending on the photoperiod and cycle period. A correlation is found between earliness of flowering and the degree of coincidence of "flowering gene" expression with light (r = 0.88, p<0.01).
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics*
  10. Cheah BH, Jadhao S, Vasudevan M, Wickneswari R, Nadarajah K
    PLoS One, 2017;12(10):e0186382.
    PMID: 29045473 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186382
    A cross between IR64 (high-yielding but drought-susceptible) and Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) rice cultivars yielded a stable line with enhanced grain yield under drought screening field trials at International Rice Research Institute. The major effect qDTY4.1 drought tolerance and yield QTL was detected in the IR77298-14-1-2-10 Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) and its IR87705-7-15-B Near Isogenic Line (NIL) with 93.9% genetic similarity to IR64. Although rice yield is extremely susceptible to water stress at reproductive stage, currently, there is only one report on the detection of drought-responsive microRNAs in inflorescence tissue of a Japonica rice line. In this study, more drought-responsive microRNAs were identified in the inflorescence tissues of IR64, IR77298-14-1-2-10 and IR87705-7-15-B via next-generation sequencing. Among the 32 families of inflorescence-specific non-conserved microRNAs that were identified, 22 families were up-regulated in IR87705-7-15-B. Overall 9 conserved and 34 non-conserved microRNA families were found as drought-responsive in rice inflorescence with 5 conserved and 30 non-conserved families induced in the IR87705-7-15-B. The observation of more drought-responsive non-conserved microRNAs may imply their prominence over conserved microRNAs in drought response mechanisms of rice inflorescence. Gene Ontology annotation analysis on the target genes of drought-responsive microRNAs identified in IR87705-7-15-B revealed over-representation of biological processes including development, signalling and response to stimulus. Particularly, four inflorescence-specific microRNAs viz. osa-miR5485, osa-miR5487, osa-miR5492 and osa-miR5517, and two non-inflorescence specific microRNAs viz. osa-miR169d and osa-miR169f.2 target genes that are involved in flower or embryonic development. Among them, osa-miR169d, osa-miR5492 and osa-miR5517 are related to flowering time control. It is also worth mentioning that osa-miR2118 and osa-miR2275, which are implicated in the biosynthesis of rice inflorescence-specific small interfering RNAs, were induced in IR87705-7-15-B but repressed in IR77298-14-1-2-10. Further, gene search within qDTY4.1 QTL region had identified multiple copies of NBS-LRR resistance genes (potential target of osa-miR2118), subtilisins and genes implicated in stomatal movement, ABA metabolism and cuticular wax biosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  11. Kondo T, Nishimura S, Tani N, Ng KK, Lee SL, Muhammad N, et al.
    Am J Bot, 2016 Nov;103(11):1912-1920.
    PMID: 27797714
    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, a highly fecund thrips (Thrips spp.) responds rapidly to the mass flowering at multiple-year intervals characteristic of certain species such as the canopy tree studied here, Shorea acuminata, by feeding on flower resources. However, past DNA analyses of pollen adherent to thrips bodies revealed that the thrips promoted a very high level of self-pollination. Here, we identified the pollinator that contributes to cross-pollination and discuss ways that the pollination system has adapted to mass flowering.

    METHODS: By comparing the patterns of floral visitation and levels of genetic diversity in adherent pollen loads among floral visitors, we evaluated the contribution of each flower visitor to pollination.

    KEY RESULTS: The big-eyed bug, Geocoris sp., a major thrips predator, was an inadvertent pollinator, and importantly contributed to cross-pollination. The total outcross pollen adhering to thrips was approximately 30% that on the big-eyed bugs. Similarly, 63% of alleles examined in S. acuminata seeds and seedlings occurred in pollen adhering to big-eyed bugs; about 30% was shared with pollen from thrips.

    CONCLUSIONS: During mass flowering, big-eyed bugs likely travel among flowering S. acuminata trees, attracted by the abundant thrips. Floral visitation patterns of big-eyed bugs vs. other insects suggest that these bugs can maintain their population size between flowering by preying upon another thrips (Haplothrips sp.) that inhabits stipules of S. acuminata throughout the year and quickly respond to mass flowering. Thus, thrips and big-eyed bugs are essential components in the pollination of S. acuminata.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  12. Taheri S, Abdullah TL, Rafii MY, Harikrishna JA, Werbrouck SPO, Teo CH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 02 28;9(1):3047.
    PMID: 30816255 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39944-2
    Curcuma alismatifolia widely used as an ornamental plant in Thailand and Cambodia. This species of herbaceous perennial from the Zingiberaceae family, includes cultivars with a wide range of colours and long postharvest life, and is used as an ornamental cut flower, as a potted plant, and in exterior landscapes. For further genetic improvement, however, little genomic information and no specific molecular markers are available. The present study used Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of two C. alismatifolia cvs, 'Chiang Mai Pink' and 'UB Snow 701', to develop simple sequence repeat markers for genetic diversity studies. After de novo assembly, 62,105 unigenes were generated and 48,813 (78.60%) showed significant similarities versus six functional protein databases. In addition, 9,351 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified with a distribution frequency of 12.5% total unigenes. Out of 8,955 designed EST-SSR primers, 150 primers were selected for the development of potential molecular markers. Among these markers, 17 EST-SSR markers presented a moderate level of genetic diversity among three C. alismatifolia cultivars, one hybrid, three Curcuma, and two Zingiber species. Three different genetic groups within these species were revealed using EST-SSR markers, indicating that the markers developed in this study can be effectively applied to the population genetic analysis of Curcuma and Zingiber species. This report describes the first analysis of transcriptome data of an important ornamental ginger cultivars, also provides a valuable resource for gene discovery and marker development in the genus Curcuma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  13. Yeang HY
    J Exp Bot, 2013 Jul;64(10):2643-52.
    PMID: 23645867 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ert130
    In photoperiodic flowering, long-day (LD) plants are induced to flower seasonally when the daylight hours are long, whereas flowering in short-day (SD) plants is promoted under short photoperiods. According to the widely accepted external coincidence model, flowering occurs in LD Arabidopsis when the circadian rhythm of the gene CONSTANS (CO) peaks in the afternoon, when it is light during long days but dark when the days are short. Nevertheless, extending this explanation to SD flowering in rice, Oriza sativa, requires LD and SD plants to have 'opposite light requirements' as the CO orthologue in rice, HEADING-DATE1 (Hd1), promotes flowering only under short photoperiods. This report proposes a role of the plant's solar rhythm in promoting seasonal flowering. The interaction between rhythmic genes entrained to the solar clock and those entrained to the circadian clock form the basis of an internal coincidence model that explains both LD and SD flowering equally well. The model invokes no presumption of opposite light requirements between LD and SD plants, and further argues against any specific requirement of either light or darkness for SD flowering. Internal coincidence predicts the inhibition of SD flowering of the rice plant by a night break (a brief interruption of light), while it also provides a plausible explanation for how a judiciously timed night break promotes Arabidopsis flowering even on short days. It is the timing of the light transitions (sunrise and sunset) rather than the duration of light or darkness per se that regulates photoperiod-controlled flowering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  14. Foong LC, Chai JY, Ho ASH, Yeo BPH, Lim YM, Tam SM
    Sci Rep, 2020 09 30;10(1):16123.
    PMID: 32999341 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-72997-2
    Impatiens balsamina L. is a tropical ornamental and traditional medicinal herb rich in natural compounds, especially 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) which is a bioactive compound with tested anticancer activities. Characterization of key genes involved in the shikimate and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) pathways responsible for MNQ biosynthesis and their expression profiles in I. balsamina will facilitate adoption of genetic/metabolic engineering or synthetic biology approaches to further increase production for pre-commercialization. In this study, HPLC analysis showed that MNQ was present in significantly higher quantities in the capsule pericarps throughout three developmental stages (early-, mature- and postbreaker stages) whilst its immediate precursor, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone) was mainly detected in mature leaves. Transcriptomes of I. balsamina derived from leaf, flower, and three capsule developmental stages were generated, totalling 59.643 Gb of raw reads that were assembled into 94,659 unigenes (595,828 transcripts). A total of 73.96% of unigenes were functionally annotated against seven public databases and 50,786 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Expression profiles of 20 selected genes from four major secondary metabolism pathways were studied and validated using qRT-PCR method. Majority of the DHNA pathway genes were found to be significantly upregulated in early stage capsule compared to flower and leaf, suggesting tissue-specific synthesis of MNQ. Correlation analysis identified 11 candidate unigenes related to three enzymes (NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glycosyltransferases and S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase) important in the final steps of MNQ biosynthesis based on genes expression profiles consistent with MNQ content. This study provides the first molecular insight into the dynamics of MNQ biosynthesis and accumulation across different tissues of I. balsamina and serves as a valuable resource to facilitate further manipulation to increase production of MNQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  15. Shaipulah NF, Muhlemann JK, Woodworth BD, Van Moerkercke A, Verdonk JC, Ramirez AA, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2016 Feb;170(2):717-31.
    PMID: 26620524 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01646
    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacuoles during the lifespan of the flowers. The production of isoeugenol and eugenol starts when flowers open and peaks after anthesis. To elucidate additional biochemical steps toward (iso)eugenol production, we cloned and characterized a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (PhCCoAOMT1) from the petals of the fragrant petunia 'Mitchell'. Recombinant PhCCoAOMT1 indeed catalyzed the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA to produce feruloyl CoA. Silencing of PhCCoAOMT1 resulted in a reduction of eugenol production but not of isoeugenol. Unexpectedly, the transgenic plants had purple-colored leaves and pink flowers, despite the fact that cv Mitchell lacks the functional R2R3-MYB master regulator ANTHOCYANIN2 and has normally white flowers. Our results indicate that down-regulation of PhCCoAOMT1 activated the anthocyanin pathway through the R2R3-MYBs PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) and DEEP PURPLE, with predominantly petunidin accumulating. Feeding cv Mitchell flowers with caffeic acid induced PHZ expression, suggesting that the metabolic perturbation of the phenylpropanoid pathway underlies the activation of the anthocyanin pathway. Our results demonstrate a role for PhCCoAOMT1 in phenylpropene production and reveal a link between PhCCoAOMT1 and anthocyanin production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  16. Dek MSP, Padmanabhan P, Sherif S, Subramanian J, Paliyath AG
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Jul 15;18(7).
    PMID: 28714880 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18071533
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a key enzyme that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol at 3'-hydroxyl position of the inositol head group initiating the generation of several phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols, collectively referred to as phosphoinositides. The function of PI3K in plant senescence and ethylene signal transduction process was studied by expression ofSolanum lycopersicumPI3K in transgenicNicotiana tabacum, and delineating its effect on flower senescence. Detached flowers of transgenic tobacco plants with overexpressedSl-PI3K(OX) displayed accelerated senescence and reduced longevity, when compared to the flowers of wild type plants. Flowers from PI3K-overexpressing plants showed enhanced ethylene production and upregulated expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 (ACO1). Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed thatPI3Kwas expressed at a higher level in OX flowers than in the control. Seedlings of OX-lines also demonstrated a triple response phenotype with characteristic exaggerated apical hook, shorter hypocotyls and increased sensitivity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the control wild type seedlings. In floral tissue from OX-lines,Solanum lycopersicumphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase green fluorescent protein (PI3K-GFP) chimera protein was localized primarily in stomata, potentially in cytoplasm and membrane adjacent to stomatal pores in the guard cells. Immunoblot analysis of PI3K expression in OX lines demonstrated increased protein level compared to the control. Results of the present study suggest that PI3K plays a crucial role in senescence by enhancing ethylene biosynthesis and signaling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  17. Lau SE, Schwarzacher T, Othman RY, Harikrishna JA
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:194.
    PMID: 26260631 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0577-3
    The R2R3-MYB genes regulate pigmentation and morphogenesis of flowers, including flower and cell shape, and therefore have importance in the development of new varieties of orchids. However, new variety development is limited by the long breeding time required in orchids. In this study, we identified a cDNA, DhMYB1, that is expressed during flower development in a hybrid orchid, Dendrobium hybrida (Dendrobium bobby messina X Dendrobium chao phraya) then used the direct application of dsRNA to observe the effect of gene silencing on flower phenotype and floral epidermal cell shape.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
  18. Masura SS, Parveez GK, Ti LL
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2011 Jul;49(7):701-8.
    PMID: 21549610 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.04.003
    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics
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