Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery were monitored continuously with FloTrac® to measure SVV and CI along with standard monitoring. Both SVV and CI were noted at baseline and every 10 min thereafter till the end of surgery and were observed for concurrence between the measurements.
Results: 1800 pairs of measurement of SVV and CI were obtained from 60 patients. Mean SVV and CI (of all patients) measured at different time points of measurement showed that as SVV increased with time, the CI dropped correspondingly. When individual readings of CI and SVV were plotted against each other, the scatter was found to be wide, reiterating the lack of agreement between the two parameters (R2 = 0.035). SVV >13% suggesting hypovolemia was found at 207 time points. Of these, 175 had a CI >2.5 L/min/m2 and only 32 patients had a CI <2.5 L/min/m2.
Conclusion: SVV, a dynamic index of fluid responsiveness can be used to monitor patients expected to have large fluid shifts during major abdominal surgery. It is very specific and has a high negative predictive value. When SVV increases, CI is usually maintained. Since many factors affect SVV and CI, any increase in SVV >13%, must be correlated with other parameters before administration of the fluid challenge.
METHODS: Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours.
RESULTS: Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different.
CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.
METHODS: We conducted a before-and-after trial with 5008 consecutive ED-treated hospital admissions in the control period and 5146 consecutive admissions in the intervention period. During the control period (18 February 2008 to 17 August 2008), patients received standard i.v. fluids. During the intervention period (18 February 2009 to 17 August 2009), we restricted all chloride-rich fluids. We used the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) staging to define AKI.
RESULTS: Stage 3 of KDIGO-defined AKI decreased from 54 (1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.4) to 30 (0.6%; 95% CI 0.4-0.8) (P = 0.006). The rate of renal replacement therapy did not change, from 13 (0.3%; 95% CI 0.2-0.4) to 8 (0.2%; 95% CI 0.1-0.3) (P = 0.25). After adjustment for relevant covariates, liberal chloride therapy remained associated with a greater risk of KDIGO stage 3 (hazard ratio 1.82; 95% CI 1.13-2.95; P = 0.01). On sensitivity assessment after removing repeat admissions, KDIGO stage 3 remained significantly lower in the intervention period compared with the control period (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: In a before-and-after trial, a chloride-restrictive strategy in an ED was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of stage 3 of KDIGO-defined AKI.
METHODS: A randomized controlled study was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia over a 12-month period. Fifty-four healthy term infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia were randomized to receive either solely enteral feeds (n = 27) or both enteral and intravenous (n = 27) fluid during phototherapy.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the mean birthweight, mean gestational age, ethnic distribution, gender distribution, modes of delivery and types of feeding between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the mean indirect serum bilirubin (iSB) level at the time of admission to the NICU between the enteral (359 +/- 69 micromol/L [mean +/- SD]) and intravenous group (372 +/- 59 micromol/L; P = 0.4). The mean rates of decrease in iSB during the first 4 h of phototherapy were also not significantly different between the enteral group (10.4 +/- 4.9 micromol/L per h) and intravenous group (11.2 +/- 7.4 micromol/L per h; P = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the proportion of infants requiring exchange transfusion (P = 0.3) nor in the median duration of hospitalization (P = 0.7) between the two groups. No infant developed vomiting or abdominal distension during the study period.
CONCLUSION: Severely jaundiced healthy term infants had similar rates of decrease in iSB levels during the first 4 h of intensive phototherapy, irrespective of whether they received oral or intravenous fluid supplementation. However, using the oral route avoided the need for intravenous cannulae and their attendant complications.