Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 243 in total

  1. Majeed S, Iqbal M, Asi MR, Iqbal SZ, Selamat J
    J Food Prot, 2017 Dec;80(12):1993-1998.
    PMID: 29131682 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-117
    Recently, cultivation of high-yielding hybrid maize varieties has revolutionized maize production in Pakistan. Analyses of nutritional traits and aflatoxin (AF) contamination in these varieties can aid in the identification of susceptible and resistant varieties, particularly for cultivation in the Pakistani agro-climatic environment. Five spring maize varieties-Pioneer, Neelam, DK-919, Desi, and Hi-maize-were selected for analyses of their nutritional, tocopherol, and AF contents. Protein, carbohydrate, oil, ash, fiber, and moisture contents ranged between 8.7 and 10.8%, 68 and 71%, 3.72 and 5.56%, 1.09 and 1.81%, 1.1 and 3.1%, and 11.7 and 14.2%, respectively. Tocopherol levels in selected varieties were in the range of 461 to 1,430 μg/g. Hi-maize exhibited significantly higher protein and tocopherol contents than the other varieties, indicating its better suitability for feed and silage applications. The highest mean level of total AFs, 14.5 ± 0.12 μg/kg, was found in Desi, and results showed that the most dominant AF found in the maize varieties was AFB1. Furthermore, the results showed that the higher the level of tocopherol, the lower the concentration of total AFs and vice versa in maize varieties. The results can be used to investigate additional susceptible maize varieties that are resistant to fungal attack.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  2. Foong SY, Ma NL, Lam SS, Peng W, Low F, Lee BHK, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 Dec 05;400:123006.
    PMID: 32947729 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123006
    Pollution with pesticides is a widespread global problem and biomonitoring of the environment and human populations is necessary to assess potential harmful biological effects. One of the pesticides that are showing up in vegetables and fruit is chlorpyrifos (CPS). CPS is a nerve-poisoning organophosphorus insecticide, which is in up to 1/3 of all conventionally produced citrus fruits. Our review shows that CPS is a hazardous material that poses risks to human health and also pollutes the environment. There is numerous risk assessment of CPS reported, however, the assessment is easily affected by factors such as climate change, exposure period and CPS concentration. Therefore, rigorous update of the hazardous level of CPS is needed to determine the threshold level safe for humans and animals. There is a need for remediation using for example photoreactive nanoparticle methods and microbial degeneration possessing high degradation efficiency (73-97%). In addition, stringent biomonitoring of food, environment and human exposure should occur to avoid exposure to chemicals via citrus fruits and vegetables. This is necessary to assess health risks and socioeconomic impacts which also require collaboration between private and public sectors to facilitate the growth, sale and manufacturing of biopesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  3. Wong SF, Low KH, Khor SM
    Talanta, 2020 Oct 01;218:121169.
    PMID: 32797922 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121169
    Food contamination is a serious concern because of a high level of chemicals in food causes severe health issues. Safeguarding the public from the risk of adulterated foods has become a challenging mission. Chloropropanols are of importance to food safety and food security because they are common chemical food contaminants and believed to be carcinogenic to humans. In chemical sensing, chloropropanols are challenging analytes owing to the lacking diversity of functional groups and difficulty in targeting the hydroxyl group in aqueous environments. Moreover, because of their small molecular size, the compositions of chloropropanols remain challenging for achieving chromatographic determination. Herein, to simulate human smell and taste sensations, serum albumins, which are protein-based receptors, were introduced as low-selective receptors for differential sensing. Utilizing serum albumins, a fluorophore (PRODAN), and an additive (ascorbic acid), a differential-based optical biosensor array was developed to detect and differentiate chloropropanols. By integrating the sensor array with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), four chloropropanols were effectively differentiated based on their isomerism properties and the number of the hydroxyl groups, even at ultra-low concentration (5 nM). This concentration is far below the maximum tolerable level of 0.18 μM for chloropropanols. The sensing array was then employed for chloropropanols differentiation and quantification in the complex mixtures (e.g., synthetic soy and dark soy sauces). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) analysis demonstrated 100% accurate classification for all tests. These results signify our differential sensing array as a practical and powerful tool to speedily identify, differentiate, and even quantify chloropropanols in food matrices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  4. Hashemi Moosavi M, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Javanmardi F, Hadidi M, Hadian Z, Jafarzadeh S, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Nov;79:105755.
    PMID: 34562735 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105755
    Innovative technologies for the pasteurization of food products have increased due to the global demand for higher-quality food products. In this regard, the current article aimed to provide an overview regarding the latest research on US application in the decontamination of fungi in food products and highlight the parameters influencing the effectiveness of this method. Therefore, the related article with inactivation of fungi and mycotoxins by ultrasound among last four years (2018-2021) by using terms such as 'mycotoxin,' 'inactivation,' 'ultrasound,' 'decontamination' among some international databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar" was retrieved. Ultrasound (US) is considered a non-thermal decontamination method for food products. In US, the release of energy due to the acoustic phenomenon destroys microorganisms. This technology is advantageous as it is inexpensive, eco-friendly, and does not negatively affect food products' food structure and organoleptic properties. The influence of the US on food structure and organoleptic properties dramatically depends on the intensity and energy density applied In addition, it can preserve higher levels of ascorbic acid, lycopene, and chlorophyll in sonicated food products. The treatment conditions, including frequency, intensity, duration, temperature, and processing pressure, influence the effectiveness of decontamination. However, US displays synergistic or antagonistic effects on bacteria, yeasts, molds, and mycotoxins when combined with other types of decontamination methods such as chemical and thermal approaches. Thus, further research is needed to clarify these effects. Overall, the application of US methods in the food industry for decreasing the microbial content of food products during processing has been applied. However, the use of US with other techniques needs to be studied further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  5. Lim VKE
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Mar;57(1):1-2.
    PMID: 14569712 MyJurnal
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Siew WL
    J AOAC Int, 1996 1 1;79(1):80-2.
    PMID: 8620115
    A method for determining shell in palm kernel cake (PKC) is described. This simple and rapid method requires little pretreatment compared with the method currently used in PKC trade, in which the sample undergoes defatting, acid and alkali digestion, and washing, before a chloroform-alcohol solution is used to separate the shells. In the proposed method, only defatting the sample is required. The shells are separated by the density difference between the shell and PKC in a potassium iodide solution. Recoveries of at least 93% were obtained, and the correlation coefficient between the actual shell content and the determined shell content was 0.999, with gradients of 0.97 and 0.98 for fine and coarse shell, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  7. Rohde K
    Med J Malaya, 1966 Jun;20(4):350-1.
    PMID: 4224361
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  8. Iqbal SZ, Ullah Z, Asi MR, Jinap S, Ahmad MN, Sultan MT, et al.
    J Food Prot, 2018 05;81(5):806-809.
    PMID: 29637809 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-256
    Two hundred ten samples of selected vegetables (okra, pumpkin, tomato, potato, eggplant, spinach, and cabbage) from Faisalabad, Pakistan, were analyzed for the analysis of heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used for the analysis of heavy metals. The mean levels of Cd, Pb, As, and Hg were 0.24, 2.23, 0.58, and 7.98 mg/kg, respectively. The samples with Cd (27%), Pb (50%), and Hg (63%) exceeded the maximum residual levels set by the European Commission. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the current study are high and may pose significant health concerns for consumers. Furthermore, considerable attention should be paid to implement comprehensive monitoring and regulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  9. Karami A, Golieskardi A, Choo CK, Larat V, Karbalaei S, Salamatinia B
    Sci Total Environ, 2018 Jan 15;612:1380-1386.
    PMID: 28898945 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.005
    No report was found on the occurrence of microplastics in processed seafood products that are manufactured for direct human consumption. This study investigates the potential presence of micro- and mesoplastics in 20 brands of canned sardines and sprats originating from 13 countries over 4 continents followed by their chemical composition determination using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The particles were further inspected for their inorganic composition through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Plastic particles were absent in 16 brands while between 1 and 3 plastic particles per brand were found in the other 4 brands. The most abundant plastic polymers were polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The presence of micro- and mesoplastics in the canned sardines and sprats might be due to the translocation of these particles into the edible tissues, improper gutting, or the result of contamination from the canneries. The low prevalence of micro- and mesoplastics sized >149μm, and the absence of potentially hazardous inorganic elements on them, might indicate the limited health risks associated with their presence in canned sardines and sprats. Due to the possible increase in micro- and mesoplastic loads in seafood products over time, the findings of this study suggest their quantification to be included as one of the components of food safety management systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  10. Aslam K, Iqbal SZ, Razis AFA, Usman S, Ali NB
    PMID: 33668973 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052270
    This research aims to assess the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's northern cities. A total of 2970 fruit samples from 12 citrus cultivars were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with a UV detector. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit were 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. About 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were found to be contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 1150 µg/kg in samples from central Punjab cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from northern cities of Pakistan were contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 320 µg/kg. About 22.1% of citrus fruit samples had PAT levels greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). The dietary intake levels of PAT ranged from 0.10 to 1.11 µg/kg bw/day in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13 to 1.93 µg/kg bw/day in the northern cities of Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  11. Leong WH, Teh SY, Hossain MM, Nadarajaw T, Zabidi-Hussin Z, Chin SY, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Apr 15;260:109987.
    PMID: 32090796 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109987
    This review intends to integrate the relevant information that is related to pesticide applications in food commodities and will cover three main sections. The first section encompasses some of the guidelines that have been implemented on management of pesticide application worldwide, such as the establishment of a value called Maximum Residue Level (MRL) through the application of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) into daily agricultural activities. A brief overview of the methods adopted in quantification of these trace residues in different food samples will also be covered. Briefly, pesticide analysis is usually performed in two stages: sample preparation and analytical instrumentation. Some of the preparation methods such as QuEChERs still remain as the technique of choice for most of the analytical scientists. In terms of the instrumentation such as the gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) and high performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC), these are still widely used, in spite of new inventions that are more sustainable and efficient such as the capillary electrophoresis (CE). Finally, the third section emphasizes on how pesticides can affect our health significantly whereby different types of pesticides result in different adverse health implications, despite its application benefits in agriculture in controlling pests. To date, there are limited reviews on pesticide usage in many agricultural-based nations; for the purpose of this review, Malaysia is selected to better illustrate pesticide regulations and implementation of policies. Finally, the review aims to provide an insight on how implementation of GAP and food safety assurance are inter-related and with this established correlation, to identify further measures for improvement to enable reinforcement of optimised agricultural practices specifically in these countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination
  12. Iqbal SZ, Rabbani T, Asi MR, Jinap S
    Food Chem, 2014 Aug 15;157:257-62.
    PMID: 24679779 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.129
    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg).
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  13. Hajeb P, Jinap S, Ismail A, Mahyudin NA
    PMID: 22610296 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3414-6_2
    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to humans in Malaysia will be useful in establishing the levels at which detrimental effects in both humans and marine life may occur, and therefore the levels at which warning should be raised or limits established. In particular, we believe that two or three monitoring centers should be established in Peninsular Malaysia, and one in East Malaysia for the specific purpose of monitoring for the presence of hazardous environmental chemicals, and particularly monitoring for heavy metals such as mercury that reach food that is subject to consistent human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  14. Adzahan N, Jalili M, Jinap S
    PMID: 24785182 DOI: 10.1080/19440040903384190
    A total of 126 local and imported samples of commercial white and black pepper in Malaysia were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). An acetonitrile-methanol-water (17 : 29 : 54; v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Seventy out of 126 (55.5%) samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins, although only low levels of aflatoxins were found ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence of contamination and was found in all contaminated samples. There was a significant difference between type of samples and different brands (p < 0.05). The results showed black peppers were more contaminated than white peppers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  15. Tunung R, Margaret S, Jeyaletchumi P, Chai LC, Tuan Zainazor TC, Ghazali FM, et al.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Feb;20(2):391-6.
    PMID: 20208446
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biosafety of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw salad vegetables at wet market and supermarket in Malaysia. A combination of Most Probable Number - Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method was applied to detect the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and to enumerate their density in the food samples. The study analyzed 276 samples of common vegetables eaten raw in Malaysia (Wild cosmos = 8; Japanese parsley = 21; Cabbage = 30; Lettuce = 16; Indian pennywort = 17; Carrot = 31; Sweet potato = 29; Tomato = 38; Cucumber = 28; Four winged bean = 26; Long bean = 32). The samples were purchased from two supermarkets (A and B) and two wet markets (C and D). The occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus detected was 20.65%, with higher frequency of V. parahaemolyticus in vegetables obtained from wet markets (Wet market C = 27.27%Wet Market D = 32.05%) compared to supermarkets (Supermarket A = 1.64%; Supermarket B = 16.67%). V. parahaemolyticus was most prevalent in Indian pennywort (41.18%). The density of V. parahaemolyticus in all the samples ranged from <3 up to >2400 MPN/g, mostly <3 MPN/g concentration. Raw vegetables from wet markets contained higher levels of V. parahaemolyticus compared to supermarkets. V. parahaemolyticus were present in raw vegetables although in low numbers. The results suggest that raw vegetables act as a transmission route for V. parahaemolyticus. This study will be the first biosafety assessment of V. parahaemolyticus in raw vegetables in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  16. Abdulra'uf LB, Chai MK, Tan GH
    J AOAC Int, 2012 11 28;95(5):1272-90.
    PMID: 23175958
    This paper reviews the application of various modes of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. SPME is a simple extraction technique that eliminates the use of solvent, and it is applied for the analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile pesticides. SPME has been successfully coupled to both GC and LC. The coupling with GC has been straightforward and requires little modification of existing equipment, but interfacing with LC has proved challenging. The external standard calibration technique is widely used for quantification, while standard addition and internal or surrogate standards are mainly used to account for matrix effects. All parameters that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, and therefore need to be optimized, are also reviewed. Details of the characteristics of analytical procedures and new trends in fiber production using sol-gel technology and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  17. Ismail BS, Farihah K, Khairiah J
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2005 Feb;74(2):320-7.
    PMID: 15841973
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  18. Khandaker MU, Asaduzzaman Kh, Nawi SM, Usman AR, Amin YM, Daar E, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0128790.
    PMID: 26075909 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128790
    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  19. Tukiran NA, Ismail A, Mustafa S, Hamid M
    PMID: 25861981 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2015.1039605
    Porcine gelatine is a common adulterant found in edible bird's nests (EBNs) used to increase the net weight prior to sale. This study aimed to develop indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for porcine gelatine adulteration using anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies. Three indirect ELISAs were developed (PAB1, 2 and 3), which had limits of detection (LODs) of 0.12, 0.10 and 0.11 µg g(-1), respectively. When applied to standard solutions of porcine gelatine, the inter- and intra-assays showed coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 20% and were able to detect at least 0.5 ng µg(-1) (0.05%) porcine gelatine in spiked samples. The proposed ELISA offers attractions for quality control in the EBN industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
  20. Ismail BS, Cheah UB, Enoma AO, Lum KY, Malik Z
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2002 Sep;69(3):444-51.
    PMID: 12177768
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination*
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