Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

  1. Majeed S, Iqbal M, Asi MR, Iqbal SZ, Selamat J
    J Food Prot, 2017 Dec;80(12):1993-1998.
    PMID: 29131682 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-117
    Recently, cultivation of high-yielding hybrid maize varieties has revolutionized maize production in Pakistan. Analyses of nutritional traits and aflatoxin (AF) contamination in these varieties can aid in the identification of susceptible and resistant varieties, particularly for cultivation in the Pakistani agro-climatic environment. Five spring maize varieties-Pioneer, Neelam, DK-919, Desi, and Hi-maize-were selected for analyses of their nutritional, tocopherol, and AF contents. Protein, carbohydrate, oil, ash, fiber, and moisture contents ranged between 8.7 and 10.8%, 68 and 71%, 3.72 and 5.56%, 1.09 and 1.81%, 1.1 and 3.1%, and 11.7 and 14.2%, respectively. Tocopherol levels in selected varieties were in the range of 461 to 1,430 μg/g. Hi-maize exhibited significantly higher protein and tocopherol contents than the other varieties, indicating its better suitability for feed and silage applications. The highest mean level of total AFs, 14.5 ± 0.12 μg/kg, was found in Desi, and results showed that the most dominant AF found in the maize varieties was AFB1. Furthermore, the results showed that the higher the level of tocopherol, the lower the concentration of total AFs and vice versa in maize varieties. The results can be used to investigate additional susceptible maize varieties that are resistant to fungal attack.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  2. Foong SY, Ma NL, Lam SS, Peng W, Low F, Lee BHK, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 Dec 05;400:123006.
    PMID: 32947729 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123006
    Pollution with pesticides is a widespread global problem and biomonitoring of the environment and human populations is necessary to assess potential harmful biological effects. One of the pesticides that are showing up in vegetables and fruit is chlorpyrifos (CPS). CPS is a nerve-poisoning organophosphorus insecticide, which is in up to 1/3 of all conventionally produced citrus fruits. Our review shows that CPS is a hazardous material that poses risks to human health and also pollutes the environment. There is numerous risk assessment of CPS reported, however, the assessment is easily affected by factors such as climate change, exposure period and CPS concentration. Therefore, rigorous update of the hazardous level of CPS is needed to determine the threshold level safe for humans and animals. There is a need for remediation using for example photoreactive nanoparticle methods and microbial degeneration possessing high degradation efficiency (73-97%). In addition, stringent biomonitoring of food, environment and human exposure should occur to avoid exposure to chemicals via citrus fruits and vegetables. This is necessary to assess health risks and socioeconomic impacts which also require collaboration between private and public sectors to facilitate the growth, sale and manufacturing of biopesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  3. Wong SF, Low KH, Khor SM
    Talanta, 2020 Oct 01;218:121169.
    PMID: 32797922 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121169
    Food contamination is a serious concern because of a high level of chemicals in food causes severe health issues. Safeguarding the public from the risk of adulterated foods has become a challenging mission. Chloropropanols are of importance to food safety and food security because they are common chemical food contaminants and believed to be carcinogenic to humans. In chemical sensing, chloropropanols are challenging analytes owing to the lacking diversity of functional groups and difficulty in targeting the hydroxyl group in aqueous environments. Moreover, because of their small molecular size, the compositions of chloropropanols remain challenging for achieving chromatographic determination. Herein, to simulate human smell and taste sensations, serum albumins, which are protein-based receptors, were introduced as low-selective receptors for differential sensing. Utilizing serum albumins, a fluorophore (PRODAN), and an additive (ascorbic acid), a differential-based optical biosensor array was developed to detect and differentiate chloropropanols. By integrating the sensor array with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), four chloropropanols were effectively differentiated based on their isomerism properties and the number of the hydroxyl groups, even at ultra-low concentration (5 nM). This concentration is far below the maximum tolerable level of 0.18 μM for chloropropanols. The sensing array was then employed for chloropropanols differentiation and quantification in the complex mixtures (e.g., synthetic soy and dark soy sauces). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) analysis demonstrated 100% accurate classification for all tests. These results signify our differential sensing array as a practical and powerful tool to speedily identify, differentiate, and even quantify chloropropanols in food matrices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  4. Iqbal SZ, Ullah Z, Asi MR, Jinap S, Ahmad MN, Sultan MT, et al.
    J Food Prot, 2018 05;81(5):806-809.
    PMID: 29637809 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-256
    Two hundred ten samples of selected vegetables (okra, pumpkin, tomato, potato, eggplant, spinach, and cabbage) from Faisalabad, Pakistan, were analyzed for the analysis of heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used for the analysis of heavy metals. The mean levels of Cd, Pb, As, and Hg were 0.24, 2.23, 0.58, and 7.98 mg/kg, respectively. The samples with Cd (27%), Pb (50%), and Hg (63%) exceeded the maximum residual levels set by the European Commission. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the current study are high and may pose significant health concerns for consumers. Furthermore, considerable attention should be paid to implement comprehensive monitoring and regulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  5. Aslam K, Iqbal SZ, Razis AFA, Usman S, Ali NB
    PMID: 33668973 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052270
    This research aims to assess the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's northern cities. A total of 2970 fruit samples from 12 citrus cultivars were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with a UV detector. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit were 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. About 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were found to be contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 1150 µg/kg in samples from central Punjab cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from northern cities of Pakistan were contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 320 µg/kg. About 22.1% of citrus fruit samples had PAT levels greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). The dietary intake levels of PAT ranged from 0.10 to 1.11 µg/kg bw/day in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13 to 1.93 µg/kg bw/day in the northern cities of Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  6. Iqbal SZ, Rabbani T, Asi MR, Jinap S
    Food Chem, 2014 Aug 15;157:257-62.
    PMID: 24679779 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.129
    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg).
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  7. Adzahan N, Jalili M, Jinap S
    PMID: 24785182 DOI: 10.1080/19440040903384190
    A total of 126 local and imported samples of commercial white and black pepper in Malaysia were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). An acetonitrile-methanol-water (17 : 29 : 54; v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Seventy out of 126 (55.5%) samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins, although only low levels of aflatoxins were found ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence of contamination and was found in all contaminated samples. There was a significant difference between type of samples and different brands (p < 0.05). The results showed black peppers were more contaminated than white peppers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  8. Tunung R, Margaret S, Jeyaletchumi P, Chai LC, Tuan Zainazor TC, Ghazali FM, et al.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Feb;20(2):391-6.
    PMID: 20208446
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biosafety of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw salad vegetables at wet market and supermarket in Malaysia. A combination of Most Probable Number - Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method was applied to detect the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and to enumerate their density in the food samples. The study analyzed 276 samples of common vegetables eaten raw in Malaysia (Wild cosmos = 8; Japanese parsley = 21; Cabbage = 30; Lettuce = 16; Indian pennywort = 17; Carrot = 31; Sweet potato = 29; Tomato = 38; Cucumber = 28; Four winged bean = 26; Long bean = 32). The samples were purchased from two supermarkets (A and B) and two wet markets (C and D). The occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus detected was 20.65%, with higher frequency of V. parahaemolyticus in vegetables obtained from wet markets (Wet market C = 27.27%Wet Market D = 32.05%) compared to supermarkets (Supermarket A = 1.64%; Supermarket B = 16.67%). V. parahaemolyticus was most prevalent in Indian pennywort (41.18%). The density of V. parahaemolyticus in all the samples ranged from <3 up to >2400 MPN/g, mostly <3 MPN/g concentration. Raw vegetables from wet markets contained higher levels of V. parahaemolyticus compared to supermarkets. V. parahaemolyticus were present in raw vegetables although in low numbers. The results suggest that raw vegetables act as a transmission route for V. parahaemolyticus. This study will be the first biosafety assessment of V. parahaemolyticus in raw vegetables in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  9. Abdulra'uf LB, Chai MK, Tan GH
    J AOAC Int, 2012 11 28;95(5):1272-90.
    PMID: 23175958
    This paper reviews the application of various modes of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. SPME is a simple extraction technique that eliminates the use of solvent, and it is applied for the analysis of both volatile and nonvolatile pesticides. SPME has been successfully coupled to both GC and LC. The coupling with GC has been straightforward and requires little modification of existing equipment, but interfacing with LC has proved challenging. The external standard calibration technique is widely used for quantification, while standard addition and internal or surrogate standards are mainly used to account for matrix effects. All parameters that affect the extraction of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, and therefore need to be optimized, are also reviewed. Details of the characteristics of analytical procedures and new trends in fiber production using sol-gel technology and molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  10. Bujang NB, Chee CF, Heh CH, Rahman NA, Buckle MJC
    PMID: 28580889 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2017.1336674
    Adulteration of herbal health supplements with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues is becoming a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate herbal and food products sold in the Malaysian market for the presence of these adulterants. Sixty-two products that claim to enhance men's sexual health were sampled between April 2014 and April 2016. These products included unregistered products seized by the Pharmacy Enforcement Division of the Ministry of Health (n = 39), products sent to the National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency for pre-registration testing (n = 9) and products investigated under the post-registration market surveillance programme (n = 14). The products were tested against an in-house spectral library consisting of 61 PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ion-trap-time-of-flight (LC-MS IT-TOF) method. Thirty-two (82%) of the unregistered products and two (14%) of the registered products were found to be adulterated with at least one PDE-5 inhibitor or analogue, while none of the pre-registration products contained adulterants. A total of 16 different adulterants were detected and 36% of the adulterated products contained a mixture of two or more adulterants. This study has demonstrated that the adulteration of unregistered herbal products in the Malaysian market is an alarming issue that needs to be urgently addressed by the relevant authorities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  11. Norlia M, Nor-Khaizura MAR, Selamat J, Abu Bakar F, Radu S, Chin CK
    PMID: 29912639 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1488276
    The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxin and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxin contamination was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in raw peanuts and peanut-based products from the retailers. However, there was no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) in fungal contamination for both types of peanuts except for the total fungal count in raw peanuts from the retailers. Furthermore, raw peanut kernels from the retailers were the most contaminated ones ranged from
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  12. Abdulrauf LB, Tan GH
    J AOAC Int, 2016 Nov 01;99(6):1415-1425.
    PMID: 28206878 DOI: 10.5740/jaoacint.16-0275
    This review presents the application of carbon nanotubes as sorbent materials in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. The advantages, limitations, and challenges of carbon nanotubes, with respect to their use in analytical chemistry, are presented. The efficiency of their application as extraction sorbent materials (in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, relative recovery, and RSD) in SPE, solid-phase microextraction, multi-plug filtration clean-up, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method is reported. The synthesis, functionalization, purification, and characterization methods of carbon nanotubes are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  13. Abdullah R, Diaz LN, Wesseling S, Rietjens IM
    PMID: 27892830 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2016.1266098
    After the incidences of induction of aristolochic acid nephropathy after consumption of herbal weight loss preparations that accidentally contained aristolochic acids (AAs), several countries defined national restrictions on the presence of AAs in food, including plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal products. This study investigates whether the risks associated with exposure to AAs via PFS and herbal products are at present indeed negligible. Data reported in literature on AA levels in PFS and other herbal products and also obtained from a new series of PFS in the present study were used to calculate the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and corresponding margins of exposure (MOEs). Available literature data revealed that 206 out of 573 samples were found to contain aristolochic acid I (AAI) and/or aristolochic acid II (AAII). The results obtained from recently collected PFS revealed that both AAI and AAII were detected in three out of 18 analysed PFS at levels up to 594.8 and 235.3 µg g(-1), respectively, being in line with the levels reported in literature. The EDIs resulting from intake of these PFS resulted in MOEs that were generally below 10,000, corroborating the priority for risk management. Although these results refer to PFS collected by targeted sampling strategies, the data reveal that AA-containing PFS are still freely available. When considering that the use of these samples may be limited to shorter periods of time, the EDIs might be lower, but MOE values would still be lower than 10,000 for more than 50% of the AA-containing PFS and herbal products. In conclusion, the presence of AAs in PFS and herbal products even several years after instalment of the legal restrictions still raises concern, especially for people who frequently use the respective PFS and herbal products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  14. Lawal A, Tan GH, Alsharif AM
    J AOAC Int, 2016 Nov 01;99(6):1383-1394.
    PMID: 27667201 DOI: 10.5740/jaoacint.16-0272
    Food quality and food safety are major challenges affecting agricultural and industrial aspects of production. Many contaminants from different sources contaminate foods and drinks, leading to disastrous health problems like gene mutations and cancer. Previously, many different methods have been used for the analysis of these contaminants. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been the most well-known conventional technique used, but its limitations are its tediousness, time required, and the use of large quantities of toxic organic solvents. These limitations have led to the search for other, efficient techniques that are more environmentally friendly. Hence, this review highlights recent advances in liquid-phase (single-drop, hollow fiber, and dispersive liquid-liquid) microextraction procedures for food and drink analyses. Such modifications can be justified for solving limitations associated with the traditional LLE method. The objective of this review is to serve as a reference platform for providing effective management tools for solving problems of pollution, clean-up, and control of food quality and safety globally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  15. Sajali N, Wong SC, Hanapi UK, Abu Bakar Jamaluddin S, Tasrip NA, Mohd Desa MN
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2409-2414.
    PMID: 30184265 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14338
    High-quality DNA extracts are imperative for downstream applications in molecular identification. Most processed food products undergo heat treatments causing DNA degradation, which hampers application of DNA-based techniques for food authentication. Moreover, the presence of inhibitors in processed food products is also problematic, as inhibitors can impede the process of obtaining high qualities and quantities of DNA. Various approaches in DNA extraction and factors in structure and texture of various food matrices affecting DNA extraction are explained in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  16. Farawahida AH, Jinap S, Nor-Khaizura MAR, Samsudin NIP
    PMID: 28871861 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2017.1375605
    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  17. Alam Shah S, Selamat J, Haque Akanda MJ, Sanny M, Khatib A
    PMID: 29448903 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1440639
    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different types of soy sauce and marinating time on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in roasted chicken. Chicken breast samples were marinated with sweet, salty, light and dark soy sauce at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h (control treatment was the chicken without marinade). The concentrations of free amino acids, sugars and creatinine were determined before roasting while HCA concentrations were determined after roasting. All types of soy sauce significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the concentration of HCAs in roasted chicken with increasing marinating time. The highest increment of total concentration of HCAs was found in samples marinated with light soy sauce (887%) followed by dark (375%), salty (193%) and sweet (169%) at 12 h. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) showed a substantial reduction in samples only momentarily marinated with sweet, salty and dark soy sauce (0 h). Free amino acids were found to be more strongly correlated with the formation of HCAs than reducing sugars or creatinine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
  18. Li X, Tan CP, Liu YF, Xu YJ
    J Agric Food Chem, 2020 Dec 16;68(50):14728-14738.
    PMID: 33289375 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07378
    The intestine is an important digestive organ of the human body, and its barrier is the guardian of the body from the external environment. The impairment of the intestinal barrier is believed to be an important determinant in various foodborne diseases. Food hazards can lead to the occurrence of many foodborne diseases represented by inflammation. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the impact of the food hazards on intestinal barriers is essential for promoting human health. This review examined the relationship between food hazards and the intestinal barrier in three aspects: apoptosis, imbalance of gut microbiota, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanism of dysfunctional gut microbiota caused by food hazards was also discussed. This review discusses the interaction among food hazards, intestinal barrier, and foodborne diseases and, thus, offers a new thought to deal with foodborne disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis
  19. Ahmed ASS, Sultana S, Habib A, Ullah H, Musa N, Hossain MB, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(10):e0219336.
    PMID: 31622361 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219336
    The Karnaphuli River estuary, located in southeast coast of Bangladesh, is largely exposed to heavy metal contamination as it receives a huge amount of untreated industrial effluents from the Chottagram City. This study aimed to assess the concentrations of five heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) and their bioaccumulation status in six commercially important fishes, and also to evaluate the potential human health risk for local consumers. The hierarchy of the measured concentration level (mg/kg) of the metals was as follows: Pb (13.88) > Cu (12.10) > As (4.89) > Cr (3.36) > Cd (0.39). The Fulton's condition factor denoted that fishes were in better 'condition' and most of the species were in positive allometric growth. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the contaminants observed in the species were in the following orders: Cu (1971.42) > As (1042.93) > Pb (913.66) > Cr (864.99) > Cd (252.03), and among the specimens, demersal fish, Apocryptes bato appeared to be the most bioaccumulative organism. Estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR) assessed for potential human health risk implications suggest that the values were within the acceptable threshold for both adults and children. However, calculated CR values indicated that both age groups were not far from the risk, and HI values demonstrated that children were nearly 6 times more susceptible to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects than adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Contamination/analysis*
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