Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 68 in total

  1. Krishnaiah D, Nithyanandam R, Sarbatly R
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2014;54(4):449-73.
    PMID: 24236997 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2011.587038
    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  2. Yahya H, Linforth RS, Cook DJ
    Food Chem, 2014 Feb 15;145:378-87.
    PMID: 24128492 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.08.046
    The roasting of barley and malt products generates colour and flavour, controlled principally by the time course of product temperature and moisture content. Samples were taken throughout the industrial manufacture of three classes of roasted product (roasted barley, crystal malt and black malt) and analysed for moisture content, colour and flavour volatiles. Despite having distinct flavour characteristics, the three products contained many compounds in common. The product concentrations through manufacture of 15 flavour compounds are used to consider the mechanisms (Maillard reaction, caramelisation, pyrolysis) by which they were formed. The use of water sprays resulted in transient increases in formation of certain compounds (e.g., 2-cyclopentene-1,4-dione) and a decrease in others (e.g., pyrrole). The study highlights rapid changes in colour and particularly flavour which occur at the end of roasting and onwards to the cooling floor. This highlights the need for commercial maltsters to ensure consistency of procedures from batch to batch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  3. Chai KF, Chang LS, Adzahan NM, Karim R, Rukayadi Y, Ghazali HM
    Food Chem, 2019 Jan 15;271:298-308.
    PMID: 30236681 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.155
    A novel way to fully utilize rambutan fruit and seed is to ferment peeled fruits followed by drying and roasting, and use the seeds to produce seed powder similar to that of cocoa powder. Hence, the objective of this study was to optimize the roasting time and temperature of rambutan fruit post-fermentation and drying, and to produce a cocoa-like powder product from the seeds. Parameters monitored during roasting were colour and total phenolic content, while seed powder obtained using optimized roasting conditions was analyzed for its physicochemical properties and toxicity. The latter was examined using the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed that the roasted seed powder possessed colour and key volatile compounds similar to that of cocoa powder. Besides, the brine shrimp lethality assay indicated that the roasted seed powder was non-toxic. Thus, the fruit, including its seed could be fully utilized and subsequently, wastage could be reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  4. Norizzah AR, Nur Azimah K, Zaliha O
    Food Res Int, 2018 04;106:982-991.
    PMID: 29580013 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.001
    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  5. Ho LH, Abdul Aziz NA, Azahari B
    Food Chem, 2013 Aug 15;139(1-4):532-9.
    PMID: 23561142 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.039
    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  6. Ramadhan K, Huda N, Ahmad R
    Poult Sci, 2012 Jul;91(7):1703-8.
    PMID: 22700518 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01926
    In this study, the effect of the addition of different cryoprotectants on the freeze-thaw stability of duck surimi-like material (DSLM) was tested. A 6% (wt/wt) low-sweetness cryoprotectant (i.e., polydextrose, trehalose, lactitol, or palatinit) was added to a 3-kg portion of DSLM, and the mixture was subjected to freeze-thaw cycles during 4 mo of frozen storage. The DSLM with no cryoprotectant added (control) and with a 6% sucrose-sorbitol blend (high-sweetness cryoprotectant) added also were tested. The polydextrose-added sample had the highest water-holding capacity among the sample types tested (P < 0.05), and it retained its higher value during frozen storage. The protein solubility of the cryoprotectant-added samples decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 58.99 to 59.60% at initial frozen storage (0 mo) to 48.60 to 54.61% at the end of the experiment (4 mo). The gel breaking force of all samples significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at 1 mo; this breaking force then stabilized after further frozen storage for the cryoprotectant-added samples, whereas it continued to decrease in the control samples. Gel deformation fluctuated during frozen storage and was significantly lower (P < 0.05) at the end of experiment than at the beginning. The presence of cryoprotectants reduced the whiteness of DSLM. Samples containing polydextrose, trehalose, lactitol, and palatinit were able to retain the protein solubility, gel breaking force, and deformation of DSLM better than control samples after 4 mo of frozen storage and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of these low-sweetness cryoprotectants are comparable to those of sucrose-sorbitol, thus, these sugars could be used as alternatives in protecting surimi-like materials during frozen storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  7. Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(9):11312-22.
    PMID: 23109854 DOI: 10.3390/ijms130911312
    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  8. Bhat R, Kamaruddin NS, Min-Tze L, Karim AA
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2011 Nov;18(6):1295-300.
    PMID: 21550834 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.04.002
    Freshly squeezed kasturi lime fruit juice was sonicated (for 0, 30 and 60min at 20°C, 25kHz frequency) to evaluate its impact on selected physico-chemical and antioxidant properties, such as pH, °Brix, titratable acidity, Hunter color values (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and flavonols. Additionally, the effect of sonication treatments on the microbial load (TPC, yeast and mold) were also evaluated. Sonication of juice samples for 60min showed enhancement in most of the bioactive compounds compared to samples treated for 30min and control samples (untreated). Significant reductions in the microbial load corresponding to sonication time were also recorded. Results of the present study indicate that sonication may be employed as a suitable technique for kasturi lime juice processing, where antioxidant and other bioactive compound retention or enhancement is desired, along with the achievement of safety and quality standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  9. Lioe HN, Selamat J, Yasuda M
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):R71-6.
    PMID: 20492309 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01529.x
    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  10. Shahdan IA, Regenstein JM, Shahabuddin ASM, Rahman MT
    Poult Sci, 2016 Jul 01;95(7):1680-1692.
    PMID: 26994198 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew092
    Halal (permissible or lawful) poultry meat production must meet industry, economic, and production needs, and government health requirements without compromising the Islamic religious requirements derived from the Qur'an and the Hadiths (the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). Halal certification authorities may vary in their interpretation of these teachings, which leads to differences in halal slaughter requirements. The current study proposes 6 control points (CP) for halal poultry meat production based on the most commonly used halal production systems. CP 1 describes what is allowed and prohibited, such as blood and animal manure, and feed ingredients for halal poultry meat production. CP 2 describes the requirements for humane handling during lairage. CP 3 describes different methods for immobilizing poultry, when immobilization is used, such as water bath stunning. CP 4 describes the importance of intention, details of the halal slaughter, and the equipment permitted. CP 5 and CP 6 describe the requirements after the neck cut has been made such as the time needed before the carcasses can enter the scalding tank, and the potential for meat adulteration with fecal residues and blood. It is important to note that the proposed halal CP program is presented as a starting point for any individual halal certifying body to improve its practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  11. Norlida HM, Md Ali AR, Muhadhir I
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 1996 Jan;47(1):71-4.
    PMID: 8616676
    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of < or = 16%, while POs2 at level of < or = 20%. At 10 degrees C, eutectic interaction occur between PO and PKO which reach their maximum at about 60:40 blending ratio. Within the eutectic region, to maintain the SFC at 10 degrees C to be < or = 50%, POs1 may be added at level of < or = 7%, while POs2 at level of < or = 12%. The addition of palm stearin increased the blends solidification Tmin and Tmax values, while PKO reduced them. Blends which contained high amount of palm stearin showed melting point and cooling curves quite similar to that of pastry margarine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  12. Shahdan IA, Regenstein JM, Rahman MT
    Poult Sci, 2017 Jun 01;96(6):1970-1981.
    PMID: 27965405 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew427
    This study proposes critical limits (CL) for control points for halal slaughter (CPHS). Previously, 6 control points (CP) were determined, and CL for these 6 CPHS are suggested based on: 1) a literature survey for the CL for CP 1 (poultry breeding, rearing, and poultry feed) and CP 2 (welfare of poultry during transportation and lairage); 2) a field survey of slaughter plants in Kuantan (Malaysia) for CP 3 (immobilization), CP 4 (slaughter), CP 5 (time for full bleed-out), and CP 6 (washing and packaging); and 3) controlled experiments to refine the CL for CP 3, 4, and 5. The CL for CP 1 focused on stress reduction during rearing and use of substances that could compromise poultry meat wholesomeness. The CL for CP 2 emphasizes humane best-practices for handling poultry during lairage. The CL for CP 3 suggests a gap of 5 s between 2 shackles if only one shackler is employed and shackling times of <1 min for live chickens. In countries permitting water-bath electrical stunning of halal poultry, the stunning current needed to induce unconsciousness must be defined for the breed and bird size but not cause any chicken deaths. The CL for CP 4 mandates the recitation of the tasmiyah (the invocation), which if done for every chicken, will require ≥5 s between stunning and neck cutting. The CL for CP 4 also includes information about the slaughter knife. In CP 5 the recommended minimum time between neck cutting and scalding is 9.5 min. Finally, the CL for CP 6 emphasizes good supply chain hygiene and zero adulteration from haram species and substances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  13. Sulaiman A, Farid M, Silva FV
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2017 Jun;23(4):293-309.
    PMID: 28595485 DOI: 10.1177/1082013216685485
    Strawberry puree was processed for 15 min using thermal (65 ℃), high-pressure processing (600 MPa, 48 ℃), and ultrasound (24 kHz, 1.3 W/g, 33 ℃). These conditions were selected based on similar polyphenoloxidase inactivation (11%-18%). The specific energies required for the above-mentioned thermal, high-pressure processing, and power ultrasound processes were 240, 291, and 1233 kJ/kg, respectively. Then, the processed strawberry was stored at 3 ℃ and room temperature for 30 days. The constant pH (3.38±0.03) and soluble solids content (9.03 ± 0.25°Brix) during storage indicated a microbiological stability. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. The high-pressure processing and ultrasound treatments retained the antioxidant activity (70%-74%) better than the thermal process (60%), and high-pressure processing was the best treatment after 30 days of ambient storage to preserve antioxidant activity. Puree treated with ultrasound presented more color retention after processing and after ambient storage than the other preservation methods. For the three treatments, the changes of antioxidant activity and total color difference during storage were described by the fractional conversion model with rate constants k ranging between 0.03-0.09 and 0.06-0.22 day - 1, respectively. In resume, high-pressure processing and thermal processes required much less energy than ultrasound for the same polyphenoloxidase inactivation in strawberry. While high-pressure processing retained better the antioxidant activity of the strawberry puree during storage, the ultrasound treatment was better in terms of color retention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  14. Sim BI, Muhamad H, Lai OM, Abas F, Yeoh CB, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2018 Apr 01;67(4):397-406.
    PMID: 29526878 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17210
    This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  15. Low YL, Pui LP
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2020 7 1;19(2):207-218.
    PMID: 32600017 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0752
    BACKGROUND: The bite-sized jelly sphere with a gelatinous exterior and fruit puree interior is a type of innovative fruit-based dessert. This study aimed to produce jelly spheres with a gelatinous exterior and mangopineapple puree interior by using frozen reverse spherification.

    METHODS: A full factorial design (23) was applied to study the effects of mango-pineapple ratio (x1), immersion time in sugar solution (x2), and concentration of sugar solution (x3) in the production  of mango-pineapple jelly spheres using frozen reverse spherification. The responses studied were the physicochemical properties (color, total soluble solids, and texture) and sensory evaluation of mango-pineapple jelly spheres.

    RESULTS: Mango-pineapple ratio had a positive effect on a* and b* while having a negative effect L* value on the jelly sphere. Total soluble solids of jelly spheres were influenced by both immersion time in sugar solution and concentration of sugar solution. Immersion time in sugar solution had a positive effect on the peak force of the compression cycle and deformation at peak load while having a negative effect on the total soluble solid of jelly spheres. On the other hand, the concentration of sugar solution had a positive effect on the sensory evaluation in terms of flavor, texture, and overall acceptability. The desirability function approach was used to optimize the factors, and an overall desirability of 0.89 for all responses was achieved with 1.28:1 mango-pineapple ratio, 30 mins immersion time in sugar solution, and 22°Brix sugar solution. A proximate analysis of the optimized mango-pineapple jelly spheres had an energy content of 73.18 kcal/100 g and showed nutrient values of 81.11% moisture, 0.10% ash, 0.46% protein, 0% fat, 0.97% total dietary fiber, and 17.35% digestible carbohydrate.

    CONCLUSIONS: The development of the optimal mango-pineapple jelly sphere allows food producers to produce a dessert that is low in calories, with a good appearance and consumer acceptability.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  16. Mat Yusoff M, Niranjan K, Mason OA, Gordon MH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1588-1597.
    PMID: 31773733 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10167
    BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (MO) kernel oil is categorized as a high-oleic oil that resembles olive oil. However, unlike olive trees, MO trees are largely present in most subtropical and tropical countries. In these countries, therefore, the benefits of oleic acid can be obtained at a cheaper price through the consumption of MO kernel oil. This study reports on the effect of different extraction methods on oxidative properties of MO kernel oil during storage for 140 days at 13, 25, and 37 °C.

    RESULTS: All aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE)-based methods generally resulted in oil with better oxidative properties and higher tocopherol retention than the use of solvent. Prior to AEE, boiling pre-treatment deactivated the hydrolytic enzymes and preserved the oil's quality. In contrast, high-pressure processing (HPP) pre-treatment accelerated hydrolytic reaction and resulted in an increase in free fatty acids after 140 days at all temperatures. No significant changes were detected in the oils' iodine values and fatty acid composition. The tocopherol content decreased significantly at both 13 and 25 °C after 60 days in the oil from SE method, and after 120 days in oils from AEE-based methods.

    CONCLUSION: These findings are significant in highlighting the extraction methods resulting in crude MO kernel oil with greatest oxidative stability in the storage conditions tested. Subsequently, the suitable storage condition of the oil prior to refining can be determined. Further studies are recommended in determining the suitable refining processes and parameters for the MO kernel oil prior to application in variety food products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  17. Pui LP, Karim R, Yusof YA, Wong CW, Ghazali HM
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2021 4 23;20(2):135-148.
    PMID: 33884852 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0801
    BACKGROUND: 'Cempedak' (Artocarpus integer) is an aromatic fruit which is similar to jackfruit. Although it is rich in vitamin A and is consumed fresh, the fruit has a short shelf life. Hence, it can be converted through a spray-drying process, to form powder, which is more stable. Powder flow properties are important when considering storage, while its reconstitution characteristics are critical for the consumer to make juice from the product.

    METHODS: The parameters of spray-dried 'cempedak' fruit powder under study include inlet air temperature (140-180°C) and maltodextrin (DE 10) concentrations (5-15% w/w). Response surface methodology involving 14 runs was used to assess the effects of inlet temperature and maltodextrin on the powder flow properties and reconstitution properties of the spray-dried 'cempedak' powder.

    RESULTS: Out of the tested responses, only bulk density, change in cake height ratio, and water solubility index had a high coefficient of determination value. Inlet air temperature was found to be the main parameter to affect the bulk density, caking and water solubility index, when compared to maltodextrin concentration. By setting minimization of caking and maximization of water solubility index as the main determinants, the optimal parameters of 160°C inlet temperature and 15% (w/w) maltodextrin DE10 were generated, with a desirability of 0.697.

    CONCLUSIONS: The powder produced under optimal conditions (160°C and 15% w/w maltodextrin) had a low bulk density (480.01 kg/m3), low caking properties (0.17 change in cake height ratio), and a high solubility index (88.69). This indicates that the powder is stable to be stored (without caking) and will have good reconstitution when added to water.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  18. Paydar M, Wong YL, Wong WF, Hamdi OA, Kadir NA, Looi CY
    J Food Sci, 2013 Dec;78(12):T1940-7.
    PMID: 24279333 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12313
    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  19. Hasnol ND, Jinap S, Sanny M
    Food Chem, 2014 Feb 15;145:514-21.
    PMID: 24128508 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.08.086
    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different types of sugar on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCA) in marinated grilled chicken. Chicken breast samples were marinated with table sugar, brown sugar, and honey for 24h at 4 °C. The internal temperature, weight loss, free amino acids, sugars, and HCA were determined. The concentrations of all types of HCA (except IQx) in samples that were marinated with table sugar were significantly higher (p<0.006) than brown sugar; whereas those were marinated with honey had the lowest HCA concentrations. A substantial reduction in the concentration of MeIQ, PhIP, DiMeIQx, IQ, IQx, and norharman was achieved in chicken marinated with honey. A correlation study indicated that adding honey into the recipe retarded the formation of most HCA (MeIQ, DiMeIQx, IQ, IQx, norharman, and harman), whereas table sugars enhanced the formation of all HCA except norharman, harman, and AαC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  20. Chong CH, Law CL, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Oziembłowski M
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3889-96.
    PMID: 23993562 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.042
    The objective of this study was to improve product quality of dehydrated fruits (apple, pear, papaya, mango) using combined drying techniques. This involved investigation of bioactivity, colour, and sensory assessment on colour of the dried products as well as the retention of the bio-active ingredients. The attributes of quality were compared in regard to the quality of dehydrated samples obtained from continuous heat pump (HP) drying technique. It was found that for apple, pear and mango the total colour change (ΔE) of samples dried using continuous heat pump (HP) or heat pump vacuum-microwave (HP/VM) methods was lower than of samples dried by other combined methods. However, for papaya, the lowest colour change exhibited by samples dried using hot air-cold air (HHC) method and the highest colour change was found for heat pump (HP) dehydrated samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that dehydrated pear with higher total colour change (ΔE) is more desirable because of its golden yellow appearance. In most cases the highest phenol content was found from fruits dried by HP/VM method. Judging from the quality findings on two important areas namely colour and bioactivity, it was found that combined drying method consisted of HP pre-drying followed by VM finish drying gave the best results for most dehydrated fruits studied in this work as the fruits contain first group of polyphenol compounds, which preferably requires low temperature followed by rapid drying strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
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