RESULTS: All of the mutations were found in adenocarcinoma, except one that was in squamous cell carcinoma. The mutation rate was 45.7% (221/484). Complex mutations were also observed, wherein 8 tumours carried 2 mutations and 1 tumour carried 3 mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Both methods detected EGFR mutations in FFPE samples. HRM assays gave more EGFR positive results compared to Scorpion ARMS.
METHODS: Seventy formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases previously diagnosed as primary lung squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35) and lung adenocarcinoma (n = 35) from January 2008 to December 2016 were retrieved. The results of tumour cell immunoreactivity for p40 and p63 antibodies in lung squamous cell carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma were compared.
RESULTS: p40 was expressed in 27 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (77.1%). All cases of lung adenocarcinoma (35/35, 100%) were negative for p40. p63 expression was positive in 30 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (85.7%) and 13 cases of lung adenocarcinoma (37.1%). Reactivity for both p40 and p63 in lung squamous cell carcinoma was strong and diffuse, whereas variable reactivity was observed in lung adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: p40 is an excellent marker for distinguishing lung squamous cell carcinoma from adenocarcinoma, and p40 expression is equivalent to p63 expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Materials and Methods: Formaldehyde-based protocol and glutaraldehyde-based protocol were compared to evaluate the quality of SEM images for stem cells cultured on hAM scaffold.
Results: The results suggested that formaldehyde-based protocol is better than glutaraldehyde-based protocol in terms of showing clearer topography of the membrane as well as the boarders of the cells. To provide intact surface of the SEM sample and avoid possible ruptures of the hAM or the thin cell layer, it is recommended to perform the dehydration step using graded alcohol concentrations of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%, one time for each and twice in 100% for 10 min each. Gold sputter-coating step is not recommended as it does not improve the image quality.
Conclusions: To obtain clear SEM images, it is recommended to run a preliminary study to determine the better chemicals and conditions of sample preparation even when following preexisting protocols.
Methodology: Adult female Wistar rats were time-mated and grouped into three categories: (a) control-given 0.1 mL of normal saline, (b) low-dose nicotine-given 6.88 mg/ kg/d/0.05 mL, and (c) high-dose nicotine-given 13.76 mg/kg/d/0.1 mL in two divided doses. Treatment was given intraperitoneally from gestational days 2 to 6. On postnatal day 15 (P15), the pups were separated from their mothers, anaesthetised and sacrificed, followed by intracardial perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde. PFC was excised from the brain and processed for tissue histology, histochemistry, and morphology of brain cells.
Results: Gestational nicotine exposure during the first week of gestation in rats significantly reduced birth weights in nicotine-treated groups compared with control; it, however, accelerated body weights, altered neuronal morphology, and elevated astrocytic count significantly, while oligodendroglial count was slightly increased in the PFC of juvenile rats examined at P15.
Conclusion: These alterations revealed that gestational nicotine exposure before the commencement of the cellular processes involved in brain development negatively affects neurodevelopment, and this could result in neurological dysfunctions in later life.