Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical activity, scientists are studying the effects of increasing individuals' antioxidant levels through diet and dietary supplements. Honey appears to act as an antioxidant in more ways than one. In the body, honey can mop up free radicals and contribute to better health. Various antioxidant activity methods have been used to measure and compare the antioxidant activity of honey. In recent years, DPPH (Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), ORAC (The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity), ABTS [2, 2-azinobis (3ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonium salt], TEAC [6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox)-equivalent antioxidant capacity] assays have been used to evaluate antioxidant activity of honey. The antioxidant activity of honey is also measured by ascorbic acid content and different enzyme assays like Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Among the different methods available, methods that have been validated, standardized and widely reported are recommended.
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
In this work, the bioactive compounds which was obtained by extracting Quercus infectoria via two extraction methods; Soxhlet and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, were analyzed using total phenolic content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity analysis. The aim of this study is to compare the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Quercus infectoria extract acquired from SC-CO2 extraction with those from Soxhlet extraction method. The results showed the used of SC-CO2 extraction give the lowest extraction yield as compared to Soxhlet extraction. The selectivity of Q. infectoria extracts using SC-CO2 extraction was better which in contrast with Soxhlet extraction method since it shows higher total phenolic content (143.75 ± 1.06 mg GAE/g sample). This study also revealed that the extracts from both extraction methods can posses’ antioxidant activity and comparable to those obtained from commercial antioxidant.
Aging is the progressive loss of organ and tissue function over time. Growing older is positively linked to cognitive and biological degeneration such as physical frailty, psychological impairment, and cognitive decline. Oxidative stress is considered as an imbalance between pro- and antioxidant species, which results in molecular and cellular damage. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of age-related diseases. Emerging research evidence has suggested that antioxidant can control the autoxidation by interrupting the propagation of free radicals or by inhibiting the formation of free radicals and subsequently reduce oxidative stress, improve immune function, and increase healthy longevity. Indeed, oxidation damage is highly dependent on the inherited or acquired defects in enzymes involved in the redox-mediated signaling pathways. Therefore, the role of molecules with antioxidant activity that promote healthy aging and counteract oxidative stress is worth to discuss further. Of particular interest in this article, we highlighted the molecular mechanisms of antioxidants involved in the prevention of age-related diseases. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of antioxidants involved in redox modulation of inflammation would provide a useful approach for potential interventions, and subsequently promoting healthy longevity.
Functional property changes in Phaleria macrocarpa fruit during ripening on tree were studied. Results showed that juice extracted from fruit flesh had low acidity and soluble solid content. Fruit acidity decreased but soluble solids increased as the fruit ripened. In terms of antioxidant content, ascorbic acid, DPPH free radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content were, however, the lowest in fully ripe fruit flesh while the unripe fruit flesh had the highest. High percentage of these antioxidants was water soluble. This study suggests that the unripe fruits should be harvested for valuable medicinal product development instead of the fully ripe fruits.
Hundreds of fruit-bearing trees are native to Southeast Asia, but many of them are considered as indigenous or underutilized. These species can be categorized as indigenous tropical fruits with potential for commercial development and those possible for commercial development. Many of these fruits are considered as underutilized unless the commercialization is being realized despite the fact that they have the developmental potential. This review discusses seven indigenous tropical fruits from 15 species that have been identified, in which their fruits are having potential for commercial development. As they are not as popular as the commercially available fruits, limited information is found. This paper is the first initiative to provide information on the phytochemicals and potential medicinal uses of these fruits. Phytochemicals detected in these fruits are mainly the phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and other terpenoids. Most of these phytochemicals are potent antioxidants and have corresponded to the free radical scavenging activities and other biological activities of the fruits. The scientific research that covered a broad range of in vitro to in vivo studies on the medicinal potentials of these fruits is also discussed in detail. The current review is an update for researchers to have a better understanding of the species, which simultaneously can provide awareness to enhance their commercial value and promote their utilization for better biodiversity conservation.
Polymers and organic materials that are exposed to sunlight undergo photooxidation, which leads to deterioration of their physical properties. To allow adequate performance under outdoor conditions, synthetic polymers require additives such as antioxidants and UV absorbers. A major problem with optimising polymer formulations to maximise their working life span is that accelerated weathering tests are empirical. The conditions differ significantly from real weathering situations, and samples require lengthy irradiation period. Degradation may not be apparent in the early stages of exposure, although this is when products such as hydroperoxides are formed which later cause acceleration of oxidation. A simple way of quantifying the number of free radicals presents in organic materials following exposure to light or heat is by measuring chemiluminescence (CL) emission. Most polymers emit CL when they undergo oxidative degradation, and it originates from the bimolecular reaction of macroperoxy radicals which creates an excited carbonyl.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied for the extraction of bioactive valuable compounds from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seeds. Effects of amplitude (25-75%), temperature (40-60°C) and sonication time (20-60 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) and radical scavenging activities (RSA, % inhibition of DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ free radicals) of extracts were determined using complete randomised design (CRD). The results showed that the CEY and RSA of extracts significantly affected by independent variables. The maximum value of CEY (97.14±0.36 mgg-1), scavenging of DPPH˙ radicals (32.12 ± 0.38%) and scavenging of ABTS˙+ radicals (40.52±0.73%) were obtained at the combined treatment conditions of 75%, 55°C and 40 min. The UAE results obtained were compared with those achieved by using conventional Soxhlet extraction (CSE) method. It was found UAE allowed extraction at lower temperature and the extracts obtained posses higher quality compare with CSE. UAE is a promising environment friendly technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seeds.
Antioxidants in seaweeds have attracted increasing interest for its role in protecting human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the Total phenolic content (TPC) values and antioxidant activities in red seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum of different solvent extracts. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, TEAC) for both K. alvarezii and K. striatum extracts were determined using different solvents at different concentrations (ethanol: 50%, 70%, 100%; acetone: 50%, 70%, 100%; methanol: 50%, 70%, 100%). The TPC value was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. The antioxidant activities were measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay. The highest TPC value of K. alvarezii antioxidant extract was obtained by 50% ethanol extracts while for K. striatum obtained by 50% methanol extract. The highest percentage of DPPH free radical inhibition for K. alvarezii was shown by 50% acetone extract while K. striatum was shown using 50% methanol extract. The highest TEAC value for K. alvarezii was shown by 50% acetone while K. striatum extract was shown by 50% ethanol extract. The TPC values and antioxidant activities of all solvent extracts of K. striatum were significantly higher (p< 0.05) than K. alvarezii antioxidant extracts. The TPC values showed strong correlation (r = 0.797) with TEAC values for K. alvarezii antioxidant extract (p< 0.01). The TEAC values also showed strong correlation (r = 0.735) with percentage of DPPH free radical inhibition for K. alvarezii (p< 0.01). The TPC value, DPPH free radical scavenging assay and TEAC assay for K. striatum extracts showed strong correlation (r> 0.8) with each other (p< 0.01). In summary, K. striatum showed better antioxidant activity and higher TPC value than K. alvarezii.
The study was aimed to determine the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of
the stem and leaf of five different traditional medicinal plants. The studied plants exhibited
varied antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. The antioxidant activities of the
plants were determined through their free radical scavenging capabilities using DPPH assay.
The most potent antioxidant activity was demonstrated by Neptunia oleracea with an IC50 of
35.45 and 29.72 μg/mL for leaf and stem, respectively. For α-glucosidase inhibition activity,
Neptunia oleracea exhibited potential α-glucosidase inhibition activity with IC50 value of
19.09 and 19.74 μg/mL for leaf and stem, respectively. The highest total phenolic content
(TPC) was also marked in Neptunia oleracea leaf and stem with value of 40.88 and 21.21 mg
GAE/g dry weight, respectively. The results also showed that Strobilanthes crispus collected
from two different locations possessed different levels of phenolic content, antioxidant and
α-glucosidase inhibition activities. The study revealed that phenolic compounds could be the
main contributors to the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities with R values of 78.9
and 67.4%, respectively. In addition, antioxidant and α-glucosidase were positively correlated
(R = 81.9%). Neptunia oleracea could be suggested as a potential natural source of antioxidant
and antidiabetic compounds that can be used for the prevention or treatment of diabetes.
The present study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum collected from different regions of the world. The accession V1 is from Sudan, V2 from Iraq, V3 from Germany, V4 from Thailand, V5 from Russia and V6 from Maldives. The extracts from six basil accessions were analysed for their DPPH free radical scavenging activity and their total phenolic content (TPC). The results suggest that the highest antioxidant activity was found in V6 (from Maldives) and the lowest antioxidant activity was found in V4 (from Thailand). The highest amount of phenolic content was found in V6 (from Maldives) and the lowest phenolic content was found inV4 (from Thailand). This study shows that basil is a good source of free-radical scavenging compounds that have their traditional medicinal applications.
In this study, we propose an innovative, bio-based, environmentally friendly approach for the covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using clove buds. This approach is innovative because we do not use toxic and hazardous acids which are typically used in common carbon nanomaterial functionalization procedures. The MWCNTs are functionalized in one pot using a free radical grafting reaction. The clove-functionalized MWCNTs (CMWCNTs) are then dispersed in distilled water (DI water), producing a highly stable CMWCNT aqueous suspension. The CMWCNTs are characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrostatic interactions between the CMWCNT colloidal particles in DI water are verified via zeta potential measurements. UV-vis spectroscopy is also used to examine the stability of the CMWCNTs in the base fluid. The thermo-physical properties of the CMWCNT nano-fluids are examined experimentally and indeed, this nano-fluid shows remarkably improved thermo-physical properties, indicating its superb potential for various thermal applications.
Dilute acid polymerizes degassed, aqueous acrylamide with concomitant gelation, without the need for added free radical initiator or cross-linking agent. This reaction is accelerated by sonication or UV irradiation, but inhibited by adventitious oxygen or the addition of a free radical inhibitor, suggesting an acid-accelerated free radical process. The resulting hydrogels are thixotropic in nature and partially disrupted by the addition of chaotropic agents, indicating the importance of hydrogen bonding to the 3D network. This discovery was made while trying to prepare pectin-polyacrylamide hydrogels. We observed that pectin initiated the gelation of acrylamide, but only if the aqueous pectin samples had a pH lower than ca. 5.
Hylocereus undatus foliage is believed to contain antioxidants similar to its peel. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity on the Hylocereus undatus pulps and peels; however, similar studies on its foliage have yet to be investigated. In this study, Hylocereus undatus foliage and peels were extracted using two different solvents namely; chloroform and methanol through Folin-Ciocalteu method and Diphenyl-1-Ipicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay for TPC and antioxidant activity, respectively. As for TPC, results revealed that the peels gave higher TPC in both methanol (48.15 mg GAE/100g extract) and chloroform (18.89 mg GAE/100g extract) extractions than foliage (30.3 mg GAE/100g extract and 5.92 mg GAE/100g extract, respectively). However, when a comparison was made between foliage and peels in terms of its scavenging effects in DPPH assay, the peels contained more antioxidants (18.71%) than foliage (38.3%) in the chloroform solvent extracts. This study shows that Hylocereus undatus foliage has a similar antioxidant activity as its peels and is potentially a natural antioxidant in food applications.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with ethanol was used to extract the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities of Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize four independent variables: ethanol concentration (%), amplitude (%), duty cycle (W/s) and extraction time (min). Antioxidant compounds were determined by total phenolic content and total flavonoid content to be 1.4 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 45 g catechin equivalent/100 g DW, respectively. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging capacity assay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging capacity assay to be 1,961.3 and 2,423.3 µmol Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC)/100 g DW, respectively. Based on the optimal conditions, experimental values were reported to be close to the predicted value by RSM modeling (p>0.05), indicating the suitability of UAE for extracting the antioxidants of Misai Kucing. Rosmarinic acid, kaempferol-rutinoside and sinesetine were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The n-butyramido, isobutyramido, benzamido, and furancarboxamido functions profoundly modulate the electronics of the stilbene olefinic and NH groups and the corresponding radical cations in ways that influence the efficiency of the cyclization due presumably to conformational and stereoelectronic factors. For example, isobutyramido- stilbene undergoes FeCl(3) promoted cyclization to produce only indoline, while n-butyramidostilbene, under the same conditions, produces both indoline and bisindoline.
Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.
A series of six novel heterocyclic chalcone analogues 4(a-f) has been synthesized by condensing 2-acetyl-5-chlorothiophene with benzaldehyde derivatives in methanol at room temperature using a catalytic amount of sodium hydroxide. The newly synthesized compounds are characterized by IR, mass spectra, elemental analysis and melting point. Subsequently; the structures of these compounds were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant potential by employing various in vitro models such as DPPH free radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity. Results reflect the structural impact on the antioxidant ability of the compounds. The IC₀ values illustrate the mild to good antioxidant activities of the reported compounds. Among them, 4f with a p-methoxy substituent was found to be more potent as antioxidant agent.