Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Azmi WA, Wan Sembok WZ, Yusuf N, Mohd Hatta MF, Salleh AF, Hamzah MAH, et al.
    J Econ Entomol, 2019 02 12;112(1):20-24.
    PMID: 30277528 DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy290
    Rockmelon (Cucumis melo Linnaeus (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae)) is a novel commercialized fruit in Malaysia and has great potential to become an important horticultural crop for the international market. In this study, we investigated the effects of pollination by the Indo-Malaya stingless bee Heterotrigona itama Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on measures of yield and quality of rockmelon cultivated in the greenhouse, compared with hand cross-pollination and self-pollination. Results showed that rockmelon produced from plants pollinated by stingless bees and hand cross-pollination had higher fruit set, were heavier and larger, and contained higher numbers of seed per fruit compared with those produced by self-pollination. Pollination by stingless bees produced fruit with greater sweetness than either hand cross-pollination or self-pollination. This study demonstrated that stingless bee pollination produced rockmelon fruit of similar quality, but better yields compared to the other pollination treatments. We showed that stingless bees should be considered as an alternative, effective pollinator for the improved production of high quality rockmelon in commercial greenhouse cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  2. Jamaludin NA, Ding P, Hamid AA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Jan 30;91(2):278-85.
    PMID: 21031359 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4182
    Determination of physico-chemical (weight, length, diameter, stomatal density, respiration rate, colour, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, chlorophyll and betacyanin content) and structural changes of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose) was carried out from 5 to 35 days after pollination (DAP) in order to explain their growth, development, maturations and ripening stages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  3. Harun NH, Misron N, Sidek RM, Aris I, Ahmad D, Wakiwaka H, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2013;13(2):2254-66.
    PMID: 23435051 DOI: 10.3390/s130202254
    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  4. Hanya G, Kanamori T, Kuze N, Wong ST, Bernard H
    Am J Primatol, 2020 08;82(8):e23157.
    PMID: 32515849 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.23157
    Knowledge of niche partitioning with respect to habitat is indispensable to understand the mechanism of coexistence of multiple species. Among primates, however, data are still deficient because repeated survey for a sufficiently long time, covering seasonal changes over a large area, is the only way to clarify habitat segregation within a seasonally fluctuating environment. Southeast Asia is particularly interesting because of the supra-annual, highly unpredictable seasonality in fruiting known as mast fruiting. We conducted repeated route census, habitat monitoring, and group tracking for 25 months in two study sites (ca. 10 km apart) in the largely primary lowland dipterocarp forest of the Danum Valley Conservation Area, eastern Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia. The five species of diurnal primates (Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus, Müeller's gibbon Hylobates muelleri, red leaf monkey Presbytis rubicunda, long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis, and southern pig-tailed macaque M. nemestrina) did not show horizontal spatial segregation. Red leaf monkeys showed preferences for places with short tree height, but their distribution was not confined to such places. In response to the fruiting peak observed once during the study period, orangutans increased their numbers simultaneously in the two study sites. The average tree height used by the five species was different, but their range overlapped substantially. Compared with other primate communities, the lack of horizontal spatial segregation and the suggested long-distance movement of orangutans seem to be unique characteristics in Borneo, although the use of different forest strata is a widespread phenomenon among primate communities throughout the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  5. Kok SY, Namasivayam P, Ee GC, Ong-Abdullah M
    J Plant Res, 2013 Jul;126(4):539-47.
    PMID: 23575803 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-013-0560-8
    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  6. Sulaiman SF, Ooi KL
    J Agric Food Chem, 2012 Nov 28;60(47):11832-8.
    PMID: 23136968 DOI: 10.1021/jf303736h
    Mature-green and ripe fleshes from 12 samples of Mangifera were selected for this study. The mature-green fleshes were found to have higher vitamin C contents than the ripe fleshes. However, not all higher total or individual phenolic contents were measured from the mature-green fleshes. The highest contents of vitamin C and total phenolics were respectively measured from the aqueous extracts of mature-green (255.86 ± 12.98 μg AAE/g sample) and ripe (142.57 ± 0.38 μg GAE/g sample) fleshes of M. petandra cv. Pauh. Gallic acid and mangiferin were detected in all aqueous extracts. The extracts of the mature-green flesh of M. indica cv. Chokanan and the ripe flesh of M. indica cv. Siku Raja, respectively, exhibited the greatest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)-scavenging activity (408.21 ± 5.37 μg TE/g sample) and metal chelating activity (93.68 ± 0.74%). The combined or potentiation effects of the moderate vitamin C, gallic acid, and mangiferin contents in both extracts may be responsible for the activities. The highest mangiferin content (31.72 ± 2.57 μg/g sample) in the mature-green M. caesia (Binjai) could be the major contributor to its highest FRAP activity (868.29 ± 2.71 μg TE/g sample). This paper reports apparently the first comparative study highlighting the antioxidant activities of these fruit fleshes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  7. Kheng TY, Ding P, Abdul Rahman NA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Jan 15;92(1):171-6.
    PMID: 21780132 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4559
    A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based on the fruit quality during ripening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  8. Choo YM, Ma AN, Chuah CH, Khor HT, Bong SC
    Lipids, 2004 Jun;39(6):561-4.
    PMID: 15554155
    The concentration of vitamin E isomers, namely, alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol in palm mesocarp at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wk after anthesis (WAA) were quantified using HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection. alpha-T was detected throughout the palm fruits' maturation process, whereas unsaturated tocotrienols were found only in ripe palm fruits. These developmental results indicate that tocotrienols are synthesized between 16 and 20 WAA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  9. Neoh BK, Teh HF, Ng TL, Tiong SH, Thang YM, Ersad MA, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2013 Feb 27;61(8):1920-7.
    PMID: 23384169 DOI: 10.1021/jf304561f
    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil producing crops and can store up to 90% oil in its fruit mesocarp. However, the biosynthetic regulation and drivers of palm mesocarp development are still not well understood. Multiplatform metabolomics technology was used to profile palm metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in order to better understand lipid biosynthesis. Significantly higher amino acid levels were observed in palm mesocarp preceding lipid biosynthesis. Nucleosides were found to be in high concentration during lipid biosynthesis, whereas levels of metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were more concentrated during early fruit development. Apart from insights into the regulation of metabolites during fruit development in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  10. Usman MG, Rafii MY, Martini MY, Oladosu Y, Kashiani P
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(4):1164-1171.
    PMID: 27290898 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
    BACKGROUND: Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

    RESULTS: Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield.

    CONCLUSION: Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  11. Ali ZM, Armugam S, Lazan H
    Phytochemistry, 1995 Mar;38(5):1109-14.
    PMID: 7766393
    The fruit extracts of ripening cv. Harumanis mango contained a number of glycosidases and glycanases. Among the glycosidases, beta-D-galactosidase (EC appeared to be the most significant. The enzyme activity increased in parallel with increase in tissue softness during ripening. Mango beta-galactosidase was fractionated into three isoforms, viz. beta-galactosidase I, II and III by a combination of chromatographic procedures on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, CM-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Apparent Km values for the respective beta-galactosidase isoforms for p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside were 3.7, 3.3 and 2.7 mM, and their Vmax values were 209, 1024 and 62 nkat mg-1 protein. Optimum activity occurred at ca pH 3.2 for beta-galactosidase I and II, and pH 3.6 for beta-galactosidase III. Mango beta-galactosidase and its isoforms have galactanase activity, and the activity of the latter in the crude extracts generally increased during ripening. The close correlation between changes in beta-galactosidase activity, tissue softness, and increased pectin solubility and degradation suggests that beta-galactosidase might play an important role in cell wall pectin modification and softening of mango fruit during ripening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  12. Deng S, Mai Y, Niu J
    Gene, 2019 Mar 20;689:131-140.
    PMID: 30576805 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.12.016
    Citrus maxima "seedless" is originally from Malaysia, and now is widely cultivated in Hainan province, China. The essential features of this cultivar are thin skin, green epicarp and seedless at the ripening stage. Here, using C. maxima "seedless" as experimental material, we investigated the physical and inclusion indicators, and found the accumulation of storage compounds during 120-210 DAF leading to inconsistent increase between volume and weight. Component analysis of soluble sugar indicated that arabinose and xylose have a high content in early development of pummelo juice sacs (PJS), whereas fructose, glucose and sucrose show a significant increase during PJS maturation. To clarify a global overview of the gene expressing profiles, the PJSs from four periods (60, 120, 180 and 240 DAF) were selected for comparative transcriptome analysis. The resulting 8275 unigenes showed differential expression during PJS development. Also, the stability of 11 housekeeping genes were evaluated by geNorm method, resulting in a set of five genes (UBC, ACT, OR23, DWA2 and CYP21D) used as control for normalization of gene expression. Based on transcriptome data, 5 sucrose synthases (SUSs) and 10 invertases (INVs) were identified to be involved in sucrose degradation. Importantly, SUS4 may be responsible for arabinose and xylose biosynthesis to form the cell wall in early development, while SUS3 and VIN2 may be important in the accumulation of soluble hexose leading to cell expansion through an osmotic-independent pathway in late development. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources in C. maxima "seedless", and is important for achieving high fruit yield and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  13. Ridzuan R, Rafii MY, Mohammad Yusoff M, Ismail SI, Miah G, Usman M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jan 15;99(1):269-280.
    PMID: 29851100 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9169
    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the different desirable characters among chili genotypes has expanded the effective selection for crop improvement. Identification of genetically superior parents is important in assortment of the best parents to develop new chili hybrids.

    RESULTS: This study was done to assess the hereditary assorted variety of selected genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on their morphophysiological and yield traits in two planting seasons. The biochemical properties, capsaicinoid content (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), total phenolics content and antioxidant action determination of unripe and ripe chili pepper fruits were carried out in dry fruits. AVPP9813 and Kulai 907 were observed to have high fruit yields, with 541.39 and 502.64 g per plant, respectively. The most increased genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were shown by the fruit number per plant (49.71% and 66.04%, respectively). High heritability was observed in yield characters viz-à-viz fruit weight, length and girth and indicated high genetic advance. Eight groups were obtained from the cluster analysis. For the biochemical analysis, the capsaicinoid content and total phenolic content were high in Chili Bangi 3 at unripe and ripe fruit stages, while for antioxidant activity SDP203 was the highest in ripe dry fruit.

    CONCLUSION: Higher GCV and PCV, combined with moderate to high heritability and high hereditary progress, were seen in number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per plant and fruit weight per fruit. These findings are beneficial for chili pepper breeders to select desirable quantitative characters in C. annuum in their breeding program. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  14. Wong YC, Teh HF, Mebus K, Ooi TEK, Kwong QB, Koo KL, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2017 06 21;18(1):470.
    PMID: 28637447 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3855-7
    BACKGROUND: The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations.

    RESULTS: A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to production of high-yielding oil palms and have implications for breeding to maximize oil production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  15. Kumar S, Neven LG, Yee WL
    J Econ Entomol, 2014 Jun;107(3):1032-44.
    PMID: 25026662
    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  16. Singh R, Low ET, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Nookiah R, Ting NC, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014 Jun 30;5:4106.
    PMID: 24978855 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5106
    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  17. Tan TC, Cheng LH, Bhat R, Rusul G, Easa AM
    Food Chem, 2014 Jan 1;142:121-8.
    PMID: 24001821 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.040
    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
  18. Devi Ramaiya S, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, King WS, Shaffiq Sahrir MA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Mar 30;93(5):1198-205.
    PMID: 23027609 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5876
    The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp).
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  19. Cherian S, Figueroa CR, Nair H
    J Exp Bot, 2014 Sep;65(17):4705-22.
    PMID: 24994760 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru280
    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development
  20. Ling Q, Sadali NM, Soufi Z, Zhou Y, Huang B, Zeng Y, et al.
    Nat Plants, 2021 05;7(5):655-666.
    PMID: 34007040 DOI: 10.1038/s41477-021-00916-y
    The maturation of green fleshy fruit to become colourful and flavoursome is an important strategy for plant reproduction and dispersal. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and many other species, fruit ripening is intimately linked to the biogenesis of chromoplasts, the plastids that are abundant in ripe fruit and specialized for the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Chromoplasts develop from pre-existing chloroplasts in the fruit, but the mechanisms underlying this transition are poorly understood. Here, we reveal a role for the chloroplast-associated protein degradation (CHLORAD) proteolytic pathway in chromoplast differentiation. Knockdown of the plastid ubiquitin E3 ligase SP1, or its homologue SPL2, delays tomato fruit ripening, whereas overexpression of SP1 accelerates ripening, as judged by colour changes. We demonstrate that SP1 triggers broader effects on fruit ripening, including fruit softening, and gene expression and metabolism changes, by promoting the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Moreover, we show that tomato SP1 and SPL2 regulate leaf senescence, revealing conserved functions of CHLORAD in plants. We conclude that SP1 homologues control plastid transitions during fruit ripening and leaf senescence by enabling reconfiguration of the plastid protein import machinery to effect proteome reorganization. The work highlights the critical role of chromoplasts in fruit ripening, and provides a theoretical basis for engineering crop improvements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development*
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