Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Nur-Nazratul FMY, Rakib MRM, Zailan MZ, Yaakub H
    PLoS One, 2021;16(9):e0258065.
    PMID: 34591932 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258065
    The changes in lignocellulosic biomass composition and in vitro rumen digestibility of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after pre-treatment with the fungus Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the pre-treatment for 2-12 weeks has gradually degraded the OPEFB in a time-dependent manner; whereby lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were respectively degraded by 41.0, 20.5, and 26.7% at the end of the incubation period. The findings were corroborated using the physical examination of the OPEFB by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the OPEFB pre-treated for 12 weeks has shown the highest in vitro digestibility of dry (77.20%) and organic (69.78%) matter, where they were enhanced by 104.07 and 96.29%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control. The enhancement in the in vitro ruminal digestibility was negatively correlated with the lignin content in the OPEFB. Therefore, biologically delignified OPEFB with G. lucidum fungal culture pre-treatment have the potential to be utilized as one of the ingredients for the development of a novel ruminant forage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  2. Chin CF, Teoh EY, Chee MJY, Al-Obaidi JR, Rahmad N, Lawson T
    Protein J, 2019 12;38(6):704-715.
    PMID: 31552579 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-019-09868-x
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an economically important fruit. However, the marketability of mango is affected by the perishable nature and short shelf-life of the fruit. Therefore, a better understanding of the mango ripening process is of great importance towards extending its postharvest shelf life. Proteomics is a powerful tool that can be used to elucidate the complex ripening process at the cellular and molecular levels. This study utilized 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF to identify differentially abundant proteins during the ripening process of the two varieties of tropical mango, Mangifera indica cv. 'Chokanan' and Mangifera indica cv 'Golden Phoenix'. The comparative analysis between the ripe and unripe stages of mango fruit mesocarp revealed that the differentially abundant proteins identified could be grouped into the three categories namely, ethylene synthesis and aromatic volatiles, cell wall degradation and stress-response proteins. There was an additional category for differential proteins identified from the 'Chokanan' variety namely, energy and carbohydrate metabolism. However, of all the differential proteins identified, only methionine gamma-lyase was found in both 'Chokanan' and 'Golden Phoenix' varieties. Six differential proteins were selected from each variety for validation by analysing their respective transcript expression using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results revealed that two genes namely, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and alpha-1,4 glucan phosphorylase (AGP) were found to express in concordant with protein abundant. The findings will provide an insight into the fruit ripening process of different varieties of mango fruits, which is important for postharvest management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  3. Khamaiseh EI, Hamid AA, Yusoff WM, Kalil MS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Oct 15;16(20):1145-51.
    PMID: 24506014
    Date fruit juice contains high concentration of simple sugars ranging from 65 to 75% (w/w) in dry form. In this study, the potential of date fruit juice as biobutanol fermentation medium by C. acetobutylicum was investigated. The fermentation process was carried out at initial pH of 5, 6 and 7, incubation temperature of 30, 35 and 40 degrees C for 72 hours. The date fruit concentrations tested were 10, 20, 30 and 40 g L(-1). Medium containing 30 g L(-1) of date fruit at 35 degrees C incubation temperature with initial medium pH 7.0 gave the highest concentration of solvents of 3.1, 0.1 and 1.1 g L(-1) butanol, ethanol and acetone respectively. The yield and productivity of biobutanol were 0.32 g g(-1) and 0.044 g L(-1)/h respectively, while for total ABE were 0.45 g g(-1) and 0.06 g L(-1) h, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  4. Othman R, Nuraziyan A
    J. Plant Physiol., 2010 Jan 15;167(2):131-7.
    PMID: 19729222 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2009.07.015
    Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding 772 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.97. The CpSUB1 gene is composed of nine exons and eight introns. The amino acid sequence encoded by CpSUB1 shared high identity (>60%) with the amino acid sequence of other plant subtilisin-like proteases. Sequence analysis of CpSUB1 revealed the presence of a possible signal peptide (25 amino acid residues) and an NH(2)-terminal prosequence (88 amino acid residues). In addition, papaya subtilase possesses the characteristic subtilisin catalytic triad amino acids namely Asp, His and Ser, together with the substrate-binding site, Asn. DNA hybridization analysis showed that subtilase gene exists as a single copy in the papaya genome. RNA hybridization analyses showed that expression of the subtilase transcripts was only detected in mesocarp but not in non-fruit tissues. Gene expression in fruit tissues reached the highest level during the ripening stage at which the fruits undergo dramatic softening process. Subsequently, pro-subtilase ( approximately 80kDa) was expressed as recombinant pro-enzyme ( approximately 97kDa), which was used to generate antiserum against papaya subtilase, anti-sub. Protein gel blot analysis using anti-sub towards total protein extracted from all ripening stages revealed that a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 70kDa reacted with the antiserum. Hence both RNA hybridization and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the presence of subtilase during papaya fruit ripening, pointing to its possible involvement in this important process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  5. Sekeli R, Abdullah JO, Namasivayam P, Muda P, Abu Bakar UK, Yeong WC, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 19;19(6):8350-62.
    PMID: 24950439 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068350
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  6. Lasekan O, See NS
    Food Chem, 2015 Feb 1;168:561-5.
    PMID: 25172748 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.112
    Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  7. Bee ST, Nithiyaa M, Sin LT, Tee TT, Rahmat AR
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Oct 15;16(20):1104-12.
    PMID: 24506009
    This study was aimed to investigate the production of methane gas from three different types of food waste (vegetables waste, fruit waste and grain waste) using batch type anaerobic digestion method. The digestion process was conducted by using temperature range of 27 to 36 degrees C and pH 6.5 to 7.5 to yield an optimum condition for the digestion process. The digestion was continued for a period of two weeks with the aid of cow dung as the inoculums. It was found that the grain waste yielded the highest methane 2546 mL due to the high content of carbohydrate. At the mean time, the fruit waste produced the second highest methane gas with 2000 mL as well as the vegetable waste generated the lowest methane gas with volume of 1468 mL. The vegetable waste produced the lowest methane gas because the vegetables waste contains high fibres and cellulose walls but low in glucose amount. For the fertilization test, fruit waste demonstrated the best observation for the growth of plant due to high content of potassium and followed by vegetable waste. The least effective fertilizer was grain waste due to less content of nutrients essential for plants growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  8. Kok SY, Namasivayam P, Ee GC, Ong-Abdullah M
    J Plant Res, 2013 Jul;126(4):539-47.
    PMID: 23575803 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-013-0560-8
    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  9. Ong WD, Voo LY, Kumar VS
    PLoS One, 2012;7(10):e46937.
    PMID: 23091603 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046937
    BACKGROUND: Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus), is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throughput transcriptome sequencing to profile the pineapple fruit transcripts is therefore needed.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To facilitate this, we have performed transcriptome sequencing of ripe yellow pineapple fruit flesh using Illumina technology. About 4.7 millions Illumina paired-end reads were generated and assembled using the Velvet de novo assembler. The assembly produced 28,728 unique transcripts with a mean length of approximately 200 bp. Sequence similarity search against non-redundant NCBI database identified a total of 16,932 unique transcripts (58.93%) with significant hits. Out of these, 15,507 unique transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database identified 13,598 unique transcripts (47.33%) which were mapped to 126 pathways. The assembly revealed many transcripts that were previously unknown.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unique transcripts derived from this work have rapidly increased of the number of the pineapple fruit mRNA transcripts as it is now available in public databases. This information can be further utilized in gene expression, genomics and other functional genomics studies in pineapple.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  10. Kheng TY, Ding P, Abdul Rahman NA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Jan 15;92(1):171-6.
    PMID: 21780132 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4559
    A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based on the fruit quality during ripening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  11. Shofian NM, Hamid AA, Osman A, Saari N, Anwar F, Dek MS, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(7):4678-92.
    PMID: 21845104 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12074678
    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  12. Yunus R, Salleh SF, Abdullah N, Biak DR
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Dec;101(24):9792-6.
    PMID: 20719502 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.074
    Various pre-treatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre prior to acid hydrolysis has been evaluated. The main objective of this study was to determine if ultrasonic pre-treatment could function as a pre-treatment method for the acid hydrolysis of OPEFB fibre at a low temperature and pressure. Hydrolysis at a low temperature was studied using 2% sulphuric acid; 1:25 solid liquid ratio and 100 degrees C operating temperature. A maximum xylose yield of 58% was achieved when the OPEFB fibre was ultrasonicated at 90% amplitude for 45min. In the absence of ultrasonic pre-treatment only 22% of xylose was obtained. However, no substantial increase of xylose formation was observed for acid hydrolysis at higher temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C on ultrasonicated OPEFB fibre. The samples were then analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to describe the morphological changes of the OPEFB fibre. The SEM observations show interesting morphological changes within the OPEFB fibre for different acid hydrolysis conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  13. Neoh BK, Teh HF, Ng TL, Tiong SH, Thang YM, Ersad MA, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2013 Feb 27;61(8):1920-7.
    PMID: 23384169 DOI: 10.1021/jf304561f
    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil producing crops and can store up to 90% oil in its fruit mesocarp. However, the biosynthetic regulation and drivers of palm mesocarp development are still not well understood. Multiplatform metabolomics technology was used to profile palm metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in order to better understand lipid biosynthesis. Significantly higher amino acid levels were observed in palm mesocarp preceding lipid biosynthesis. Nucleosides were found to be in high concentration during lipid biosynthesis, whereas levels of metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were more concentrated during early fruit development. Apart from insights into the regulation of metabolites during fruit development in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  14. Deng S, Mai Y, Niu J
    Gene, 2019 Mar 20;689:131-140.
    PMID: 30576805 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.12.016
    Citrus maxima "seedless" is originally from Malaysia, and now is widely cultivated in Hainan province, China. The essential features of this cultivar are thin skin, green epicarp and seedless at the ripening stage. Here, using C. maxima "seedless" as experimental material, we investigated the physical and inclusion indicators, and found the accumulation of storage compounds during 120-210 DAF leading to inconsistent increase between volume and weight. Component analysis of soluble sugar indicated that arabinose and xylose have a high content in early development of pummelo juice sacs (PJS), whereas fructose, glucose and sucrose show a significant increase during PJS maturation. To clarify a global overview of the gene expressing profiles, the PJSs from four periods (60, 120, 180 and 240 DAF) were selected for comparative transcriptome analysis. The resulting 8275 unigenes showed differential expression during PJS development. Also, the stability of 11 housekeeping genes were evaluated by geNorm method, resulting in a set of five genes (UBC, ACT, OR23, DWA2 and CYP21D) used as control for normalization of gene expression. Based on transcriptome data, 5 sucrose synthases (SUSs) and 10 invertases (INVs) were identified to be involved in sucrose degradation. Importantly, SUS4 may be responsible for arabinose and xylose biosynthesis to form the cell wall in early development, while SUS3 and VIN2 may be important in the accumulation of soluble hexose leading to cell expansion through an osmotic-independent pathway in late development. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources in C. maxima "seedless", and is important for achieving high fruit yield and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  15. Abdul Hamid NA, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Abas F, Park YS, Leontowicz H, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 May 10;138:80-91.
    PMID: 28189049 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.01.046
    It is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. This study describes a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. A total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data Chenomx database and 2D NMR. The binding properties of the extracted polyphenols against HSA showed higher reactivity of studied two cultivars in comparison with the common Hayward. The results showed that the fluorescence of HSA was quenched by Bidan as much as twice than by other fruits. The correlation between the binding properties of polyphenols in the investigated fruits, their relative quantification and suggested metabolic pathway was established. These results can provide possible application of fruit extracts in pharmaceutical industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  16. Wu J, Zhang H, Wang S, Yuan L, Grünhofer P, Schreiber L, et al.
    J Plant Res, 2019 Jul;132(4):531-540.
    PMID: 31127431 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-019-01115-9
    Areca nuts (seeds of Areca catechu L.) are a traditional and popular masticatory in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, certain parts of China, and some other countries. Four related pyridine alkaloids (arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine) are considered being the main functional ingredients in areca nut. Until now, A. catechu is the only known species producing these alkaloids in the Arecaceae family. In the present study, we investigated alkaloid contents in 12 Arecaceae species and found that only Areca triandra Roxb. contained these pyridine alkaloids. We further analyzed in more detail tissue-specific and development-related distribution of these alkaloids in leaves, male and female flowers and fruits in different stages of maturity in A. triandra by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the alkaloids were most abundant in young leaves, the pericarp of ripe fruits and the endosperm of unripe fruits in developmental stage 2. Abundance of the 4 different alkaloids in A. triandra fruits varied during maturation. Pericarps of ripe fruits had the highest arecaidine concentration (4.45 mg g-1) and the lowest guvacoline concentration (0.0175 mg g-1), whereas the endosperm of unripe fruits of developmental stage 2 contained the highest guvacoline concentration (3.39 mg g-1) and the lowest guvacine concentration (0.245 mg g-1). We conclude that A. triandra is useful in future as a further valuable source of Areca alkaloids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  17. Singh R, Low ET, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Nookiah R, Ting NC, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014 Jun 30;5:4106.
    PMID: 24978855 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5106
    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  18. Sidik DA, Ngadi N, Amin NA
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 May;135:690-6.
    PMID: 23186683 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.041
    The production of lignin from empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been carried out using liquefaction method with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) ionic liquid (IL), in presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimum condition for lignin yield. The result indicated that the second order model was adequate for all the independent variables on the response with R(2)=0.8609. The optimum temperature, time, ionic liquid to EFB ratio, and catalyst concentration were 150.5 °C, 151 min, 3:1 wt/wt and 4.73 wt%, respectively for lignin yield=26.6%. The presence of lignin liquefied product was confirmed by UV-Vis and FTIR analysis. It was also demonstrated lignin extraction from lignocellulosic using recycled IL gave sufficient performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism*
  19. Chuah LO, Shamila-Syuhada AK, Liong MT, Rosma A, Thong KL, Rusul G
    Food Microbiol., 2016 Sep;58:95-104.
    PMID: 27217364 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.04.002
    This study aims to determine physio-chemical properties of tempoyak, characterise the various indigenous species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present at different stages of fermentation and also to determine the survival of selected foodborne pathogens in tempoyak. The predominant microorganisms present in tempoyak were LAB (8.88-10.42 log CFU/g). Fructobacillus durionis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant members of LAB. Other LAB species detected for the first time in tempoyak were a fructophilic strain of Lactobacillus fructivorans, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus paracasei. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides and F. durionis were predominant in the initial stage of fermentation, and as fermentation proceeded, F. durionis remained predominant, but towards the end of fermentation, homofermentative Lb. plantarum became the predominant species. Lactic, acetic and propionic acids were present in concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 9.65, 0.51 to 7.14 and 3.90 to 7.31 mg/g, respectively. Genotyping showed a high degree of diversity among F. durionis and Lb. plantarum isolates, suggesting different sources of LAB. All tested Lb. plantarum and F. durionis (except for one isolate) isolates were multidrug resistant. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. However, survival study showed that these pathogens could survive up to 8-12 days. The results aiming at improving the quality and safety of tempoyak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
  20. Mustafa SM, Chua LS, El-Enshasy HA, Abd Majid FA, Hanapi SZ, Abdul Malik R
    J Food Biochem, 2019 04;43(4):e12805.
    PMID: 31353583 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12805
    This study was focused on the effects of fermentation temperature and pH on the quality of Punica granatum juice probioticated with Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The whole fruit juice of P. granatum which is rich with phytonutrients appeared to be a good probiotic carrier. The probiotication was carried out for 24 hr at 30, 35, and 37°C and pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.5 under microaerophilic conditions. The results found that P. granatum juice cultivated with L. casei had a better growth profile with a higher biomass density at 37°C around pH 3.5-4.0. Probiotication could maintain the scavenging activity of P. granatum juice cultivated with L. casei. The scavenging activity achieved up to 90% inhibition at the concentration of 5 mg/ml. The whole fruit-squeezed P. granatum juice was suitable for the growth of Lactobacillus species even without supplementation during cultivation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings of this study presented the potential of P. granatum juice (whole fruit) to be used as a good probiotic carrier, particularly for Lactobacillus species without supplementation. High nutritious P. granatum juice catered the need of probiotic bacteria during fermentation. Probiotication could maintain the antioxidant capacity of the juice in term of its radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant capacity was mainly attributed to the metabolites such as phenolic acids (romarinic acid and caftaric acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin and kaempferol rutinoside). With the optimized temperature (37°C) and pH (4.00), probiotic bacteria could growth well up to a cell viability of 2.46 × 1010  cfu/ml. This offers P. granatum to be developed into functional food to cater to the needs of the consumers who are lactose intolerant to dairy products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/metabolism
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