Nutraceuticals have taken on considerable significance due to their supposed safety and possible nutritional and medicinal effects. Pharmaceutical and dietary companies are conscious of monetary success, which benefits healthier consumers and the altering trends that result in these heart-oriented value-added products being proliferated. Numerous nutraceuticals are claimed to have multiple therapeutic benefits despite advantages, and unwanted effects encompass a lack of substantial evidence. Several common nutraceuticals involve glucosamine, omega-3, Echinacea, cod liver oil, folic acid, ginseng, orange juice supplemented with calcium, and green tea. This review is dedicated to improving the understanding of nutrients based on specific illness indications. It was reported that functional foods contain physiologically active components that confer various health benefits. Studies have shown that some foods and dietary patterns play a major role in the primary prevention of many ailment conditions that lead to putative functional foods being identified. Research and studies are needed to support the possible health benefits of different functional foods that have not yet been clinically validated for the relationships between diet and health. The term "functional foods" may additionally involve health/functional health foods, foods enriched with vitamins/minerals, nutritional improvements, or even conventional medicines.
The application of the spray drying technique in the food industry for the production of a broad range of ingredients has become highly desirable compared to other drying techniques. Recently, the spray drying technique has been applied extensively for the production of functional foods, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. Encapsulation using spray drying is highly preferred due to economic advantages compared to other encapsulation methods. Encapsulation of oils using the spray drying technique is carried out in order to enhance the handling properties of the products and to improve oxidation stability by protecting the bioactive compounds. Encapsulation of oils involves several parameters-including inlet and outlet temperatures, total solids, and the type of wall materials-that significantly affect the quality of final product. Therefore, this review highlights the application and optimization of the spray drying process for the encapsulation of oils used as food ingredients.
Probiotics are live, microbial cells with several beneficial health effects on humans. The beneficial effect of probiotics mainly depends on their survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The health-promoting properties of certain LAB inhabiting the human gastrointestinal tract encouraged the food industry to develop new functional food products containing probiotic. Selection of a microbial strain for the incorporation into food products requires both in vitro and in vivo evaluations
Amounting scientific evidences have revealed the antitumor, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive and neo-adjuvant efficacy of Prophetic Medicine in various in vitro, in vivo and clinical cancer models. Prophetic Medicine includes plants, dietary materials or spices that were used as remedy recipes and nutrition by the great Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) to treat various ailments. Prophetic medicine is the total authentic Hadith narrated by the Prophet (PBUH) in relation to medicine, whether Qur'anic verses or honourable Prophetic Hadith. The ability of functional foods from Prophetic Medicine to modulate various signalling pathways and multidrug resistance conferring proteins with low side-effects exemplify their great potential as neo-adjuvants and/or chemotherapeutics. The present review aims to provide the collective in vitro, in vivo, clinical and epidemiology information of Prophetic Medicines, and their bioactive constituents and molecular mechanisms as potential functional foods for the management of cancer.
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is currently widely consumed by the Chinese community as tonic food and functional food, which is believed to have many medicinal benefits. Some studies have reported the biochemical compositions of EBN, graded on the basis of colour, nitrate and nitrite contents. Other studies have shown significant biological effects, while ongoing research is in progress to explore potential pharmacological applications. The high demand for EBNs in the global market has forced the local regulatory bodies to monitor swiftlet farming activities, including the EBN cleaning process. Furthermore, numerous techniques have been developed to authenticate EBN; proteomics is likely to be the most promising of these methods. However, there are limited numbers of relevant protein sequences deposited at the database. More research is needed at the molecular level to explore the mechanisms behind the biological functions, such as bone strength improvement, skin rejuvenation, epidermal growth factor activity and cell proliferation.The current and future prospects of EBN and swiftlet farming are critically reviewed in this article.
Dietary fiber (DF) has wide applications, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to its health-promoting effects and potential techno-functional properties in developing functional food products. There is a growing interest in studies related to DF; nevertheless, there is less focus on the fractionation and characterization of DF. The characteristics of DF fractions explain their functionality in food products and provide clues to their physiological effects in food and pharmaceutical industrial applications. The review focuses on a brief introduction to DF and methods for its fractionation. It discusses the characterization of DF in terms of structural, physicochemical and rheological properties. The potential sources of DF from selected defatted oilseeds for future studies are highlighted.
Date palm counts among the oldest fruit crops of the world and is mainly cultivated for its highly nutritious fruits consumed as a staple food in many countries, especially in the Gulf region. Dates are enriched with numerous therapeutic bioactives and functional compounds such as phenolics, flavonols, carotenoids, minerals, and vitamins that not only provide an appreciable amount of energy required for the human body but also act as an effective therapeutic agent against several diseases. This review aimed to provide a deep insight into the nutritional as well as phytochemicals profile of date fruit and its seeds in order to explore their biological (anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory properties), functional food, and nutra-pharmaceutical attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This review provides updated information regarding the date fruits and seeds phytochemicals composition together with highlighting dates potential as a natural therapeutic agent against several diseases. The study also urges the importance of consuming dates as a great package to live a healthy life due to the functional food and nutraceutical properties of this valuable fruit. The study also provides information first time as recommending dates to cope with the hidden hunger or micronutrient deficiency faced by the third world inhabitants. Hence, the review may further help the industry and researchers to explore the potential of dates for future medicinal and nutra-pharmaceutical applications.
Kefir is a fermented beverage with renowned probiotics that coexist in symbiotic association with other microorganisms in kefir grains. This beverage consumption is associated with a wide array of nutraceutical benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects. Moreover, kefir can be adapted into different substrates which allow the production of new functional beverages to provide product diversification. Being safe and inexpensive, there is an immense global interest in kefir's nutritional potential. Due to their promising benefits, kefir and kefir-like products have a great prospect for commercialization. This manuscript reviews the therapeutic aspects of kefir to date, and potential applications of kefir products in the health and food industries, along with the limitations. The literature reviewed here demonstrates that there is a growing demand for kefir as a functional food owing to a number of health-promoting properties.
Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments. In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral. Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript. However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene.
Two functional food oils, namely extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) have been analyzed simultaneously using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The performance of multivariate calibration of principle component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) was evaluated in order to give the best prediction model for such determination. FTIR spectra were treated with several treatments including mean centering (MC), derivatization, and standard normal variate (SNV) at the combined frequency regions of 3050 – 3000, 1660 – 1650, and 1200 – 900 cm-1. Based on its capability to give the highest values of coefficient of correlation (R) for the relationship between actual value of EVOO/VCO and FTIR predicted value together with the lowest values of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), PLSR with mean centered-first derivative spectra was chosen for simultaneous determination of EVOO and VCO. It can be concluded that FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate calibration of PLSR was successfully applied to simultaneously quantify EVOO and VCO with acceptable parameters.
This study aimed to determine the protective effects of CO pulp and kernel oils supplementation to normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits from the treatment groups were supplemented with CO pulp and kernel oils for four weeks. Bloods were drawn from all experimental groups at baseline and fourth week to determine protective effects of CO oils supplementation on plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and catalase (CAT) activity. Liver function tests (ALT, AST, and GGT activities) were also determined for all the groups. The results showed that CO oil supplementation increased plasma TAS in both normal and hypercholesterolemic groups. Plasma CAT activities in the hypercholesterolemic groups supplemented with CO oils were significantly reduced but not for the normocholesterolemic groups. Significant reduction of plasma AST was observed for the hypercholesterolemic rabbits given CO pulp and kernel oils compared with the hypercholesterolemic control rabbits, but not for plasma ALT and GGT. In the normocholesterolemic rabbits, CO pulp oil had caused a significant elevation of plasma ALT, AST, and GGT levels as compared to the negative control rabbits. Therefore, CO pulp and kernel oils are somehow not hepatotoxic, and the oils are potent functional foods.
Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) plays an essential role in overall glycemic management. Less focus is given on managing postmeal hyperglycemia despite the facts that, it is a common feature of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the existing literature on the nutritional approaches to improve postmeal hyperglycemia in patients with T2D. We searched multiple databases for the studies examining the nutritional approaches to manage postmeal glucose in patients with T2D. We included studies that involve human trials that were published in English for the past 10 years. Our review of the current literature indicates that the postmeal hyperglycemia can be improved with four nutritional approaches. These approaches include (i) utilizing the appropriate amount and selecting the right type of carbohydrates, (ii) using specific types of dietary protein, (iii) manipulating the meal timing and orders and (iv) others (promoting postmeal physical activity, incorporating diabetes-specific formula and certain functional foods). The potential mechanisms underlying these approaches are discussed and the identified gaps warranted further research. This array of nutritional strategies provide a set of options for healthcare professionals to facilitate patients with T2D in achieving the optimal level of postmeal glucose.
Bone remodelling is a complex and tightly regulated process. Disruption of bone remodelling skewing towards resorption will cause osteoporosis and increase the risk of fragility fracture. Honey is a natural product containing various bioactive ingredients with health benefits, especially polyphenols. Therefore, honey may be a novel dietary supplement to prevent osteoporosis. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the effects of honey on bone health. The evidence reported so far indicates a skeletal-beneficial effect of honey in animal models of osteoporosis. However, the number of studies on humans is limited. Honey can protect the bone via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, primarily through its polyphenol content that acts upon several signalling pathways, leading to bone anabolic and antiresorptive effects. In conclusion, honey is a potential functional food for bone health, but the dose and the bioactive contents of honey need to be verified prior to its application in humans.
Sufficient intakes of functional foods containing significant amount of dietary fibre in daily diet are beneficial to human health especially in preventing the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In this study, young corn powder (YCP) was added into Malaysian star cake (Baulu Cermai) to replace wheat flour (WF) partially at the formulations of 5, 10 and 15%. Baulu Cermai with 100% WF and 0% YCP was used as the control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of YCP addition on the nutritional composition, textural properties and sensory attributes of Baulu Cermai. The results showed that the mean values of moisture, ash, fat and protein content of Baulu Cermai increased in line with the levels of YCP incorporation. In addition, the total dietary fibre (TDF) content was increased proportionally with the increasing levels of YCP added into Baulu Cermai. Addition of YCP did not show any predictable trend in all the textural properties of Baulu Cermai. Meanwhile, the aroma, chewiness and tenderness increased in parallel with the increasing percentages of YCP added in the formulated products. Baulu Cermai added with 10% of YCP showed the highest score of overall acceptance. Addition of YCP at 10% into Baulu Cermai increases moisture, ash, fat, protein and total dietary fibre content without significantly affecting the textural properties and the sensory attributes of Baulu Cermai. Addition of YCP at 5% to replace WF partially in Baulu Cermai resulted in slight improvement of TDF and fat but does not affected moisture, ash, protein content and acceptability of the consumers.
Nowadays, there is a rising interest towards consuming health beneficial food products. Bread-as one of the most popular food products-could be improved to 'healthy bread' by addition of ingredients high in protein, dietary fiber and low in calorie. Incorporating Jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a by-product rich in dietary fiber in bread, could not only provide health beneficial bread products, but also lead to develop an environmental friendly technology by solving the problem of waste disposal of residues. In this study, addition of jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a high dietary fiber and functional ingredient in bread was examined. The results showed that incorporation of JRP in bread improved functional properties of flour such as Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and pasting properties. Addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of JRP in wheat flour caused significantly (p < 0.05) higher insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber in flour and bread products. Results from proximate composition indicated that all breads substituted with JRP, contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher fiber, moisture and fat. Obtained results confirmed that the JRP has great potential in development of functional foods especially functional bread products.
Berries and berry extracts are known to possess properties (i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins) that make them important in disease prevention. Observational studies have shown that many berries may hold promise for public health. However, the long-term impact of berries intake on specific populations and their functionality claims has not been fully tested. In addition, although several biological effects which are based on epidemiological studies have been explained scientifically, the mechanism of their actions is not fully understood. Therefore, this review set out to address the issue of berries intake and their potential functionality. In addition, a glimpse of what the future may hold for the berries was highlighted.
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.
The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry.
There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Mushrooms and their extracts appear to hold many health benefits, including immune-modulating effects. A number of edible mushrooms have been shown to contain rare and exotic compounds that exhibit positive effects on brain cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the scientific information on edible and culinary mushrooms with regard to their antidementia/AD active compounds and/or pharmacological test results. The bioactive components in these mushrooms and the underlying mechanism of their activities are discussed. In short, these mushrooms may be regarded as functional foods for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.