Two new xanthones, characterized as 4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (1) and penangianaxanthone (2), with three known xanthones, cudratricusxanthone H (3), macluraxanthone C (4) and gerontoxanthone C (5), as well as friedelin and stigmasterol were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia penangiana. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with the literature ones. Significant cytotoxicity against DU-145, MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cancer cell lines was demonstrated by compounds 1-5, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 to 72.8 microM.
Usually isolated from Garcinia (Clusiaceae) or Hypericum (Hypericaceae) species, some Polycyclic Polyprenylated AcylPhloroglucinols (PPAPs) have been recently reported as potential research tools for immunotherapy. Aiming at exploring the chemodiversity of PPAPs amongst Garcinia genus, a dereplication process suitable for such natural compounds has been developed. Although less sensitive than mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy is perfectly reproducible and allows stereoisomers distinction, justifying the development of 13C-NMR strategies. Dereplication requires the use of databases (DBs). To define if predicted DBs were accurate enough as dereplication tools, experimental and predicted δC of natural products usually isolated from Clusiaceae were compared. The ACD/Labs commercial software allowed to predict 73% of δC in a 1.25 ppm range around the experimental values. Consequently, with these parameters, the major PPAPs from a Garcinia bancana extract were successfully identified using a predicted DB.
Phytochemical studies on the leaves and trunk bark of Garcinia cantleyana yielded five caged-xanthonoids including one tetra- and four tri-prenylated xanthones, cantleyanone A (1), 7-hydroxyforbesione (2) and cantleyanones B-D (4-6), as well as a simple xanthone, 4-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3). Eight other known compounds, deoxygaudichaudione A, gaudichaudione H, friedelin, garbogiol, macranthol, glutin-5-en-3beta-ol, and a mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data and comparison of their NMR data with literature values. Significant cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, CaOV-3, MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell-lines was demonstrated by cantleyanones B-D, 7-hydroxyforbesione, deoxygaudichaudione A and macranthol, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.22 to 17.17 microg/ml.
A detailed chemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia nitida has led to the isolation of five xanthones. They are 1,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethylpyrano[2',3':2,3]-xanthone (1), inophyllin B (2), osajaxanthone (3), 3-isomangostin (4) and rubraxanthone (5). The structures of these compounds were established using mainly 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HMQC) while molecular masses were determined via MS techniques; 1 is a new compound.
The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p
A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge.
The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects.
Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25 µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients.
We recently reported that (23R, 24E)-23-acetoxymangiferonic acid (23R-AMA), a cycloartane triterpenoid isolated by activity-guided separation from a methanol extract of Garcinia sp. bark, inhibited melanin production via inhibition of tyrosinase (TYR) expression in the B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Since 23R-AMA also inhibited microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, an upstream factor of TYR, these features of 23R-AMA were thought to be appropriate for development of whitening cosmetics. However, 23R-AMA exhibited growth inhibition other than inhibition of melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Therefore, we investigated biological activities of 23R-AMA in detail, focused on its application as an anti-melanoma compound. In this study, we demonstrated that 23R-AMA inhibited cell proliferation and basic FGF (bFGF)-induced migration in B16-F10 cells. Furthermore, 23R-AMA promoted ser45/thr41 phosphorylation of β-catenin and suppressed its intranuclear accumulation, which was suggested to be related to inhibition of MITF expression. The transcriptional activity of MITF is known to be regulated by phosphorylation via activated ERK. Further investigation revealed that 23R-AMA inhibited phosphorylation of c-Raf, MEK-1, and ERK, and also that of upstream molecules including FAK and c-Src. These results suggested that 23R-AMA inhibited growth and migration of B16-F10 melanoma by regulating both MITF expression and its activity. The activities of 23R-AMA reported in this study are new aspects of cycloartane triterpenoids.
Nine new xanthones, parvixanthones A-I (1-9), isolated from the dried bark of Garcinia parvifolia, were found to have a common 1,3,6,7-oxygenated pattern for their xanthone nucleus, but various oxygenated isoprenyl or geranyl substituent groups. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.
The methanol extract of the twigs of Garcinia hombroniana, which showed strong LDL antioxidation and antiplatelet aggregation activities, was subjected to column chromatography to obtain 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone and eight triterpenoids, garcihombronane B, D, E and F, friedelin, glutin-5-en-3β-ol, stigmasterol and lupeol. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit copper-mediated LDL oxidation and arachidonic acid (AA)-, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Among the compounds tested, 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone showed strong inhibitory activity on LDL oxidation with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 6.6 and 1.7 µM, respectively. 3,5,3',5'-Tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone exhibited strong activity on AA-, ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 53.6, 125.7 and 178.6 µM, respectively, while 1,7 dihydroxyxanthone showed significant and selective inhibitory activity against ADP-induced aggregation with IC(50) value of 5.7 µM. Of the triterpenoids tested, garcihombronane B showed moderate activity against LDL oxidation and garcihombronane D and F showed selective inhibition on ADP-induced platelet aggregation.
Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3β-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE.
A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml).
Studies on the stem of Garcinia mangostana have led to the isolation of one new xanthone mangosharin (1) (2,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone) and six other prenylated xanthones, alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), garcinone D (4), 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (5), mangostanol (6) and 5,9-dihydroxy-8- methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano-[3,2-b]-xanthene-6-one (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and by comparison with previous studies. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated very good toxicity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. This article reports the isolation and identification of the above compounds as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. These bioassay data have not been reported before.
Phytochemical studies on the stem bark of Garcinia nervosa has resulted in the discovery of one new pyranoxanthone derivative, garner xanthone (1) and five other compounds, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 6-deoxyisojacareubin (3), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (4) stigmasterol (5), and β-sitosterol (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques, such as NMR and MS. The crude extracts of the plant were assessed for their antimicrobial activity.
The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3 → 8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4″-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3″-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25 °C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25 °C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90 °C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3 → 8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Garcinia atroviridis is a seasonal fruit plant found in many parts of South East Asia. The fruit rind is used in cooking and traditionally consumed for various reasons, including to lower blood cholesterol. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction solvents and plant parts used on the lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of Garcinia atroviridis.
Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.
Three benzophenones, 2,6,3',5'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (1), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone (3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (4), as well as a xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3'-methyl-2'-oxo-but-3'-enyl)xanthone (9), were isolated from the twigs of Garcinia cantleyana var. cantleyana. Eight known compounds, 3,4,5,3'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone (5), 1,3,8-trihydroxyxanthone (6), 2,4,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (8), quercetin, glutin-5-en-3β-ol and friedelin were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were investigated for their ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation in human whole blood in vitro. Most of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity with compound 8 showing the highest inhibition with an IC₅₀ value of 0.5 μM, comparable to that of probucol. Among the compounds tested, only compound 4 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Compounds 3, 5 and 8 showed selective inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation induced by ADP.