Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

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  1. He Z, Li X, Yang M, Wang X, Zhong C, Duke NC, et al.
    Natl Sci Rev, 2019 Mar;6(2):275-288.
    PMID: 31258952 DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwy078
    Allopatric speciation requiring an unbroken period of geographical isolation has been the standard model of neo-Darwinism. While doubts have been repeatedly raised, strict allopatry without any gene flow remains a plausible mechanism in most cases. To rigorously reject strict allopatry, genomic sequences superimposed on the geological records of a well-delineated geographical barrier are necessary. The Strait of Malacca, narrowly connecting the Pacific and Indian Ocean coasts, serves at different times either as a geographical barrier or a conduit of gene flow for coastal/marine species. We surveyed 1700 plants from 29 populations of 5 common mangrove species by large-scale DNA sequencing and added several whole-genome assemblies. Speciation between the two oceans is driven by cycles of isolation and gene flow due to the fluctuations in sea level leading to the opening/closing of the Strait to ocean currents. Because the time required for speciation in mangroves is longer than the isolation phases, speciation in these mangroves has proceeded through many cycles of mixing-isolation-mixing, or MIM, cycles. the MIM mechanism, by relaxing the condition of no gene flow, can promote speciation in many more geographical features than strict allopatry can. Finally, the MIM mechanism of speciation is also efficient, potentially yielding mn (m > 1) species ather n cycles.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Mechanisms of species formation have always been a conundrum. Speciation between populations that are fully geographically isolated, or allopatric speciation, has been the standard solution in the last 50 years. Complete geographical isolation with no possibility of gene flow, however, is often untenable and is inefficient in generating the enormous biodiversity. By studying mangroves on the Indo-Malayan coasts, a global hotspot of coastal biodiversity, we were able to combine genomic data with geographical records on the Indo-Pacific Barrier that separates Pacific and Indian Ocean coasts. We discovered a novel mechanism of speciation that we call mixingisolation-mixing (MIM) cycles. By permitting intermittent gene flow during speciation,MIMcycles can potentially generate species at an exponential rate, thus combining speciation and biodiversity in a unified framework.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  2. Bunlungsup S, Kanthaswamy S, Oldt RF, Smith DG, Houghton P, Hamada Y, et al.
    Am J Primatol, 2017 12;79(12).
    PMID: 29095514 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22726
    In the past decade, many researchers have published papers about hybridization between long-tailed and rhesus macaques. These previous works have proposed unidirectional gene flow with the Isthmus of Kra as the zoogeographical barrier of hybridization. However, these reports analyzed specimens of unknown origin and/or did not include specimens from Thailand, the center of the proposed area of hybridization. Collected specimens of long-tailed and rhesus macaques representing all suspected hybridization areas were examined. Blood samples from four populations each of long-tailed and rhesus macaques inhabiting Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos were collected and analyzed with conspecific references from China (for rhesus macaques) and multiple countries from Sundaic regions (for long-tailed macaques). Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specifically designed to interrogate admixture and ancestry were used in genotyping. We found genetic admixture maximized at the hybrid zone (15-20°N), as well as admixture signals of varying strength in both directions outside of the hybrid zone. These findings show that the Isthmus of Kra is not a barrier to gene flow from rhesus to long-tailed populations. However, to precisely identify a southernmost barrier, if in fact a boundary rather than simple isolation by distance exists, the samples from peninsular Malaysia must be included in the analysis. Additionally, a long-tailed to rhesus gene flow boundary was found between northern Thailand and Myanmar. Our results suggest that selection of long-tailed and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used non-human primates for biomedical research, should take into account not only the species identification but also the origin of and genetic admixture within and between the species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow*
  3. Moyle RG, Manthey JD, Hosner PA, Rahman M, Lakim M, Sheldon FH
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3335.
    PMID: 28533979 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3335
    Topographically complex regions often contain the close juxtaposition of closely related species along elevational gradients. The evolutionary causes of these elevational replacements, and thus the origin and maintenance of a large portion of species diversity along elevational gradients, are usually unclear because ecological differentiation along a gradient or secondary contact following allopatric diversification can produce the same pattern. We used reduced representation genomic sequencing to assess genetic relationships and gene flow between three parapatric pairs of closely related songbird taxa (Arachnothera spiderhunters, Chloropsis leafbirds, and Enicurus forktails) along an elevational gradient in Borneo. Each taxon pair presents a different elevational range distribution across the island, yet results were uniform: little or no gene flow was detected in any pairwise comparisons. These results are congruent with an allopatric "species-pump" model for generation of species diversity and elevational parapatry of congeners on Borneo, rather than in situ generation of species by "ecological speciation" along an elevational gradient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  4. Wee AK, Takayama K, Chua JL, Asakawa T, Meenakshisundaram SH, Onrizal, et al.
    BMC Evol. Biol., 2015 Mar 29;15:57.
    PMID: 25888261 DOI: 10.1186/s12862-015-0331-3
    BACKGROUND: Mangrove forests are ecologically important but globally threatened intertidal plant communities. Effective mangrove conservation requires the determination of species identity, management units, and genetic structure. Here, we investigate the genetic distinctiveness and genetic structure of an iconic but yet taxonomically confusing species complex Rhizophora mucronata and R. stylosa across their distributional range, by employing a suite of 20 informative nuclear SSR markers.

    RESULTS: Our results demonstrated the general genetic distinctiveness of R. mucronata and R. stylosa, and potential hybridization or introgression between them. We investigated the population genetics of each species without the putative hybrids, and found strong genetic structure between oceanic regions in both R. mucronata and R. stylosa. In R. mucronata, a strong divergence was detected between populations from the Indian Ocean region (Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea) and the Pacific Ocean region (Malacca Strait, South China Sea and Northwest Pacific Ocean). In R. stylosa, the genetic break was located more eastward, between populations from South and East China Sea and populations from the Southwest Pacific Ocean. The location of these genetic breaks coincided with the boundaries of oceanic currents, thus suggesting that oceanic circulation patterns might have acted as a cryptic barrier to gene flow.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have important implications on the conservation of mangroves, especially relating to replanting efforts and the definition of evolutionary significant units in Rhizophora species. We outlined the genetic structure and identified geographical areas that require further investigations for both R. mucronata and R. stylosa. These results serve as the foundation for the conservation genetics of R. mucronata and R. stylosa and highlighted the need to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of closely-related species, determine their respective genetic structure, and avoid artificially promoting hybridization in mangrove restoration programmes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  5. Gopalakrishnan S, Sinding MS, Ramos-Madrigal J, Niemann J, Samaniego Castruita JA, Vieira FG, et al.
    Curr Biol, 2018 11 05;28(21):3441-3449.e5.
    PMID: 30344120 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.08.041
    The evolutionary history of the wolf-like canids of the genus Canis has been heavily debated, especially regarding the number of distinct species and their relationships at the population and species level [1-6]. We assembled a dataset of 48 resequenced genomes spanning all members of the genus Canis except the black-backed and side-striped jackals, encompassing the global diversity of seven extant canid lineages. This includes eight new genomes, including the first resequenced Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis), one dhole (Cuon alpinus), two East African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus), two Eurasian golden jackals (Canis aureus), and two Middle Eastern gray wolves (Canis lupus). The relationships between the Ethiopian wolf, African golden wolf, and golden jackal were resolved. We highlight the role of interspecific hybridization in the evolution of this charismatic group. Specifically, we find gene flow between the ancestors of the dhole and African hunting dog and admixture between the gray wolf, coyote (Canis latrans), golden jackal, and African golden wolf. Additionally, we report gene flow from gray and Ethiopian wolves to the African golden wolf, suggesting that the African golden wolf originated through hybridization between these species. Finally, we hypothesize that coyotes and gray wolves carry genetic material derived from a "ghost" basal canid lineage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  6. Pavitra SP, Ya'cob Z, Tan TK, Lim YAL, Low VL
    Acta Trop, 2020 May;205:105415.
    PMID: 32088275 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105415
    The population genetic structures of S. vanluni, S. cheongi and S. jeffreyi were determined from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) across different states in Peninsular Malaysia. High levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were observed among three species. All three species revealed an intermediate level of gene flow among the populations. Negative values of Fu's Fs and low values of Raggedness index supported the hypothesis of population expansion in S. vanluni, S. cheongi and S. jeffreyi.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  7. Seri Masran SNA, Ab Majid AH
    J Med Entomol, 2019 06 27;56(4):942-952.
    PMID: 30882146 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjz024
    The surge in tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) infestations has led to an increase in genomic studies. In this study, the population genetics and breeding patterns of 22 Malaysian populations were analyzed, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance. For seven microsatellite loci, the number of alleles varied from 6 to 14. The allelels per loci contrasted sharply between the overall population and within the populations. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.280 and 0.828 for the overall population and 0.281 and 0.657 among the populations, respectively. Based on polymorphic information criteria, the markers with a value >0.5 were highly polymorphic. In the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the loci of Ch 09ttn, Ch 01dn, and Ch 13dn of the overall population showed signs of a null allele. The stutter peaks caused no scoring errors; large allele dropouts were not detected for any loci; and a correlation imbalance was not indicated. The genetic differentiation among populations was moderate, with a coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) of 0.144. The bed bug populations showed strong inbreeding, with highly positive coefficients of inbreeding (FIS). The molecular variation attributed to inbreeding was 83% within the populations, compared with 17% among the populations. The admixture individuals in STRUCTURE and neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees also indicated weak genetic structure in the geographical populations, suggesting moderate gene flows between populations. Thus, moderately active dispersion and human-mediated transport shaped the genetic structure of C. hemipterus populations in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  8. Cros E, Chattopadhyay B, Garg KM, Ng NSR, Tomassi S, Benedick S, et al.
    Mol Ecol, 2020 07;29(14):2692-2706.
    PMID: 32542783 DOI: 10.1111/mec.15509
    Quaternary climate oscillations are a well-known driver of animal diversification, but their effects are most well studied in areas where glaciations lead to habitat fragmentation. In large areas of the planet, however, glaciations have had the opposite effect, but here their impacts are much less well understood. This is especially true in Southeast Asia, where cyclical changes in land distribution have generated enormous land expansions during glacial periods. In this study, we selected a panel of five songbird species complexes covering a range of ecological specificities to investigate the effects Quaternary land bridges have had on the connectivity of Southeast Asian forest biota. Specifically, we combined morphological and bioacoustic analysis with an arsenal of population genomic and modelling approaches applied to thousands of genome-wide DNA markers across a total of more than 100 individuals. Our analyses show that species dependent on forest understorey exhibit deep differentiation between Borneo and western Sundaland, with no evidence of gene flow during the land bridges accompanying the last 1-2 ice ages. In contrast, dispersive canopy species and habitat generalists have experienced more recent gene flow. Our results argue that there remains much cryptic species-level diversity to be discovered in Southeast Asia even in well-known animal groups such as birds, especially in nondispersive forest understorey inhabitants. We also demonstrate that Quaternary land bridges have not been equally suitable conduits of gene flow for all species complexes and that life history is a major factor in predicting relative population divergence time across Quaternary climate fluctuations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  9. Chan KO, Hutter CR, Wood PL, Grismer LL, Das I, Brown RM
    Mol Ecol, 2020 10;29(20):3970-3987.
    PMID: 32808335 DOI: 10.1111/mec.15603
    Most new cryptic species are described using conventional tree- and distance-based species delimitation methods (SDMs), which rely on phylogenetic arrangements and measures of genetic divergence. However, although numerous factors such as population structure and gene flow are known to confound phylogenetic inference and species delimitation, the influence of these processes is not frequently evaluated. Using large numbers of exons, introns, and ultraconserved elements obtained using the FrogCap sequence-capture protocol, we compared conventional SDMs with more robust genomic analyses that assess population structure and gene flow to characterize species boundaries in a Southeast Asian frog complex (Pulchrana picturata). Our results showed that gene flow and introgression can produce phylogenetic patterns and levels of divergence that resemble distinct species (up to 10% divergence in mitochondrial DNA). Hybrid populations were inferred as independent (singleton) clades that were highly divergent from adjacent populations (7%-10%) and unusually similar (<3%) to allopatric populations. Such anomalous patterns are not uncommon in Southeast Asian amphibians, which brings into question whether the high levels of cryptic diversity observed in other amphibian groups reflect distinct cryptic species-or, instead, highly admixed and structured metapopulation lineages. Our results also provide an alternative explanation to the conundrum of divergent (sometimes nonsister) sympatric lineages-a pattern that has been celebrated as indicative of true cryptic speciation. Based on these findings, we recommend that species delimitation of continuously distributed "cryptic" groups should not rely solely on conventional SDMs, but should necessarily examine population structure and gene flow to avoid taxonomic inflation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  10. Cros E, Ng EYX, Oh RRY, Tang Q, Benedick S, Edwards DP, et al.
    Evol Appl, 2020 May;13(5):1026-1036.
    PMID: 32431750 DOI: 10.1111/eva.12918
    Habitat fragmentation is a major extinction driver. Despite dramatically increasing fragmentation across the globe, its specific impacts on population connectivity across species with differing life histories remain difficult to characterize, let alone quantify. Here, we investigate patterns of population connectivity in six songbird species from Singapore, a highly fragmented tropical rainforest island. Using massive panels of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms across dozens of samples per species, we examined population genetic diversity, inbreeding, gene flow and connectivity among species along a spectrum of ecological specificities. We found a higher resilience to habitat fragmentation in edge-tolerant and forest-canopy species as compared to forest-dependent understorey insectivores. The latter exhibited levels of genetic diversity up to three times lower in Singapore than in populations from contiguous forest elsewhere. Using dense genomic and geographic sampling, we identified individual barriers such as reservoirs that effectively minimize gene flow in sensitive understorey birds, revealing that terrestrial forest species may exhibit levels of sensitivity to fragmentation far greater than previously expected. This study provides a blueprint for conservation genomics at small scales with a view to identifying preferred locations for habitat corridors, flagging candidate populations for restocking with translocated individuals and improving the design of future reserves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  11. Wu MY, Low GW, Forcina G, van Grouw H, Lee BPY, Oh RRY, et al.
    Evol Appl, 2020 Oct;13(9):2300-2315.
    PMID: 33005225 DOI: 10.1111/eva.13023
    The red junglefowl Gallus gallus is the ancestor of the domestic chicken and arguably the most important bird species on Earth. Continual gene flow between domestic and wild populations has compromised its gene pool, especially since the last century when human encroachment and habitat loss would have led to increased contact opportunities. We present the first combined genomic and morphological admixture assessment of a native population of red junglefowl, sampled from recolonized parts of its former range in Singapore, partly using whole genomes resequenced from dozens of individuals. Crucially, this population was genomically anchored to museum samples from adjacent Peninsular Malaysia collected ~110-150 years ago to infer the magnitude of modern domestic introgression across individuals. We detected a strong feral-wild genomic continuum with varying levels of domestic introgression in different subpopulations across Singapore. Using a trait scoring scheme, we determined morphological thresholds that can be used by conservation managers to successfully identify individuals with low levels of domestic introgression, and selected traits that were particularly useful for predicting domesticity in genomic profiles. Our study underscores the utility of combined genomic and morphological approaches in population management and suggests a way forward to safeguard the allelic integrity of wild red junglefowl in perpetuity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  12. Pilotti CA, Killah G, Rama D, Gorea EA, Mudge AM
    Mycologia, 2021 Mar 03.
    PMID: 33656969 DOI: 10.1080/00275514.2020.1858687
    Morphological studies suggest that the major pathogen causing basal stem rot of oil palm in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands is Ganoderma boninense. This study presents the first evidence for conspecificity of G. boninense from four countries where basal stem rot is prevalent. Seventy-three dikaryotic isolates of Ganoderma boninense from Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands were studied via mating tests, analyses of nuc internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences, and microsatellite genotyping. Sequence similarity in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was >99%, and all exotic isolates successfully mated with Papua New Guinea tester strains. Transfer of nuclei during mating was also confirmed via microsatellite markers for the first time in this species. Four microsatellite primers were used to generate evidence for 33 alleles in the four populations. All isolates studied had unique genetic fingerprints but alleles were also shared, suggesting gene flow. Heterozygosities were lower than expected in Indonesian and Papua New Guinea populations, consistent with the possibility of localized inbreeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow
  13. Aketarawong N, Isasawin S, Thanaphum S
    BMC Genet, 2014;15:70.
    PMID: 24929425 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-15-70
    Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow*
  14. Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, Delfin F, Nandineni MR, Pugach I, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2011 Oct 07;89(4):516-28.
    PMID: 21944045 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005
    It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a "Negrito" group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow*
  15. Deng L, Hoh BP, Lu D, Saw WY, Twee-Hee Ong R, Kasturiratne A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015 Sep 23;5:14375.
    PMID: 26395220 DOI: 10.1038/srep14375
    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%-62%), Proto-Malay (15%-31%), East Asian (4%-16%) and South Asian (3%-34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow/genetics*
  16. Choy SH, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Low VL, Surin J
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:454.
    PMID: 26373536 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-1084-y
    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that can cause significant diarrhoeal diseases. Knowledge of population genetics is a prerequisite for ascertaining the invasion patterns of this parasite. In order to infer evolutionary patterns that could not be uncovered based on the morphological features, a population genetic study with the incorporation of molecular marker was carried out to access the genetic structure of G. duodenalis isolated from the Malaysian population and the global populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow*
  17. Beck SV, Carvalho GR, Barlow A, Rüber L, Hui Tan H, Nugroho E, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(7):e0179557.
    PMID: 28742862 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179557
    The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region's high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have shaped the distribution of biota within this region, and whether such patterns show evidence of isolation within palaeodrainage basins. Our analyses revealed three major mitochondrial clades within A. panchax. The basal divergence of A. panchax mitochondrial lineages was approximately 3.5 Ma, whilst the subsequent divergence timings of these clades occurred early Pleistocene (~2.6 Ma), proceeding through the Pleistocene. Continuous phylogeographic analysis showed a clear west-east dispersal followed by rapid radiation across Southeast Asia. Individuals from Krabi, just north of the Isthmus of Kra, were more closely related to the Indian lineages, providing further evidence for a freshwater faunal disjunction at the Isthmus of Kra biogeographic barrier. Our results suggest that Sulawesi, across the Wallace Line, was colonised relatively recently (~30 ka). Nuclear DNA is less geographically structured, although Mantel tests indicated that nuclear genetic distances were correlated with geographic proximity. Overall, these results imply that recent gene flow, as opposed to historical isolation, has been the key factor determining patterns of nuclear genetic variation in A. panchax, however, some evidence of historical isolation is retained within the mitochondrial genome. Our study further validates the existence of a major biogeographic boundary at the Kra Isthmus, and also demonstrates the use of widely distributed fresh/brackishwater species in phylogeographic studies, and their ability to disperse across major marine barriers in relatively recent time periods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow*
  18. Yew CW, Lu D, Deng L, Wong LP, Ong RT, Lu Y, et al.
    Hum. Genet., 2018 Feb;137(2):161-173.
    PMID: 29383489 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-018-1869-0
    Southeast Asia (SEA) is enriched with a complex history of peopling. Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. To unravel the genomic complexity of the native inhabitants of Malaysia, we sequenced 12 samples from 3 indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia and 4 native populations from North Borneo to a high coverage of 28-37×. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays. The analysis of time of divergence suggested that ancestors of Negrito were the earliest settlers in the Malay Peninsula, whom first separated from the Papuans ~ 50-33 thousand years ago (kya), followed by East Asian (~ 40-15 kya), while the divergence time frame between North Borneo and East Asia populations predates the Austronesian expansion period implies a possible pre-Neolithic colonization. Substantial Neanderthal ancestry was confirmed in our genomes, as was observed in other East Asians. However, no significant difference was observed, in terms of the proportion of Denisovan gene flow into these native inhabitants from Malaysia. Judging from the similar amount of introgression in the Southeast Asians and East Asians, our findings suggest that the Denisovan gene flow may have occurred before the divergence of these populations and that the shared similarities are likely an ancestral component.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow/genetics
  19. Brunke J, Russo IM, Orozco-terWengel P, Zimmermann E, Bruford MW, Goossens B, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2020 04 17;21(1):43.
    PMID: 32303177 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-020-00849-z
    BACKGROUND: Constraints in migratory capabilities, such as the disruption of gene flow and genetic connectivity caused by habitat fragmentation, are known to affect genetic diversity and the long-term persistence of populations. Although negative population trends due to ongoing forest loss are widespread, the consequence of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic structure has rarely been investigated in Bornean small mammals. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers to assess genetic diversity, gene flow and the genetic structure in the Bornean tree shrew, Tupaia longipes, that inhabits forest fragments of the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. Furthermore, we used these markers to assess dispersal regimes in male and female T. longipes.

    RESULTS: In addition to the Kinabatangan River, a known barrier for dispersal in tree shrews, the heterogeneous landscape along the riverbanks affected the genetic structure in this species. Specifically, while in larger connected forest fragments along the northern riverbank genetic connectivity was relatively undisturbed, patterns of genetic differentiation and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes in a local scale indicated reduced migration on the strongly fragmented southern riverside. Especially, oil palm plantations seem to negatively affect dispersal in T. longipes. Clear sex-biased dispersal was not detected based on relatedness, assignment tests, and haplotype diversity.

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed the importance of landscape connectivity to maintain migration and gene flow between fragmented populations, and to ensure the long-term persistence of species in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow/genetics
  20. Page A, Gibson J, Meyer RS, Chapman MA
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2019 07 01;36(7):1359-1372.
    PMID: 31039581 DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msz062
    In the context of food security, examining the genomics of domestication will help identify genes underlying adaptive and economically important phenotypes, for example, larger fruit, improved taste, and loss of agronomically inferior phenotypes.  Examination of genome-scale single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrates the relationships between wild ancestors of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), confirming that Solanum insanum L. is the wild progenitor. This species is split roughly into an Eastern (Malaysian, Thai, and Vietnamese) and Western (Indian, Madagascan, and Sri Lankan) group, with domesticates derived from the former. Additional "wild" accessions from India appear to be feral escapes, derived multiple times from domesticated varieties through admixture. Accessions with small egg-shaped fruit are generally found intermixed with East Asian Solanum insanum confirming they are primitive relative to the large-fruited domesticates.  Comparative transcriptomics was used to track the loci under selection. Sequence analysis revealed a genetic bottleneck reducing variation by almost 50% in the primitive accessions relative to the wild species and a further 10% in the landraces. We also show evidence for selection on genes with a role in response to wounding and apoptosis.  Genes showing a significant difference in expression between wild and primitive or between primitive and landrace genepools were mostly (>75%) downregulated in the derived populations and enriched for gene ontologies related to defense, flowering, signaling, and response to biotic and abiotic stimuli.  This work reveals genomic changes involved in crop domestication and improvement, and the population genetics work explains why defining the eggplant domestication trajectory has been so challenging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Flow*
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