Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Omar N, Lim TS
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2018;1701:25-44.
    PMID: 29116498 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7447-4_2
    This protocol describes the processes involved in the generation of human antibody libraries in Fab format. The antibody repertoire is derived from peripheral blood mononucleocytes focusing on different immunoglobulin isotypes. A two-step cloning process was used to generate a diverse human Fab library for subsequent selection by phage display. The method can be applied for the generation of both naive and immune antibody libraries. The naive repertoire allows for the library to be applied for the generation of human monoclonal antibodies against a broad range of target antigens making it a useful resource for antibody generation. However, the immune repertoire will be focused against target antigens from a particular disease. The protocol will focus on the generation of the library including the panning process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library*
  2. Hairul Bahara NH, Tye GJ, Choong YS, Ong EB, Ismail A, Lim TS
    Biologicals, 2013 Jul;41(4):209-16.
    PMID: 23647952 DOI: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2013.04.001
    With major developments in molecular biology, numerous display technologies have been successfully introduced for recombinant antibody production. Even so, phage display still remains the gold standard for recombinant antibody production. Its success is mainly attributed to the robust nature of phage particles allowing for automation and adaptation to modifications. The generation of monospecific binders provides a vital tool for diagnostics at a lower cost and higher efficiency. The flexibility to modify recombinant antibodies allows great applicability to various platforms for use. This review presents phage display technology, application and modifications of recombinant antibodies for diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library*
  3. Usman AR, Khandaker MU, Haba H, Otuka N, Murakami M, Komori Y
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2016 08;114:104-13.
    PMID: 27227905 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2016.04.027
    The excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Cu(α,x)(66,67)Ga,(65)Zn,(57,58,60)Co reactions in the energy range of 16.5 -50MeV. A conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was employed to determine cross-sections. The measured cross-sections were critically compared with relevant previous experimental data and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2014 library. Present results confirmed some of the previous experimental data, whereas only a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The measured data are useful for reducing the existing discrepancies in the literature, to improve the nuclear reaction model codes, and to enrich the experimental database towards various applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  4. Thanh T, Chi VT, Abdullah MP, Omar H, Noroozi M, Ky H, et al.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2011 Jan;38(1):177-82.
    PMID: 20354903 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-010-0092-4
    Green microalga Ankistrodesmus convolutus Corda is a fast growing alga which produces appreciable amount of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of ESTs for this species. The titers of the primary and amplified cDNA libraries were 1.1×10(6) and 6.0×10(9) pfu/ml respectively. The percentage of recombinants was 97% in the primary library and a total of 337 out of 415 original cDNA clones selected randomly contained inserts ranging from 600 to 1,500 bps. A total of 201 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 390 to 1,038 bps were then analyzed and the BLASTX score revealed that 35.8% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.3% as nominal and 25.9% as weak match. Among the ESTs with known putative function, 21.4% of them were found to be related to gene expression, 14.4% ESTs to photosynthesis, 10.9% ESTs to metabolism, 5.5% ESTs to miscellaneous, 2.0% to stress response, and the remaining 45.8% were classified as novel genes. Analysis of ESTs described in this paper can be an effective approach to isolate and characterize new genes from A. convolutus and thus the sequences obtained represented a significant contribution to the extensive database of sequences from green microalgae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library*
  5. Farah Fadwa Benbelgacem, Oualid Abdelkader Bellag, Adibah Parman, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha, Mohd Noor Mat Isa, Muhammad Alfatih Muddathir Abdelrahim, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2951-2960.
    Metagenomic DNA library from palm oil mill effluent (POME) was constructed and subjected to high-throughput screening
    to find genes encoding cellulose- and xylan-degrading enzymes. DNA of 30 positive fosmid clones were sequenced with next
    generation sequencing technology and the raw data (short insert-paired) was analyzed with bioinformatic tools. First,
    the quality of 64,821,599 reverse and forward sequences of 101 bp length raw data was tested using Fastqc and SOLEXA.
    Then, raw data filtering was carried out by trimming low quality values and short reads and the vector sequences were
    removed and again the output was checked and the trimming was repeated until a high quality read sets was obtained.
    The second step was the de novo assembly of sequences to reconstruct 2900 contigs following de Bruijn graph algorithm.
    Pre-assembled contigs were arranged in order, the distances between contigs were identified and oriented with SSPACE,
    where 2139 scaffolds have been reconstructed. 16,386 genes have been identified after gene prediction using Prodigal
    and putative ID assignment with Blastp vs NR protein. The acceptable strategy to handle metagenomic NGS-data in order
    to detect known and potentially unknown genes is presented and we showed the computational efficiency of de Bruijn
    graph algorithm of de novo assembly to 21 bioprospect genes encoding cellulose-degrading enzymes and 6 genes
    encoding xylan-degrading enzymes of 30.3% to 100% identity percentage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  6. Fazia Adyani Ahmad Fuad, Houston Douglas R, Michels Paul AM, Fothergill-gilmore Linda A, Walkinshaw Malcolm D
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1113-1120.
    Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of
    trypanosomatid diseases. In this paper, we report the identification of compounds that could potentially be developed as
    selective inhibitors of cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase from Leishmania mexicana (LmiPGAM). Virtual
    screening was used in this search, as well as compounds identified by high-throughput screening. A ligand-based virtual
    screen programme, ultra fast shape recognition with atom types (UFSRAT), was used to screen for compounds resembling
    the substrate/product, before a structure-based approach was applied using AutoDock 4 and AutoDock Vina in a consensus
    docking scheme. In this way eight selected compounds were identified. In addition, three compounds from the Library of
    Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) were selected from the published results of high-throughput screening of
    this library. The inhibitory effects of these compounds were tested at a fixed concentration of 1 mM. The results showed
    that seven compounds inhibited LmiPGAM activity and of these, two compounds (one each from high-throughput and
    virtual screening) showed substantial inhibition (i.e. 14% and 49% remaining activity, respectively). Taken together, the
    findings from this study indicate that these compounds have potential as novel inhibitors that specifically target LmiPGAM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  7. Junaid A, Lim FPL, Tiekink ERT, Dolzhenko AV
    ACS Comb Sci, 2019 Jun 10.
    PMID: 31180634 DOI: 10.1021/acscombsci.9b00079
    A new, effective one-pot synthesis of the 6, N2-diaryl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamines under microwave irradiation was developed. The method involved an initial three-component condensation of cyanoguanidine, aromatic aldehydes, and arylamines in the presence of hydrochloric acid. Without isolation, the resulting 1,6-diaryl-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamines were treated with a base to initiate Dimroth rearrangement and spontaneous dehydrogenative aromatization, affording the desired compounds. The developed method was found to be sufficiently general in scope, tolerating various aromatic aldehydes and amines; by using their combinations in the first step, a representative library of 110 compounds was successfully prepared and screened for anticancer properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  8. Wan KL, Chong SP, Ng ST, Shirley MW, Tomley FM, Jangi MS
    Int. J. Parasitol., 1999 Dec;29(12):1885-92.
    PMID: 10961844
    A study of about 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), derived from a merozoite cDNA library, was initiated as an approach to generate a larger pool of gene information on Eimeria tenella. Of the ESTs, 47.7% had matches with entries in the databases, including ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes and proteins with other functions, of which 14.3% represented previously known E. tenella genes. Thus over 50% of the ESTs had no significant database matches. The E. tenella EST dataset contained a range of highly abundant genes comparable with that found in the EST dataset of T. gondii and may thus reflect the importance of such molecules in the biology of the apicomplexan organisms. However, comparison of the two datasets revealed very few homologies between sequences of apical organelle molecules, and provides evidence for sequence divergence between these closely-related parasites. The data presented underpin the potential value of the EST strategy for the discovery of novel genes and may allow for a more rapid increase in the knowledge and understanding of gene expression in the merozoite life cycle stage of Eimeria spp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  9. Rodrigues, K. F., Tam, H. K.
    This paper describes the first reported attempt to isolate DNA sequences containing repeat motifs in Eurycoma longifolia and Orthosiphon stamineus. A library enriched for genomic repeat motifs was developed using novel oligonucleotides designed with inosine residues incorporated at predetermined positions. A total of eight and twelve specific molecular markers were developed for O. stamineus and E. longifolia respectively. These markers have a potential application in estimating population diversity levels and QTL mapping in these two medicinal plants, which are widely used in the Malaysian herbal industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  10. Zaini MN, Patel SA, Syafruddin SE, Rodrigues P, Vanharanta S
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 13;8(1):12063.
    PMID: 30104738 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30499-2
    Tissue-specific transcriptional programs control most biological phenotypes, including disease states such as cancer. However, the molecular details underlying transcriptional specificity is largely unknown, hindering the development of therapeutic approaches. Here, we describe novel experimental reporter systems that allow interrogation of the endogenous expression of HIF2A, a critical driver of renal oncogenesis. Using a focused CRISPR-Cas9 library targeting chromatin regulators, we provide evidence that these reporter systems are compatible with high-throughput screening. Our data also suggests redundancy in the control of cancer type-specific transcriptional traits. Reporter systems such as those described here could facilitate large-scale mechanistic dissection of transcriptional programmes underlying cancer phenotypes, thus paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  11. Samad AFA, Sajad M, Jani J, Murad AMA, Ismail I
    Data Brief, 2018 Oct;20:555-557.
    PMID: 30197911 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.08.034
    Degradome sequencing referred as parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE) by modifying 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) with deep sequencing method. Deep sequencing of 5' products allow the determination of cleavage sites through the mapping of degradome fragments against small RNAs (miRNA or siRNA) on a large scale. Here, we carried out degradome sequencing in medicinal plant, Persicaria minor, to identify cleavage sites in small RNA libraries in control (mock-inoculated) and Fusarium oxysporum treated plants. The degradome library consisted of both control and treated samples which were pooled together during library preparation and named as D4. The D4 dataset have been deposited at GenBank under accession number SRX3921398, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/SRX3921398.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  12. Lee PS, Gan HM, Clements GR, Wilson JJ
    Genome, 2016 May 11.
    PMID: 27696907
    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  13. Ch'ng ACW, Chan SK, Ignatius J, Lim TS
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2019 Aug;49(8):1186-1199.
    PMID: 30919413 DOI: 10.1002/eji.201747328
    The application of human TCR in cancer immunotherapy has gained momentum with developments in tumor killing strategies using endogenous adaptive immune responses. The successful coverage of a diverse TCR repertoire is mainly attributed to the primer design of the human TCR V genes. Here, we present a refined primer design strategy of the human TCR V gene by clustering V gene sequence homolog for degenerate primer design based on the data from IMGT. The primers designed were analyzed and the PCR efficiency of each primer set was optimized. A total of 112 alpha and 160 beta sequences were aligned and clustered using a phylogram yielding 32 and 27 V gene primers for the alpha and beta family. The new primer set was able to provide 93.75% and 95.63% coverage for the alpha and beta family, respectively. A semi-qualitative approach using the designed primer set was able to provide a relative view of the TCR V gene diversity in different populations. Taken together, the new primers provide a more comprehensive coverage of the TCR gene diversity for improved TCR library generation and TCR V gene analysis studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  14. Nadiah Abu, Noraini Nordin, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Nadiah Abu, Sheau Wei Tan, Swee Keong Yeap, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:303-308.
    RNA-seq has become an essential tool in molecular research. Nevertheless, application of RNA-seq was limited by cost and technical difficulties. Illumina has introduced the cost effective and ease to handle Truseq Targeted RNA Sequencing. In this study, we present the requirements and the optimization procedure for this Truseq Targeted RNA sequencing on cell line. Total RNA was recommended as starting materials but it required optimization including additional purification step and adjusting the AMPure beads ratio to eliminate unwanted contaminants. This can be resolved by using PolyA-enriched mRNA as starting material. TREx is a useful assay to evaluate gene expression. Quality library of TREx can be prepared by adding multiple washing steps or changing input sample to mRNA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  15. Lim BN, Choong YS, Ismail A, Glökler J, Konthur Z, Lim TS
    BioTechniques, 2012 Dec;53(6):357-64.
    PMID: 23227986 DOI: 10.2144/000113964
    Directed evolution of nucleotide libraries using recombination or mutagenesis is an important technique for customizing catalytic or biophysical traits of proteins. Conventional directed evolution methods, however, suffer from cumbersome digestion and ligation steps. Here, we describe a simple method to increase nucleotide diversity using single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as a starting template. An initial PCR amplification using phosphorylated primers with overlapping regions followed by treatment with lambda exonuclease generates ssDNA templates that can then be annealed via the overlap regions. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is then generated through extension with Klenow fragment. To demonstrate the applicability of this methodology for directed evolution of nucleotide libraries, we generated both gene shuffled and regional mutagenesis synthetic antibody libraries with titers of 2×108 and 6×107, respectively. We conclude that our method is an efficient and convenient approach to generate diversity in nucleic acid based libraries, especially recombinant antibody libraries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library*
  16. Yew CW, Kumar SV
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2012 Feb;39(2):1783-90.
    PMID: 21625851 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-0919-7
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) with approximately 21-24 nucleotides in length. They regulate the expression of target genes through the mechanism of RNA silencing. Conventional isolation and cloning of miRNAs methods are usually technical demanding and inefficient. These limitations include the requirement for high amounts of starting total RNA, inefficient ligation of linkers, high amount of PCR artifacts and bias in the formation of short miRNA-concatamers. Here we describe in detail a method that uses 80 μg of total RNA as the starting material. Enhancement of the ligation of sRNAs and linkers with the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG8000) was described. PCR artifacts from the amplification of reverse-transcribed sRNAs were greatly decreased by using lower concentrations of primers and reducing the number of amplification cycles. Large concatamers with up to 1 kb in size with around 20 sRNAs/concatamer were obtained by using an optimized reaction condition. This protocol provide researchers with a rapid, efficient and cost-effective method for the construction of miRNA profiles from plant tissues containing low amounts of total RNA, such as fruit flesh and senescent leaves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library*
  17. Amelia K, Singh J, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):209-12.
    PMID: 25829797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150536
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  18. Ng CY, Wickneswari R, Choong CY
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(3):6037-49.
    PMID: 25117361 DOI: 10.4238/2014.August.7.18
    Calamus palustris Griff. is an economically important dioecious rattan species in Southeast Asia. However, dioecy and onset of flowering at 3-4 years old render uncertainties in desired female:male seedling ratios to establish a productive seed orchard for this rattan species. We constructed a subtractive library for male floral tissue to understand the genetic mechanism for gender determination in C. palustris. The subtractive library produced 1536 clones with 1419 clones of high quality. Reverse Northern screening showed 313 clones with differential expression, and sequence analyses clustered them into 205 unigenes, including 32 contigs and 173 singletons. The subtractive library was further validated with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Homology identification classified the unigenes into 12 putative functional proteins with 83% unigenes showing significant match to proteins in databases. Functional annotations of these unigenes revealed genes involved in male flower development, including MADS-box genes, pollen-related genes, phytohormones for flower development, and male flower organ development. Our results showed that the male floral genes may play a vital role in sex determination in C. palustris. The identified genes can be exploited to understand the molecular basis of sex determination in C. palustris.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  19. Manoharan B, Sulaimen Z, Omar F, Othman RY, Mohamed SZ, Bhassu S
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2011;10(2):712-6.
    PMID: 21523650 DOI: 10.4238/vol10-2gmr944
    Malaysian arowana (dragonfish; Scleropages formosus) is an ancient osteoglossid fish from southeast Asia. Due to the high demand of the ornamental fish trade and because of habitat loss, the species is close to extinction. We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellites of this species, using 5'-anchored PCR. The number of alleles at the 10 microsatellite loci ranged from 2 to 28, with a mean of 7.8/locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.03 to 0.93 (mean: 0.39), whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 (mean: 0.46). Seven microsatellites deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and three conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were in linkage equilibrium. These 10 novel microsatellites should facilitate studies of genetic diversity and population structure of arowana to help plan actions for the conservation of the indigenous Malaysian arowana.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
  20. Ky, H., Yeap, S. K., Napis, S. B.
    Plant tissues, especially durian tissues contain high content of polysaccharides, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites which can co-precipitate with RNA causing problem in further transcriptomic study. In this experiment, three basic chaotic agents, CTAB, SDS and guanidine are used in three basic protocols for RNA isolation. The effectiveness of each method was determined by spectrophotometer, denaturing agarose gels analysis and northern blot hybridization. CTAB combining with additional sodium acetate precipitation step showed highest yield and best quality of isolated RNA which was free from contaminations of polysaccharides, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites. Furthermore, the total RNA from 4-month old durian flesh of clone D24 was successfully used to construct a cDNA library. In conclusion, CTAB method is effective to isolate total RNA on various types of durian tissues for further gene expression analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Library
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