INTRODUCTION: To study the ß-gene mutations spectrum, the genotype/phenotype correlation, the modulatory effect of co-inherited factors such as α-gene mutations and of Xmn1 polymorphism in a large cohort of Malaysian patients.
METHODS: A total of 264 cases clinically diagnosed as Thalassemia major (TM) (111), Thalassemia intermedia (21), HbE-β Thalassemia (131), and 1 HbE homozygous were studied. The detection of α and ß gene mutations and characterization of Xmn1 polymorphism were performed by multiplex PCR, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), DNA sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR.
RESULTS: A total of 19 ß Thalassemia mutations were characterized. CD26 and CD41/42 were the most common found in the Malay and Chinese population, respectively. The sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis for β TM, thalassemia intermedia, and HbE/β thalassemia was 94.0%, 15.2%, and 89.2%, respectively. Patients with Xmn1 heterozygosity [+/-] required less frequent transfusion compared with those without the polymorphism. Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia alleviates the severity of HbE-β thalassemia in our cohort.
CONCLUSION: Molecular analysis should be used for a better diagnosis and management of β thalassemia.
Anthracyclines play an important role in the management of patients with cancer but the development of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) remains a significant concern for most clinicians. Recently, genetic approach has been used to identify patients at increased risk of ACT. This systematic review assessed the association between genomic markers and ACT. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Studies, CINAHL Plus, AMED, EMBASE and HuGE Navigator from inception until May 2016. Twenty-eight studies examining the association of genetic variants and ACT were identified. These studies examined 84 different genes and 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Meta-analyses showed 3 risk variants significantly increased the risk for ACT; namely ABCC2 rs8187710 (pooled odds ratio: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.36-3.54), CYBA rs4673 (1.55; 1.05-2.30) and RAC2 rs13058338 (1.79; 1.27-2.52). The current evidence remains unclear on the potential role of pharmacogenomic screening prior to anthracycline therapy. Further research is needed to improve the diagnostic and prognostic role in predicting ACT.
Both OLR1 and PCSK9 genes are associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke. The overall prevalence of PCSK9 rs505151 and OLR1 rs11053646 variants in ischemic stroke were 0.005 and 0.116, respectively. However, to date, association between these polymorphisms and ischemic stroke remains inconclusive. Therefore, this first meta-analysis was carried out to clarify the presumed influence of these polymorphisms on ischemic stroke. All eligible case-control and cohort studies that met the search terms were retrieved in multiple databases. Demographic and genotyping data were extracted from each study, and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 and Metafor R 3.2.1. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using both fixed- and random-effect models. Seven case-control studies encompassing 1897 cases and 2119 controls were critically evaluated. Pooled results from the genetic models indicated that OLR1 rs11053646 dominant (OR = 1.33, 95% CI:1.11-1.58) and co-dominant models (OR = 1.24, 95% CI:1.02-1.51) were significantly associated with ischemic stroke. For the PCSK9 rs505151 polymorphism, the OR of co-dominant model (OR = 1.36, 95% CI:1.01-1.58) was found to be higher among ischemic stroke patients. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis highlighted that variant allele of OLR1 rs11053646 G > C and PCSK9 rs505151 A > G may contribute to the susceptibility risk of ischemic stroke.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the resistin gene (RETN) are linked to obesity and resistin levels in various populations. However, results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate association between polymorphisms in the resistin gene with obesity in a homogenous Malaysian Malay population. This study is also aimed to determine association between resistin levels with certain SNPs and haplotypes of RETN. A total of 631 Malaysian Malay subjects were included in this study and genotyping was carried out using Sequenom MassARRAY. There was no significant difference found in both allelic and genotype frequencies of each of the RETN SNPs between the obese and non-obese groups after Bonferroni correction. RETN rs34861192 and rs3219175 SNPs were significantly associated with log-resistin levels. The GG genotype carriers are found to have higher levels of log-resistin compared to A allele carriers. The RETN haplotypes (CAG, CGA and GA) were significantly associated with resistin levels. However, the haplotypes of the RETN gene were not associated with obesity. Resistin levels were not correlated to metabolic parameters such as body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and lipid parameters. RETN SNPs and haplotypes are of apparent functional importance in the regulation of resistin levels but are not correlated with obesity and related markers.
There is a discrepancy between the results of 89 original studies and 15 meta-analyses investigating the association of MTHFR rs1801133 and rs1801131 polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We examined this hypothesis through meta-analyses of both loci and their diplotypes as well as evaluation of previous meta-analyses. The present meta-analysis showed that rs1801133 and rs1801131 might be CRC susceptibility variants in Americans and Australians and rs1801133 in Brazilians and Japanese. A strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between both loci and their diplotypes were associated with CRC risk. Evaluation of 15 meta-analyses showed a high discrepancy among their findings, mainly caused by population stratification of original studies and data analysis strategies in meta-analysis. Population stratification was more dominant in the studies from Australia, America and Brazil leading to false positive or negative results. In conclusion, these loci alone might modify the development of CRC in some ethnicities.
Reproducing genomewide association studies findings in different populations is challenging, because the reproducibility fundamentally relies on the similar patterns of linkage disequilibrium between the unknown causal variants and the genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
PURPOSE: The gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor, gamma 2 (GABRG2) gene encodes the GABRγ2 protein, which has been implicated in susceptibility to epilepsy. Several studies have examined a possible link between the exonic GABRG2 rs211037 locus and susceptibility to febrile seizure (FS) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), however results have been inconclusive. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether this polymorphism is associated with FS or IGE.
METHODS: Eight studies comprising 1871 epilepsy patients and 1387 controls, which evaluated association of the GABRG2 rs211037 polymorphism with susceptibility to epilepsy, were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was carried out separately for FS and IGE.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed a significant association between this polymorphism and susceptibility to FS in a codominant (TT vs. CC, OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.73, p=0.0008 and TT vs. CT, OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42-0.83, p=0.003) and dominant (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.75, p=0.0002) genetic models, influenced by two studies with small sample size. Neither allele nor genotype association was observed with IGE.
CONCLUSION: This study showed significant association of GABRG2 rs211037 with susceptibility to FS, caused by two studies with small sample sizes, however the possibility of false positive results due to the effect of significant studies for FS cannot be excluded. Future studies with larger sample sizes of these patients are suggested to verify the results.
Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Association Studies/statistics & numerical data
Weedy rice is a conspecific form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that infests rice fields and results in severe crop losses. Weed strains in different world regions appear to have originated multiple times from different domesticated and/or wild rice progenitors. In the case of Malaysian weedy rice, a multiple-origin model has been proposed based on neutral markers and analyses of domestication genes for hull color and seed shattering. Here, we examined variation in pericarp (bran) color and its molecular basis to address how this trait evolved in Malaysian weeds and its possible role in weed adaptation. Functional alleles of the Rc gene confer proanthocyanidin pigmentation of the pericarp, a trait found in most wild and weedy Oryzas and associated with seed dormancy; nonfunctional rc alleles were strongly favored during rice domestication, and most cultivated varieties have nonpigmented pericarps. Phenotypic characterizations of 52 Malaysian weeds revealed that most strains are characterized by the pigmented pericarp; however, some weeds have white pericarps, suggesting close relationships to cultivated rice. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Rc haplotypes present in Malaysian weeds likely have at least three distinct origins: wild O. rufipogon, white-pericarp cultivated rice, and red-pericarp cultivated rice. These diverse origins contribute to high Rc nucleotide diversity in the Malaysian weeds. Comparison of Rc allelic distributions with other rice domestication genes suggests that functional Rc alleles may confer particular fitness benefits in weedy rice populations, for example, by conferring seed dormancy. This may promote functional Rc introgression from local wild Oryza populations.
A multitude of factors can affect drug response in individuals. It is now well established that variations in genes, especially those coding for drug metabolising enzymes, can alter the pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic profile of a drug, impacting on efficacy and often resulting in drug-induced toxicity. The UDRUGS study is an initiative from the Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics to biobank DNA and store associated clinical data from patients who have suffered rare and/or serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aim is to provide a genetic explanation of drug-induced ADRs using methods ranging from Sanger sequencing to whole exome and whole genome sequencing. Participants for the UDRUGS study are recruited from various sources, mainly via referral through clinicians working in Canterbury District Health Board, but also from district health boards across New Zealand. Participants have also self-referred to us from word-of-mouth communication between participants. We have recruited various ADRs across most drug classes. Where possible, we have conducted genetic analyses in single or a cohort of cases to identify known and novel genetic association(s) to offer an explanation to why the ADR occurred. Any genetic results relevant to the ADR are communicated back to the referring clinician and/or participant. In conclusion, we have developed a programme for studying the genetic basis of severe, rare or unusual ADR cases resulting from pharmacological treatment. Genomic analyses could eventually identify most genetic variants that predispose to ADRs, enabling a priori detection of such variants with high throughput DNA tests.
Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Association Studies/methods
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most widely recognised cause of irreversible vision loss and previous studies have suggested that the advancement of wet AMD is influenced by both modifiable and non-modifiable elements. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and copy number of variations (CNVs) have been associated with AMD in various populations, however the results are conflicting. Our aim is to determine the CNVs of Complement Factor H-Related genes among Malaysian subjects with wet AMD. 130 patients with wet AMD and 120 healthy controls were included in this research. DNA was extracted from all subjects and CNVs of CFH, CFHR1 and CFHR3 genes; determined using quantitative real-time PCR and were compared between the two groups. A consistent association was observed between CFH gene and wet AMD susceptibility (P
Preterm birth (PTB) is the major cause of death in newborn and the second major cause of death in children less than 5 years old worldwide. Genetic polymorphism has been implicated as a factor for the occurrence of preterm birth. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether polymorphism in the progesterone receptor (PGR) is associated with susceptibility to preterm birth.
Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) are a group of related diseases primarily affecting the peripheral motor and sensory neurons. They include the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN), hereditary motor neuropathies (HMN), and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) to achieve a genetic diagnosis is particularly suited to IPNs, where over 80 genes are involved with weak genotype-phenotype correlations beyond the most common genes. We performed WES for 110 index patients with IPN where the genetic cause was undetermined after previous screening for mutations in common genes selected by phenotype and mode of inheritance. We identified 41 missense sequence variants in the known IPN genes in our cohort of 110 index patients. Nine variants (8%), identified in the genes MFN2, GJB1, BSCL2, and SETX, are previously reported mutations and considered to be pathogenic in these families. Twelve novel variants (11%) in the genes NEFL, TRPV4, KIF1B, BICD2, and SETX are implicated in the disease but require further evidence of pathogenicity. The remaining 20 variants were confirmed as polymorphisms (not causing the disease) and are detailed here to help interpret sequence variants identified in other family studies. Validation using segregation, normal controls, and bioinformatics tools was valuable as supporting evidence for sequence variants implicated in disease. In addition, we identified one SETX sequence variant (c.7640T>C), previously reported as a putative mutation, which we have confirmed as a nonpathogenic rare polymorphism. This study highlights the advantage of using WES for genetic diagnosis in highly heterogeneous diseases such as IPNs and has been particularly powerful in this cohort where genetic diagnosis could not be achieved due to phenotype and mode of inheritance not being previously obvious. However, first tier testing for common genes in clinically well-defined cases remains important and will account for most positive results.
The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.
PurposeGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been instrumental to our understanding of the genetic risk determinants of complex traits. A common challenge in GWAS is the interpretation of signals, which are usually attributed to the genes closest to the polymorphic markers that display the strongest statistical association. Naturally occurring complete loss of function (knockout) of these genes in humans can inform GWAS interpretation by unmasking their deficiency state in a clinical context.MethodsWe exploited the unique population structure of Saudi Arabia to identify novel knockout events in genes previously highlighted in GWAS using combined autozygome/exome analysis.ResultsWe report five families with homozygous truncating mutations in genes that had only been linked to human disease through GWAS. The phenotypes observed in the natural knockouts for these genes (TRAF3IP2, FRMD3, RSRC1, BTBD9, and PXDNL) range from consistent with, to unrelated to, the previously reported GWAS phenotype.ConclusionWe expand the role of human knockouts in the medical annotation of the human genome, and show their potential value in informing the interpretation of GWAS of complex traits.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening inherited disease that particularly affects the airways and digestive systems, which is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. CF is considered as the most common autosomal recessive disorder in the Caucasian population. However, the prevalence of this disease amongst Asians is considered to be low, hence the lack of awareness of this disease amongst geneticists and physicians in Malaysia. This review will describe the features of CF, its molecular genetics, the current classification of CFTR mutation classes, the genotype-phenotype correlations, the effects of modifier genes, and the discourse of the disease pathogenesis, in the hope of raising public awareness of the condition and ultimately to improve the clinical and social care of those affected by CF in Malaysia.
The programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene encodes for the PD-1 (programmed death 1) molecule, which negatively regulates self-reactive T- and B-cells in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. A previous report had shown the development of lupus-like phenotypes in PD-1-deficient C57BL/6 mice, was suggestive to the role of PDCD1 in predisposing to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between PDCD1 and SLE susceptibility in the Malaysian population. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR was employed to screen for PD1.1, PD1.3, PD1.5 and PD1.6 in both SLE and healthy control groups of 200 samples each. The observed frequency for PD1.5C/C genotype was significantly higher in Indian SLE patients and Malay controls (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the PD1.5C/T genotype might predispose the Malays to SLE, but confer a protective effect among the Indians (p < 0.01). The PD1.1, PD1.3 and PD1.6 were, however, not correlated to genetic predisposition of SLE in our Malaysian population. In conclusion, PD1.5 variant was significantly associated to SLE susceptibility in our Malaysian cohort. Our failure in replicating the association between other investigated PDCD1 variants and risk of getting SLE might due to ethnic and geographic variations in the distribution of these genetic variants.
Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Evidence suggested that abnormal activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Some previous studies identified association between genetic variants of BDNF and risk of epilepsy. In this study, this association has been examined in the Hong Kong and Malaysian epilepsy cohorts. Genomic DNA of 6047 subjects (1640 patients with epilepsy and 4407 healthy individuals) was genotyped for rs6265, rs11030104, rs7103411, and rs7127507 polymorphisms by using Sequenom MassArray and Illumina HumanHap 610-Quad or 550-Duo BeadChip arrays techniques. Results showed significant association between rs6265 T, rs7103411 C, and rs7127507 T and cryptgenic epilepsy risk (p = 0.00003, p = 0.0002, and p = 0.002, respectively) or between rs6265 and rs7103411 and symptomatic epilepsy risk in Malaysian Indians (TT vs. CC, p = 0.004 and T vs. C, p = 0.0002, respectively) as well as between rs6265 T and risk of cryptogenic epilepsy in Malaysian Chinese (p = 0.005). The Trs6265-Crs7103411-Trs7127507 was significantly associated with cryptogenic epilepsy in Malaysian Indians (p = 0.00005). In conclusion, our results suggest that BDNF polymorphisms might contribute to the risk of epilepsy in Malaysian Indians and Chinese.
Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) are autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorders caused by the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase due to mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene.
Matched MeSH terms: Genetic Association Studies/methods
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia and familial defective apo lipoprotein B are genetic disorders caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene and apo lipoprotein B 100 genes, respectively. The clinical phenotype of both diseases is characterized by increased plasma levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, tendinous xanthomata, and premature coronary heart disease.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to perform an association study between different gene sequence variants in low-density lipoprotein and apo lipoprotein B 100 genes to the clinical finding and lipid profile parameters of the study subjects.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 164 familial hypercholesterolemic patients were recruited. The promoter region, exon 2-15 of the low density lipoprotein gene and parts of exon 26 and 29 of apo lipoprotein B 100 gene were screened by Denaturating Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
RESULTS: For the apo lipoprotein B 100 gene, those with apo lipoprotein B 100 gene mutation have a significantly higher frequency of cardiovascular disease (P = 0.045), higher low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio than those without mutation (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). For the low density lipoprotein gene defect those with frame shift mutation group showed the worst clinical presentation in terms of low density lipoprotein cholesterol level and cardiovascular frequency.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a statistically significant association between mutations of low density lipoprotein gene and apo lipoprotein B 100 genes and history of cardiovascular disease, younger age of presentation, family history of hyperlipidemia, tendon xanthoma and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level.
Study site: Cardiology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
Asthma susceptibility genes are mapped to a region on human chromosome 5q31-q33, which contains a cluster of proinflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-13 (IL-13), which is associated with asthma. This study investigated the allele frequencies of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-1111C>T and 4257C>A) in the IL-13 gene between asthmatics and healthy volunteers as well as the relationship between these SNPs and IL-13 production. DNA extracted from buffy coat of asthmatic and control subjects was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. Amount of IL-13 produced by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood leucocytes PBLs (PBLs) was determined by ELISA. The frequencies of the -1111C and 4257G wild-type alleles were 0.52 and 0.55 in asthmatics and were 0.67 and 0.56 in controls. A significant (P < 0.05) association was found between genotype and allele frequencies of SNP at position -1111C>T between asthmatic and control groups (OR, 1.810; 95% CI = 1.184 to 2.767; P < 0.05). The mitogen-stimulated PBLs from asthmatics produced higher amounts of IL-13 production (P < 0.001). The 4257GA heterozygous and 4257AA homozygous mutant alleles were associated with higher IL-13 production in asthmatics (P < 0.05). Our results show that the -1111T mutant allele are associated with asthma and the 4257A mutant alleles are associated with elevated IL-13 production.