METHODS: A literature search was performed on six databases using the terms "malnutrition", "hospitalised elderly", "nutritional assessment", "Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)", "Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI)", and "Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)".
RESULTS: According to the previous studies, the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly shows an increasing trend not only locally but also across the world. Under-recognition of malnutrition causes the number of malnourished hospitalized elderly to remain high throughout the years. Thus, the development of nutritional screening and assessment tools has been widely studied, and these tools are readily available nowadays. SGA, MNA, and GNRI are the nutritional assessment tools developed specifically for the elderly and are well validated in most countries. However, to date, there is no single tool that can be considered as the universal gold standard for the diagnosis of nutritional status in hospitalized patients.
CONCLUSION: It is important to identify which nutritional assessment tool is suitable to be used in this group to ensure that a structured assessment and documentation of nutritional status can be established. An early and accurate identification of the appropriate treatment of malnutrition can be done as soon as possible, and thus, the malnutrition rate among this group can be minimized in the future.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1294 married Malaysian older couples who were randomly selected from all 14 states in Malaysia. The data were collected by trained enumerators using a set of validated questionnaires consisting of eight sections, namely sociodemographic characteristics, chronic diseases, perceived health status, life satisfaction, body mass index, disability status (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule), social support (Lubben Social Network Scale) and sexual intimacy.
RESULTS: Having good social support (AOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45-0.74) from family and friends were protective determinants against poor sexual intimacy in later life. Meanwhile, those who were aged 70-79 years (AOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.35-2.42), aged >80 years (AOR 35.49, 95% CI 4.80-262.18), women (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.90), non-Malay (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.50-2.48), received only informal education (AOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.35-2.42), had gastritis (AOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.58-4.34), had a stroke (AOR 3.83, 95% CI 1.04-14.12), perceived their current health status was satisfactory (AOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.00) and disabled based on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (AOR 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36) were at risk of poor sexual intimacy.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of older Malaysian couples were having poor sexual intimacy despite being still married and sleeping with their partners, reflecting the presence of underlying barriers towards sexual intimacy in later life among older Malaysians. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 492-496.
METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate interrater reliability where the HOME FAST was used simultaneously in the homes of older people by 2 raters and a prospective design was used to evaluate test-retest reliability with a separate group of older people at different times in their homes. Both studies took place in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur.
RESULTS: Professionals from 9 professional backgrounds participated as raters in this study, and a group of 51 community older people were recruited for the interrater reliability study and another group of 30 for the test-retest reliability study. The overall agreement was moderate for interrater reliability and good for test-retest reliability. The HOME FAST was consistently rated by different professionals, and no bias was found among the multiple raters.
CONCLUSION: The HOME FAST can be used with confidence by a variety of professionals across different settings. The HOME FAST can become a universal tool to screen for home hazards related to falls.
DESIGN: Two-year prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Kuala Pilah, a district in Negeri Sembilan approximately 100 km from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur.
PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and older. Using a multistage cluster sampling strategy, 1,927 respondents were recruited and assessed at baseline, of whom 1,189 were re-assessed 2 years later.
MEASURES: EAN was determined using the modified Conflict Tactic Scale, and chronic pain was assessed through self-report using validated questions.
RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 20.4%. Cross-sectional results revealed 8 variables significantly associated with chronic pain-age, education, income, comorbidities, self-rated health, depression, gait speed, and EAN. Abused elderly adults were 1.52 times as likely to have chronic pain (odds ratio=1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-2.27), although longitudinal analyses showed no relationship between EAN and risk of chronic pain (risk ratio=1.14, 95% CI=0.81-1.60). This lack of causal link was consistent when comparing analysis with complete cases with that of imputed data.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate no temporal relationship between EAN and chronic pain but indicated cross-sectional associations between the two. This might indicate that, although EAN does not lead to chronic pain, individuals with greater physical limitations are more vulnerable to abuse. Our study also shows the importance of cohort design in determining causal relationships between EAN and potentially linked health outcomes.
METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.
RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.
METHODS: A total of 110 hospitalized geriatric patients aged 60 years and older were selected using convenience sampling method in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data and medical history were obtained from the medical records. Questionnaires were used during the in-person semistructured interviews, which were conducted in the wards. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of each domain of quality of life.
RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed that activities of daily living, depression, and appetite were the determinants of physical health domain of quality of life (R(2)=0.633, F(3, 67)=38.462; P<0.001), whereas depression and instrumental activities of daily living contributed to 55.8% of the variability in psychological domain (R(2)=0.558, F(2, 68)=42.953; P<0.001). Social support and cognitive status were the determinants of social relationship (R(2)=0.539, F(2, 68)=39.763; P<0.001) and also for the environmental domain of the quality of life (R(2)=0.496, F(2, 68)=33.403; P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The findings indicated different predictors for each domain in the quality of life among hospitalized geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus. Nutritional, functional, and psychological aspects should be incorporated into rehabilitation support programs prior to discharge in order to improve patients' quality of life.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Kandy district using multistage sampling. A total of 999 older people were recruited, with a female preponderance. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires on demographic characteristics, depression, and physical activity. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and HGS were recorded. Complex sample general linear model was used to examine the association between HGS and its associated factors.
RESULTS: The mean highest HGS of the study group was 12.56 kg (95% confidence interval: 11.94-13.19). Male older people had a higher HGS (17.02, 95% confidence interval: 15.55-18.49 kg) than females (10.59, 95% confidence interval: 10.12-11.06 kg). For both men and women, older age was associated with lower HGS, while mid-upper arm circumference was associated with better HGS. Diabetes mellitus, vegetarian diet, and alcohol consumption were associated with HGS for women only.
CONCLUSION: Men had a higher HGS compared with women. Age, mid-upper arm circumference, diabetes mellitus, vegetarian diet, and alcohol consumption were factors associated with HGS among community-dwelling older people in Kandy district, Sri Lanka. HGS can be used as a feasible strategy to improve health status of older people by community health nurses.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to externally validate the GerontoNet ADR risk score and to assess its validity in specific subpopulations of older inpatients.
METHODS: Data from the prospective CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) cohort were used. Dose-dependent and predictable ADRs were classified as type A, probable or definite ADRs were defined according to the Naranjo algorithm, and diagnostic accuracy was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a cut-off point of 4.
RESULTS: The mean age of the 1075 patients was 81.4 years (standard deviation 7.4) and the median number of drugs was 10 (range 7-13). At least one ADR was observed in 70 patients (6.5%); ADRs were classified as type A in 50 patients (4.7%) and defined as probable or definite in 41 patients (3.8%). Fair diagnostic accuracy to predict both type A and probable or definite ADRs was found in subpopulations aged <70 or ≥80 years with heart failure, diabetes, or a previous ADR. Good accuracy to predict type A ADRs was found in patients with a low body mass index (BMI; >18.5 kg/m2) and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of >24/30 points, as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. The cut-off point of 4 points yielded very good sensitivity but poor specificity results in these subpopulations.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the GerontoNet ADR risk score might represent a pragmatic approach to identifying specific subpopulations of older inpatients at increased risk of an ADR with a fair to good diagnostic accuracy.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 134 geriatric patients with a mean age of 68.9 ± 8.4 who stayed at acute care wards in Hospital Tuanku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang from July 2017 to August 2017. The SGA, MNA, and GNRI were administered through face-to-face interviews with all the participants who gave their consent. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the GNRI and MNA were analyzed against the SGA. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to obtain the area under the curve (AUC) and suitable optimal cutoff values for both the GNRI and MNA.
RESULTS: According to the SGA, MNA, and GNRI, 26.9%, 42.5%, and 44.0% of the participants were malnourished, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the GNRI were 0.622, 0.977, 0.982, and 0.558, respectively, while those for the MNA were 0.611, 0.909, 0.932, and 0.533, respectively. The AUC of the GNRI was comparable to that of the MNA (0.831 and 0.898, respectively). Moreover, the optimal malnutrition cutoff value for the GNRI was 94.95.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malnutrition remains high among hospitalized elderly patients. Validity of the GNRI is comparable to that of the MNA, and use of the GNRI to assess the nutritional status of this group is proposed with the new suggested cutoff value (GNRI ≤ 94.95), as it is simpler and more efficient. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition can be prevented, possibly reducing the prevalence of malnourished hospitalized elderly patients and improving the quality of the nutritional care process practiced in Malaysia.