Materials and Methods: A total of 111 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly included in the study. The subjects were recalled after 1 month of the commencement of fixed orthodontic treatment for the recording of baseline data including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and modified papillary bleeding index (MPBI). After recording of the baseline data, the subjects were randomly allocated into each of the intervention groups, i.e., group A (manual tooth brush), group B (powered tooth brush), and group C (manual tooth brush combined with mouthwash) by lottery method. Further, all the subjects were recalled after 1 and 2 months for recording the data.
Results: Regarding plaque levels, it was seen that there was a highly statistically significant difference between the three groups (P = 0.001), with the manual tooth brush combined with chlorhexidine mouthwash group recording the lowest mean PI score of 0.5 ± 0.39. A comparison of the mean GI scores among the groups at the end of 2 months shows a highly statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). The mean MPBI scores at the end of 2 months were highly statistically significant among the three groups (P = 0.001), with the group C recording the lowest mean MPBI score of 0.3 ± 0.3.
Conclusion: The powered tooth brush group subjects exhibited significantly lesser PI, GI, and MPBI scores than the manual tooth brush group at the end of 2 months, whereas the manual tooth brush combined with chlorhexidine mouth wash group subjects showed maximum improvement, having significantly lesser PI and GI scores than the powered tooth brush group.
METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled prospective interventional study was conducted in school children aged 8-14 years. The study participants were divided into four groups depending upon the mouthwash used: Group 1 (aloe vera), Group 2 (chlorhexidine), Group 3 (tea tree oil) and Group 4 (placebo). The variables studied included plaque index, gingival index and salivary Streptococcus mutans counts, which were recorded at baseline, 4 weeks after supervised mouth rinse and after 2 weeks of stopping the mouth rinse.
RESULTS: A total of 89 boys and 63 girls were included. A statistically significant decrease in all variables was noted after the use of both the herbal preparations at the end of 4 weeks which was maintained after the 2-week washout period (p
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant systematic search of literature was done from the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Literature that fulfilled eligibility criteria was identified. Data measuring plaque score and bleeding score were extracted. Qualitative and random-effects meta-analyses were conducted.
RESULTS: From 1736 titles and abstracts screened, eight articles were utilized for qualitative analysis, while five were selected for meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimates of SMD and 95% CI were -0.07 [-0.60 to 0.45] with an χ2 statistic of 0.32 (p = 0.0001), I2 = 80% as anti-plaque function and 95% CI were -2.07 [-4.05 to -0.10] with an χ2 statistic of 1.67 (p = 0.02), I2 = 82%.
CONCLUSION: S. persica chewing stick is a tool that could control plaque, comparable to a standard toothbrush. Further, it has a better anti-gingivitis effect and can be used as an alternative.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of toothpaste containing aqueous SH extract on plaque-induced gingivitis following orthodontic bond-up and to identify the optimal concentration of SH.
METHODS: A single-centred; triple-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted in 40 patients with FA. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the four groups with toothpaste which has concentration of SH extract of 0%, 3%, 6% or 9%. The statistician, the participants and the researchers involved in data collection were kept blinded from the allocation. Gingival Index (GI) and Bleeding on Probing (BOP) for each group were taken at day 0,7,14 and 30.
RESULTS: 9% of SH-containing toothpaste (SHCT) showed most substantial result as there were significance difference of GI (P = 0.020) from Day 7 to 14 and from Day 0 to 14 (P = 0.020). There was also significance difference of BOP from Day 0 to 14 (P = 0.022) and from Day 0 to 30 (P = 0.027). Significant difference was seen in 3% of SHCT group with the decrease of GI (P = 0.004) from Day 1 to 14. There were no significant difference noted for 0% and 6% SHCT.
CONCLUSION: The 9% SHCT is the most effective concentration to reduce both the gingival inflammation (up to day 14) and bleeding on probing (up to day 30).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted over a 3-month period at a primary dental clinic in Malaysia, 45 participants were recruited via consecutive sampling and assigned into three groups, namely healthy periodontium group (n = 15), gingivitis group (n = 15), and periodontitis group (n = 15). Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma samples were collected from each participant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was conducted to measure the concentration of IL-10, IL-17, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-37. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare the interleukin levels between patient groups.
RESULTS: In GCF samples, IL-17 level was the highest in the periodontitis group (p <0.05), while IL-27 was the lowest (p <0.05). Meanwhile, plasma levels of IL-27 and IL-37 were significantly lower (p <0.05) in the periodontitis group, but plasma IL-35 levels were observed to rise with increasing disease severity.
CONCLUSION: There are reduced local and systemic levels of IL-27 in periodontitis patients.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Periodontal diseases exert both local and systemic effects, resulting in the destruction of the tooth-supporting structures and contributing to the systemic inflammatory burden. Some of the cytokines that were investigated in the current study, IL-17, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-37, can be potential biomarkers that warrant further longitudinal clinical studies to determine their usefulness as prognostic/diagnostic markers.