It has been reported that the adhesion of bioactive glass coatings to Ti6Al4V reduces after degradation, however, this effect has not been quantified. This paper uses bilayer double cantilever (DCB) specimens to determine GIC and GIIC, the critical mode I and mode II strain energy release rates, respectively, of bioactive coating/Ti6Al4V substrate systems degraded to different extents. Three borate-based bioactive glass coatings with increasing amounts of incorporated SrO (0, 15 and 25mol%) were enamelled onto Ti6Al4V substrates and then immersed in de-ionized water for 2, 6 and 24h. The weight loss of each glass composition was measured and it was found that the dissolution rate significantly decreased with increasing SrO content. The extent of dissolution was consistent with the hypothesis that the compressive residual stress tends to reduce the dissolution rate of bioactive glasses. After drying, the bilayer DCB specimens were created and subjected to nearly mode I and mode II fracture tests. The toughest coating/substrate system (one composed of the glass containing 25mol% SrO) lost 80% and 85% of its GIC and GIIC, respectively, in less than 24h of degradation. The drop in GIC and GIIC occurred even more rapidly for other coating/substrate systems. Therefore, degradation of borate bioactive glass coatings is inversely related to their fracture toughness when coated onto Ti6A4V substrates. Finally, roughening the substrate was found to be inconsequential in increasing the toughness of the system as the fracture toughness was limited by the cohesive toughness of the glass itself.
This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG) systems in the form of (GeO(2))(60)-(PbO)(40-) (x)-(½Bi(2)O(3))(x) where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi(2)O(3) concentration were determined using Archimedes' method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B(2)O(3))(20)-(PbO)(80-) (x)-(Bi(2)O(3))(x). The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi(2)O(3) content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young's also increase linearly with addition of Bi(2)O(3) but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson's ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi(2)O(3) concentration.
A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi(2)O(3))(x) (TeO(2))(100-) (x) was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi(3+) increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi(3+) and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, E(opt) decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi(3+) content increases.
We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters.
Bio-composites are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly, could reduce the overall cost and provide lightweight due to the low density of the natural fibers. In a bid to compete with the synthetic fiber reinforced composites, a single natural fiber composite may not be a good choice to obtain optimal properties. Hence, hybrid composites are produced by adding two or more natural fibers together to obtain improved properties, such as mechanical, physical, thermal, water absorption, acoustic and dynamic, among others. Regarding thermal stability, the composites showed a significant change by varying the individual fiber compositions, fiber surface treatments, addition of fillers and coupling agents. The glass transition temperature and melting point obtained from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are not the same values for several hybrid composites, since the volume variation was not always parallel with the enthalpy change. However, the difference between the temperature calculated from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry was lower. Significantly, this critical reviewed study has a potential of guiding all composite designers, manufacturers and users on right selection of composite materials for thermal applications, such as engine components (covers), heat shields and brake ducts, among others.
Lithium borate (LB) glasses doped with dysprosium oxide (Dy2 O3 ) have been prepared by utilizing the conventional melt-quench technique. The prepared glass samples were exposed to 60 Co to check their dosimetric features and kinetic parameters. These features involve glow curves, annealing, fading, reproducibility, minimum detectable dose (MDD), and effective atomic number (Zeff ). Kinetic parameters including the frequency factors and activation energy were also determined using three methods (glow curve analysis, initial rise, and peak shape method) and were thoroughly interpreted. In addition, the incorporation of Dy impurities into LB enhanced the thermoluminescence sensitivity ~170 times. The glow from LB:Dy appeared as a single prominent peak at 190°C. The best annealing proceeding was obtained at 300°C for 30 min. Signal stability was reported for a period of 1 and 3 months with a reduction of 26% and 31%, respectively. The proposed glass samples showed promising dosimeter properties that can be recommended for personal radiation monitoring.
Skin crack defects can develop in sandwich honeycomb composite structures during service life due to static and impact loads. In this study, the fracture behavior of sandwich honeycomb composite (SHC) beams containing crack at the skin was investigated experimentally and numerically under four-point loading. Three different arrangements of unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber composite and the triaxially woven (TW) fabric were considered for the skins. The presence of a 10 mm crack at mid-span of the top skin, mid-span of the bottom skin, and mid-way between load and support of the top skin, respectively, were considered. Failure load equations of the load initiating the skin crack extension were analytically derived and then numerically developed using the J-integral approach. The crack extension failure mode dominated all cracked specimens except those with low-stiffness skin which were controlled by the compressive skin debonding and core shear failures.
Heavy metal oxide glasses, containing bismuth and/or lead in their glass structure are new alternatives for rare eart (RE) doped hosts. Hence, the study of the structure of these vitreous systems is of great interest for science and technology. In this research work, GeO(2)-PbO-Bi(2)O(3) glass host doped with Er(3+)/Yb(3+) ions was synthesized by a conventional melt quenching method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that PbO and Bi(2)O(3) participate with PbO(4) tetragonal pyramids and strongly distort BiO(6) octahedral units in the glass network, which subsequently act as modifiers in glass structure. These results also confirmed the existence of both four and six coordination of germanium oxide in glass matrix.
This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.
Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment.
This paper reports on the direct ability of two positively charged organic polyelectrolytes (natural-based and synthetic) to reduce the atrazine concentration in water. The adsorption study was set up using multiple glass vessels with different polymer dosing levels followed by ultrafiltration with a 1 kDa membrane. The addition of polymers exhibited a capability in reducing the atrazine concentration up to a maximum of 60% in surface-to-volume ratio experiments. In the beginning, the theoretical L-type of the isotherm of Giles' classification was expected with an increase in the dosage of the polymer. However, in this study, the conventional type of isotherm was not observed. It was found that the adsorption of the cationic polymer on the negatively charged glass surface was necessary and influential for the removal of atrazine. Surface-to-volume ratio adsorption experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms and the polymer configuration. The glass surface area was determined to be a limiting parameter in the adsorption mechanism.
A radio frequency (RF) resonator using glass-reinforced epoxy material for C and X band is proposed in this paper. Microstrip line technology for RF over glass-reinforced epoxy material is analyzed. Coupling mechanism over RF material and parasitic coupling performance is explained utilizing even and odd mode impedance with relevant equivalent circuit. Babinet's principle is deployed to explicate the circular slot ground plane of the proposed resonator. The resonator is designed over four materials from different backgrounds which are glass-reinforced epoxy, polyester, gallium arsenide (GaAs), and rogers RO 4350B. Parametric studies and optimization algorithm are applied over the geometry of the microstrip resonator to achieve dual band response for C and X band. Resonator behaviors for different materials are concluded and compared for the same structure. The final design is fabricated over glass-reinforced epoxy material. The fabricated resonator shows a maximum directivity of 5.65 dBi and 6.62 dBi at 5.84 GHz and 8.16 GHz, respectively. The lowest resonance response is less than -20 dB for C band and -34 dB for X band. The resonator is prototyped using LPKF (S63) drilling machine to study the material behavior.
We report significant enhancements in Er(3+) luminescence as well as in Raman intensity in silver nanoparticles embedded zinc-tellurite glass. Surface enhanced Raman scattering effect is highlighted for the first time in tellurite glass containing silver NPs resulting in an enhanced Raman signal (~10 times). SAED manifest the growth of Ag(0) nanoparticles along the (111) and (200) crystallographic planes having average diameter in the range 14-36 nm. Surface plasmon resonance bands are observed in the range 484-551 nm. Furthermore, four prominent photoluminescence bands undergo significant enhancements up to 3 times. The enhancement is majorly attributed to the local field effect of silver NPs.
In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
In this paper, the newly explored TiO(2)-Chitosan/Glass was suggested as a promising alternative material to conventional means of wastewater treatment. Characterization of TiO(2)-Chitosan/Glass photocatalyst was studied with SEM-EDX, XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The combination effect of photodegradation-adsorption process for the removal of methyl orange (MO), an acid dye of the monoazo series occur promisingly when four layers of TiO(2)-Chitosan/Glass photocatalyst was used for MO removal. Approximately, 87.0% of total MO removal was achieved. The reactive -NH(2), -OH, and metal oxide contents in the prepared photocatalyst responsible for the photodegradation-adsorption effect were confirmed by FTIR study. Similarly, MO removal behavior was well supported by SEM-EDX and XRD analysis. Significant dependence of MO removal on the TiO(2)-Chitosan loading can be explained in terms of relationship between quantum yield of photocatalytic reactions and photocatalyst structure/activity. Hence, the research work done thus far suggests a new method, having both the advantages of photodegradation-adsorption process in the abatement of various wastewater pollutants.
The thermoluminescent properties of boric glass modified with lithium and potassium carbonates (LKB) and co-doped with CuO and MgO are reported for the first time. Two techniques are applied to investigate the effect of dopants and co-dopants on the thermal stimulation properties of LKB. The induced TL glow curves of a CuO-doped sample are found to be at 220°C with a single peak. An enhancement of about three times is shown with the increment of 0.1 mol % MgO as a co-dopant impurity. This enhancement may contribute to the ability of magnesium to create extra electron traps and consequently the energy transfer to monovalent Cu(+) ions. LKB:Cu,Mg is low Z material (Zeff=8.55), and observed 15 times less sensitive than LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100). The proposed dosemeter showed good linearity in TL dose-response, low fading and excellent reproducibility with a simple glow curve, and thus, can be used in the radiation dosimetry.
A systematic set of borotellurite glasses doped with manganese (1-x) [(B(2)O(3))(0.3)(TeO(2))(0.7)]-xMnO, with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol%, were successfully synthesized by using a conventional melt and quench-casting technique. In this study, the remelting effect of the glass samples on their microstructure was investigated through density measurement and FT-IR spectra and evaluated by XRD techniques. Initial experimental results from XRD evaluation show that there are two distinct phases of glassy and crystallite microstructure due to the existence of peaks in the sample. The different physical behaviors of the studied glasses were closely related to the concentration of manganese in each phase. FTIR spectra revealed that the addition of manganese oxide contributes the transformation of TeO(4) trigonal bipyramids with bridging oxygen (BO) to TeO(3) trigonal pyramids with non-bridging oxygen (NBO).
Cobalt titanate-titania composite oxide films have been grown on FTO-coated glass substrates using a single-source heterometallic complex [Co2Ti4(μ-O)6(TFA)8(THF)6]·THF () which was obtained in quantitative yield from the reaction of diacetatocobalt(ii) tetrahydrate, tetraisopropoxytitanium(iv), and trifluoroacetic acid from a tetrahydrofuran solution. Physicochemical investigations of complex have been carried out by melting point, FT-IR, thermogravimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. CoTiO3-TiO2 films composed of spherical objects of various sizes have been grown from by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures of 500, 550 and 600 °C. Thin films characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis have been explored for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). The cyclic voltammetry with the CoTiO3-TiO2 electrode showed a DA oxidation peak at +0.215 V while linear sweep voltammetry displayed a detection limit (LoD) of 0.083 μM and a linear concentration range of 20-300 μM for DA. Thus, the CoTiO3-TiO2 electrode is a potential candidate for the sensitive and selective detection of DA.
The study aims to characterize the structural relaxation times of quench-cooled co-amorphous systems using Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) and to correlate the relaxation data with the onset of crystallization. Comparison was also made between the relaxation times obtained by KWW and the width of glass transition temperature (ΔTg) methods (simple and quick). Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and polarized light microscopy were used to characterize the systems. Results showed that co-amorphous systems yielded a single Tg and ΔCp, suggesting the binary mixtures exist as a single amorphous phase. A narrow step change at Tg indicates the systems were fragile glasses. In co-amorphous nap-indo and para-indo, experimental Tgs were in good agreement with the predicted Tg. However, the Tg of co-amorphous nap-cim and indo-cim were 20°C higher than the predicted Tg, possibly due to stronger molecular interactions. Structural relaxation times below the experimental Tg were successfully characterized using the KWW and ΔTg methods. The comparison plot showed that KWW data are directly proportional to the ½ power of ΔTg data, after adjusting for a small offset. A moderate positive correlation was observed between the onset of crystallization and the KWW data. Structural relaxation times may be useful predictor of physical stability of co-amorphous systems.