Diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) are two natural occurring minor components found in most edible fats and oils. These compounds have gained increasing market demand owing to their unique physicochemical properties. Enzymatic glycerolysis in solvent-free system might be a promising approach in producing DAG and MAG-enriched oil. Understanding on glycerolysis mechanism is therefore of great importance for process simulation and optimization. In this study, a commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) was used to catalyze the glycerolysis reaction. The kinetics of enzymatic glycerolysis reaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycerol (G) were modeled using rate equation with unsteady-state assumption. Ternary complex, ping-pong bi-bi and complex ping-pong bi-bi models were proposed and compared in this study. The reaction rate constants were determined using non-linear regression and sum of square errors (SSE) were minimized. Present work revealed satisfactory agreement between experimental data and the result generated by complex ping-pong bi-bi model as compared to other models. The proposed kinetic model would facilitate understanding on enzymatic glycerolysis for DAG and MAG production and design optimization of a pilot-scale reactor.
This study examines the effects of varying the concentrations of sorbitol (S) and glycerol (G) on the physical, morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of Dioscorea hispida, starch-based films. In this context, the films of Dioscorea hispida starch were developed using solution casting technique with glycerol (G), sorbitol (S), and a mixture of sorbitol-glycerol (SG) as plasticizers at the ratios of 0, 30, 45, and 60 wt%. The films' moisture contents were increased when increasing the plasticizer contents. The tensile strengths were decreased, but elongations at break were increased; 7.38%-11.54% for G-plasticized films, 10.17%-15.76% for S-plasticized films, and 14.41%- 16.10% for SG-plasticized films with increasing plasticizer concentrations of the film samples. Varying plasticizer concentrations exhibited a minor effect on the S-plasticized film's thermal properties. Significant decrement in the glass transition temperatures of Dioscorea hispida starch films was observed when the plasticizer contents were raised from 30% to 60%. Significantly, the present work has shown that plasticized Dioscorea hispida starch can be considered a promising biopolymer for the applications of biodegradable films.
The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation.
In recent years, increasing environmental concerns focused greater attention on the development of biodegradable materials. A thermoplastic starch derived from bioresources, sugar palm tree was successfully developed in the presence of biodegradable glycerol as a plasticizer. Sugar palm starch (SPS) was added with 15-40 w/w% of glycerol to prepare workable bioplastics and coded as SPS/G15, SPS/G20, SPS/G30 and SPS/G40. The samples were characterized for thermal properties, mechanical properties and moisture absorption on exposure to humidity were evaluated. Morphological studies through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to explain the observed mechanical properties. Generally, the addition of glycerol decrease the transition temperature of plasticized SPS. The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS increase with the increasing of glycerol but up to 30 w/w%. Meanwhile, the water absorption of plasticized SPS decrease with increasing of glycerol.
Momordica charantia bioactive polysaccharide (MCBP) was used as an alternative source for the production of bio-based plastics (BPs) with choline chloride/glycerol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a plasticizer. In this study, MCBP was initially extracted using 0.1 M citric acid at temperature 80 °C for 2 h, precipitated using ethanol, and then lyophilized. Subsequently, seven BPs were prepared: MCBP without plasticizer (MCBP), with 1% (w/w) of glycerol (MCBP-G), or with 1% (w/w) of DES at different choline chloride/glycerol molar ratios (i.e. 1.5:1, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, and 1:3). The properties of these BPs were then investigated. Results showed that the tensile strains, stresses and moduli were in the range of 1.3-13.3%, 4.8-19.1 MPa and 132-2487 MPa, respectively. The melting temperatures were found in the range of 92.6-111.4 °C whereas the moisture absorptions and water vapour transmission rates (WVTR) of BPs were 1.4-6.5% and 3.6-5.4 mg/m2·s, respectively. The results also showed that these BPs exhibited bioactivities, such as microbial inhibitory activity (19.5-32.3 mm), free radical scavenging activity (10.3-18.3%) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 16.1-20.0 mM). In addition, it was observed that using DES as a plasticizer had improved the properties of BP, such as tensile strain (354.7-937.5%), melting temperature (4.6-20.3%), radical scavenging activity (0.6-88.6%), FRAP (0.9-18.7%) and antimicrobial activity (12.3-33.6%) compared to MCBP, due to the fact DES has caused different degrees of plasticization via hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds with the polymer chains, and induced a lower pH condition. Therefore, it was suggested that these BPs with DES could contribute to food preservation properties.
The influence of diacylglycerol (DAG) combined with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the stability of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions containing hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) was studied. Polarized light microscope revealed that DAG promoted HPO to crystallize at the water-oil interface, providing the combination of Pickering and network stabilization effects. It was proposed that the molecular compatibility of fatty acids in DAG with HPO accounted for the promotional effect. The interfacial crystallization of DAG together with the surface activity of PGPR led to the formation of emulsions with uniform small droplets and high freeze-thaw stability. Further exploration of physical properties indicated that the combination of DAG and PGPR dramatically improved the emulsion's viscoelasticity and obtained a larger deformation yield. Water droplets in DAG-based emulsions acted as active fillers to improve the network rigidity. Therefore, DAG is a promising material to be used as emulsifier to enhance the physical stability of W/O emulsions.
Phthalocyanines are excellent photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy as they have strong absorbance in the near infra-red region which is most relevant for in vivo activation in deeper tissular regions. However, most phthalocyanines present two major challenges, ie, a strong tendency to aggregate and low water-solubility, limiting their effective usage clinically. In the present study, we evaluated the potential enhancement capability of glycerol substitution on the photodynamic properties of zinc (II) phthalocyanines (ZnPc). Three glycerol substituted ZnPc, 1-3, (tetra peripherally, tetra non-peripherally and mono iodinated tri non-peripherally respectively) were evaluated in terms of their spectroscopic properties, rate of singlet oxygen generation, partition coefficient (log P), intracellular uptake, photo-induced cytotoxicity and vascular occlusion efficiency. Tetrasulfonated ZnPc (ZnPcS4) was included as a reference compound. Here, we showed that 1-3 exhibited 10-100 nm red-shifted absorption peaks with higher molar absorptivity, and at least two-fold greater singlet oxygen generation rates compared to ZnPcS4. Meanwhile, phthalocyanines 1 and 2 showed more hydrophilic log P values than 3 consistent with the number of glycerol attachments but 3 was most readily taken up by cells compared to the rest. Both phthalocyanines 2 and 3 exhibited potent phototoxicity against MCF-7, HCT-116 and HSC-2 cancer cell-lines with IC50 ranging 2.8-3.2 µM and 0.04-0.06 µM respectively, while 1 and ZnPcS4 (up to 100 µM) failed to yield determinable IC50 values. In terms of vascular occlusion efficiency, phthalocyanine 3 showed better effects than 2 by causing total occlusion of vessels with diameter <70 µm of the chorioallantoic membrane. Meanwhile, no detectable vascular occlusion was observed for ZnPcS4 with treatment under similar experimental conditions. These findings provide evidence that glycerol substitution, in particular in structures 2 and 3, is able to improve the photodynamic properties of ZnPc.
The study was conducted based on two objectives as framework. The first objective is to determine the point of microwave signal reflection while penetrating into the simulation models and, the second objective is to analyze the reflection pattern when the signal penetrate into the layers with different relative permittivity, εr. Thus, several microwave models were developed to make a close proximity of the in vivo human brain. The study proposed two different layers on two different characteristics models. The radii on the second layer and the corresponding antenna positions are the factors for both models. The radii for model 1 is 60 mm with an antenna position of 10 mm away, in contrast, model 2 is 10 mm larger in size with a closely adapted antenna without any gap. The layers of the models were developed with different combination of materials such as Oil, Sandy Soil, Brain, Glycerin and Water. Results show the combination of Glycerin + Brain and Brain + Sandy Soil are the best proximity of the in vivo human brain grey and white matter. The results could benefit subsequent studies for further enhancement and development of the models.
The synthesis of oxygenated fuel additives via solvent freebase-catalyzed etherification of glycerol is reported. The products of glycerol etherification arediglycerol (DG) and triglycerol (TG) with DG being the favorable one. The catalytic activity of different homogeneous alkali catalysts (LiOH, NaOH, KOH and Na(2)CO(3)) was investigated during the glycerol etherification process. LiOH exhibited an excellent catalytic activity during this reaction, indicated by the complete glycerol conversion with a corresponding selectivity of 33% toward DG. The best reaction conditions were a reaction temperature of 240°C, a catalyst/glycerol mass ratio of 0.02 and a reaction time of 6h. The influences of various reaction variables such as nature of the catalyst, catalyst loading, reaction time and reaction temperature on glycerol etherification were elucidated. Industrially, the findings attained in this study might contribute towards promoting the biodiesel industry through utilization of its by-products.
In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the influence of main emulsion composition variables, namely drug loading, oil content, emulsifier content as well as the effect of the ultrasonic operating parameters such as pre-mixing time, ultrasonic amplitude, and irradiation time on the properties of aspirin-loaded nanoemulsions. The two main emulsion properties studied as response variables were: mean droplet size and polydispersity index. The ultimate goal of the present work was to determine the optimum level of the six independent variables in which an optimal aspirin nanoemulsion with desirable properties could be produced. The response surface analysis results clearly showed that the variability of two responses could be depicted as a linear function of the content of main emulsion compositions and ultrasonic processing variables. In the present investigation, it is evidently shown that ultrasound cavitation is a powerful yet promising approach in the controlled production of aspirin nanoemulsions with smaller average droplet size in a range of 200-300 nm and with a polydispersity index (PDI) of about 0.30. This study proved that the use of low frequency ultrasound is of considerable importance in the controlled production of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions in the drug delivery system.
In this study, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been successfully produced from transesterification reaction between triglycerides and methyl acetate, instead of alcohol. In this non-catalytic supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) technology, triacetin which is a valuable biodiesel additive is produced as side product rather than glycerol, which has lower commercial value. Besides, the properties of the biodiesel (FAME and triacetin) were found to be superior compared to those produced from conventional catalytic reactions (FAME only). In this study, the effects of various important parameters on the yield of biodiesel were optimized by utilizing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) analysis. The mathematical model developed was found to be adequate and statistically accurate to predict the optimum yield of biodiesel. The optimum conditions were found to be 399 degrees C for reaction temperature, 30 mol/mol of methyl acetate to oil molar ratio and reaction time of 59 min to achieve 97.6% biodiesel yield.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to investigate the influence of the main emulsion composition; mixture of palm and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil (6%-12% w/w), lecithin (1%-3% w/w), and Cremophor EL (0.5%-1.5% w/w) as well as the preparation method; addition rate (2-20 mL/min), on the physicochemical properties of palm-based nanoemulsions. The response variables were the three main emulsion properties; particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. Optimization of the four independent variables was carried out to obtain an optimum level palm-based nanoemulsion with desirable characteristics. The response surface analysis showed that the variation in the three responses could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main composition of the emulsion and the preparation method. The experimental data could be fitted sufficiently well into a second-order polynomial model. The optimized formulation was stable for six months at 4 °C.
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.
Lipases with unique characteristics are of value in industrial applications, especially those targeting cost-effectiveness and less downstream processes. The aims of this research were to: (i) optimize the fermentation parameters via solid state fermentation (SSF); and (ii) study the performance in hydrolysis and esterification processes of the one-step partially purified Schizophyllum commune UTARA1 lipases. Lipase was produced by cultivating S. commune UTARA1 on sugarcane bagasse (SB) with used cooking oil (UCO) via SSF and its production was optimized using Design-Expert® 7.0.0. Fractions 30% (ScLipA) and 70% (ScLipB) which contained high lipase activity were obtained by stepwise (NH₄)₂SO₄ precipitation. Crude fish oil, coconut oil and butter were used to investigate the lipase hydrolysis capabilities by a free glycerol assay. Results showed that ScLipA has affinities for long, medium and short chain triglycerides, as all the oils investigated were degraded, whereas ScLipB has affinities for long chain triglycerides as it only degrades crude fish oil. During esterification, ScLipA was able to synthesize trilaurin and triacetin. Conversely, ScLipB was specific towards the formation of 2-mono-olein and triacetin. From the results obtained, it was determined that ScLipA and ScLipB are sn-2 regioselective lipases. Hence, the one-step partial purification strategy proved to be feasible for partial purification of S. commune UTARA1 lipases that has potential use in industrial applications.
A moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from fermenting shrimp paste, Salinivibrio sp. M318 was found capable of using fish sauce and mixtures of waste fish oil and glycerol as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production. A cell dry weight (CDW) of up to 10 g/L and PHB content of 51.7 wt% were obtained after 48 h of cultivation in flask experiment. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] was synthesized when 1,4-butanediol, γ-butyrolactone, or sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate was added as precursors to the culture medium. The biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] was achieved by supplying precursors such as sodium valerate, sodium propionate, and sodium heptanoate. Salinivibrio sp. M318 was able to accumulate the above mentioned PHAs during the growth phase. High CDW of 69.1 g/L and PHB content of 51.5 wt% were obtained by strain Salinivibrio sp. M318 after 78 h of cultivation in fed-batch culture. The results demonstrate Salinivibrio sp. M318 to be a promising wild-type bacterium for the production of PHA from aquaculture residues.
Plasticized magnesium ion conducting polymer blend electrolytes based on chitosan (CS): polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was synthesized with a casting technique. The source of ions is magnesium triflate Mg(CF3SO3)2, and glycerol was used as a plasticizer. The electrical and electrochemical characteristics were examined. The outcome from X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination illustrates that the electrolyte with highest conductivity exhibits the minimum degree of crystallinity. The study of the dielectric relaxation has shown that the peak appearance obeys the non-Debye type of relaxation process. An enhancement in conductivity of ions of the electrolyte system was achieved by insertion of glycerol. The total conductivity is essentially ascribed to ions instead of electrons. The maximum DC ionic conductivity was measured to be 1.016 × 10-5 S cm-1 when 42 wt.% of plasticizer was added. Potential stability of the highest conducting electrolyte was found to be 2.4 V. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response shows the behavior of the capacitor is non-Faradaic where no redox peaks appear. The shape of the CV response and EDLC specific capacitance are influenced by the scan rate. The specific capacitance values were 7.41 F/g and 32.69 F/g at 100 mV/s and 10 mV/s, respectively. Finally, the electrolyte with maximum conductivity value is obtained and used as electrodes separator in the electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The role of lattice energy of magnesium salts in energy storage performance is discussed in detail.
Microbial mannanases have become biotechnologically important in industry but their application is limited due to high production cost. In presents study, the extraction of mannanase from fermented Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Local isolate of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was grown on PKC in (SSF) using column bioreactor. The optimum condition were achieved after two washes of fermented PKC by adding of 10% glycerol (v/v) soaked for 10 h at the room temperature with solvent to ratio, 1:5 (w/v).
Palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion-loaded with chloramphenicol was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), a multivariate statistical technique. Effect of independent variables (oil amount, lecithin amount and glycerol amount) toward response variables (particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and osmolality) were studied using central composite design (CCD). RSM analysis showed that the experimental data could be fitted into a second-order polynomial model. Chloramphenicol-loaded nanoemulsion was formulated by using high pressure homogenizer. The optimized chloramphenicol-loaded nanoemulsion response values for particle size, PDI, zeta potential and osmolality were 95.33nm, 0.238, -36.91mV, and 200mOsm/kg, respectively. The actual values of the formulated nanoemulsion were in good agreement with the predicted values obtained from RSM. The results showed that the optimized compositions have the potential to be used as a parenteral emulsion to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) for meningitis treatment.
TylP is one of five regulatory proteins involved in the regulation of antibiotic (tylosin) production, morphological and physiological differentiation in Streptomyces fradiae. Its function is similar to those of various γ-butyrolactone receptor proteins. In this report, N-terminally His-tagged recombinant TylP protein (rTylP) was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The rTylP protein was crystallized from a reservoir solution comprising 34%(v/v) ethylene glycol and 5%(v/v) glycerol. The protein crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.05 Å resolution and belonged to the trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 126.62, c = 95.63 Å.
Paclitaxel (PTX) injection (i.e., Taxol) has been used as an effective chemotherapeutic treatment for various cancers. However, the current Taxol formulation contains Cremophor EL, which causes hypersensitivity reactions during intravenous administration and precipitation by aqueous dilution. This communication reports the preliminary results on the ionic liquid (IL)-based PTX formulations developed to address the aforementioned issues. The formulations were composed of PTX/cholinium amino acid ILs/ethanol/Tween-80/water. A significant enhancement in the solubility of PTX was observed with considerable correlation with the density and viscosity of the ILs, and with the side chain of the amino acids used as anions in the ILs. Moreover, the formulations were stable for up to 3 months. The driving force for the stability of the formulation was hypothesized to be the involvement of different types of interactions between the IL and PTX. In vitro cytotoxicity and antitumor activity of the IL-based formulations were evaluated on HeLa cells. The IL vehicles without PTX were found to be less cytotoxic than Taxol, while both the IL-based PTX formulation and Taxol exhibited similar antitumor activity. Finally, in vitro hypersensitivity reactions were evaluated on THP-1 cells and found to be significantly lower with the IL-based formulation than Taxol. This study demonstrated that specially designed ILs could provide a potentially safer alternative to Cremophor EL as an effective PTX formulation for cancer treatment giving fewer hypersensitivity reactions.