HYPOTHESIS: Consumption of Marantodes pumilum leaves helps to ameliorate increased in vaginal fluid pH in sex-steroid deficient condition.
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in vaginal fluid pH and expression of proteins that participate in pH changes i.e vacoular (V)-ATPases and carbonic anhydrases (CA) in the vagina following M. pumilum leaves consumption.
METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female rats were treated orally with M. pumilum leaves extract (MPE) at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg.b.w and estradiol at 0.2 µg/kg/b.w for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, vaginal fluid pH was measured in anesthetised rats by using micropH probe. Following sacrificed, levels of V-ATPase and CA proteins and mRNAs in the vagina were identified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Protein distribution was visualized by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Administration of MPE causes the pH of vaginal fluid to decrease and expression and distribution of vaginal V-ATPase A & B and CA II, III, IX, XII and XIII to increase.
CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in vaginal fluid pH following MPE treatment suggested that this herb has potential to be used to ameliorate vaginal fluid pH changes in sex-steroid deficient condition.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥ 15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7).
CONCLUSIONS: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors.