Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 37 in total

  1. Darroudi M, Ahmad MB, Abdullah AH, Ibrahim NA, Shameli K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(10):3898-905.
    PMID: 21152307 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11103898
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  2. Tajdidzadeh M, Azmi BZ, Yunus WM, Talib ZA, Sadrolhosseini AR, Karimzadeh K, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:324921.
    PMID: 25295298 DOI: 10.1155/2014/324921
    The particle size, morphology, and stability of Ag-NPs were investigated in the present study. A Q-Switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser (λ = 532 nm, 360 mJ/pulse) was used for ablation of a pure Ag plate for 30 min to prepare Ag-NPs in the organic compound such as ethylene glycol (EG) and biopolymer such as chitosan. The media (EG, chitosan) permitted the making of NPs with well dispersed and average size of Ag-NPs in EG is about 22 nm and in chitosan is about 10 nm in spherical form. Particle size, morphology, and stability of NPs were compared with distilled water as a reference. The stability of the samples was studied by measuring UV-visible absorption spectra of samples after one month. The result indicated that the formation efficiency of NPs in chitosan was higher than other media and NPs in chitosan solution were more stable than other media during one month storage. This method for synthesis of silver NPs could be as a green method due to its environmentally friendly nature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  3. Sivakumar M, Tang SY, Tan KW
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2014 Nov;21(6):2069-83.
    PMID: 24755340 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.03.025
    Novel nanoemulsion-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been proposed as alternative and effective approach for the delivery of various types of poorly water-soluble drugs in the last decade. This nanoformulation strategy significantly improves the cell uptake and bioavailability of numerous hydrophobic drugs by increasing their solubility and dissolution rate, maintaining drug concentration within the therapeutic range by controlling the drug release rate, and reducing systemic side effects by targeting to specific disease site, thus offering a better patient compliance. To date, cavitation technology has emerged to be an energy-efficient and promising technique to generate such nanoscale emulsions encapsulating a variety of highly potent pharmaceutical agents that are water-insoluble. The micro-turbulent implosions of cavitation bubbles tear-off primary giant oily emulsion droplets to nano-scale, spontaneously leading to the formation of highly uniform drug contained nanodroplets. A substantial body of recent literatures in the field of nanoemulsions suggests that cavitation is a facile, cost-reducing yet safer generation tool, remarkably highlighting its industrial commercial viability in the development of designing novel nanocarriers or enhancing the properties of existing pharmaceutical products. In this review, the fundamentals of nanoemulsion and the principles involved in their formation are presented. The underlying mechanisms in the generation of pharmaceutical nanoemulsion under acoustic field as well as the advantages of using cavitation compared to the conventional techniques are also highlighted. This review focuses on recent nanoemulsion-based DDS development and how cavitation through ultrasound and hydrodynamic means is useful to generate the pharmaceutical grade nanoemulsions including the complex double or submicron multiple emulsions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  4. Darroudi M, Ahmad MB, Zamiri R, Zak AK, Abdullah AH, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:677-81.
    PMID: 21556342 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S17669
    The application of "green" chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  5. Thung WE, Ong SA, Ho LN, Wong YS, Ridwan F, Oon YL, et al.
    J Environ Sci (China), 2018 Apr;66:295-300.
    PMID: 29628097 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.010
    This study demonstrated the potential of single chamber up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UFML-MFC) in wastewater treatment and power generation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and enhance the performance under different operational conditions which affect the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and power generation, including the increase of KCl concentration (MFC1) and COD concentration (MFC2). The results showed that the increase of KCl concentration is an important factor in up-flow membrane-less MFC to enhance the ease of electron transfer from anode to cathode. The increase of COD concentration in MFC2 could led to the drop of voltage output due to the prompt of biofilm growth in MFC2 cathode which could increase the internal resistance. It also showed that the COD concentration is a vital issue in up-flow membrane-less MFC. Despite the COD reduction was up to 96%, the power output remained constrained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  6. Phong WN, Show PL, Chow YH, Ling TC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2018 Sep;126(3):273-281.
    PMID: 29673987 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.03.005
    Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) has been suggested as a promising separation tool in the biotechnological industry. This liquid-liquid extraction technique represents an interesting advance in downstream processing due to several advantages such as simplicity, rapid separation, efficiency, economy, flexibility and biocompatibility. Up to date, a range of biotechnological products have been successfully recovered from different sources with high yield using ATPS-based strategy. In view of the important potential contribution of the ATPS in downstream processing, this review article aims to provide latest information about the application of ATPS in the recovery of various biotechnological products in the past 7 years (2010-2017). Apart from that, the challenges as well as the possible future work and outlook of the ATPS-based recovery method have also been presented in this review article.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods
  7. Then YY, Ibrahim NA, Zainuddin N, Ariffin H, Yunus WM, Chieng BW
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(9):15344-57.
    PMID: 25177865 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150915344
    In this paper, superheated steam (SHS) was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200-230 °C) and time (30-120 min) under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods
  8. Zain NN, Abu Bakar NK, Mohamad S, Saleh NM
    PMID: 24161875 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.09.129
    A greener method based on cloud point extraction was developed for removing phenol species including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in water samples by using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. The non-ionic surfactant DC193C was chosen as an extraction solvent due to its low water content in a surfactant rich phase and it is well-known as an environmentally-friendly solvent. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as pH, temperature and incubation time, concentration of surfactant and salt, amount of surfactant and water content were evaluated and optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied for removing phenol species in real water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  9. Shameli K, Bin Ahmad M, Jaffar Al-Mulla EA, Ibrahim NA, Shabanzadeh P, Rustaiyan A, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jul 16;17(7):8506-17.
    PMID: 22801364 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17078506
    Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) due to their multiple applications. The use of plants in the green synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Callicarpa maingayi stem bark extract has been reported. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF) spectrometry, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 456 nm. The TEM study showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles were 12.40 ± 3.27 nm. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value added products from Callicarpa maingayi for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  10. Darroudi M, Ahmad MB, Abdullah AH, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:569-74.
    PMID: 21674013 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16867
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been successfully prepared with simple and "green" synthesis method by reducing Ag(+) ions in aqueous gelatin media with and in the absence of glucose as a reducing agent. In this study, gelatin was used for the first time as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The effect of temperature on particle size of Ag-NPs was also studied. It was found that with increasing temperature the size of nanoparticles is decreased. It was found that the particle size of Ag-NPs obtained in gelatin solutions is smaller than in gelatin-glucose solutions, which can be related to the rate of reduction reaction. X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed Ag-NPs with a narrow particle size distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  11. Ahmad AL, Oh PC, Abd Shukor SR
    Biotechnol Adv, 2009 May-Jun;27(3):286-96.
    PMID: 19500550 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.01.003
    Over the past decade, L-homophenylalanine is extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor for production of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which possesses significant clinical application in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure (CHF). A number of chemical methods have been reported thus far for the synthesis of L-homophenylalanine. However, chemical methods generally suffer from process complexity, high cost, and environmental pollution. On the other hand, enantiomerically pure L-homophenylalanine can be obtained elegantly and efficiently by employing biocatalytic methods, where it appears to be the most attractive process in terms of potential industrial applications, green chemistry and sustainability. Herein we review the biocatalytic synthesis of vital L-homophenylalanine as potentially useful intermediate in the production of pharmaceutical drugs in environmentally friendly conditions, using membrane bioreactor for sustainable biotransformation process. One envisages the future prospects of developing an integrated membrane bioreactor system with improved performance for L-homophenylalanine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  12. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Zamanian A, Sangpour P, Shabanzadeh P, Abdollahi Y, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:5603-10.
    PMID: 23341739 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S36786
    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  13. Jahangirian H, Lemraski EG, Webster TJ, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Abdollahi Y
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:2957-2978.
    PMID: 28442906 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S127683
    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  14. Chia SR, Show PL, Phang SM, Ling TC, Ong HC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2018 Aug;126(2):220-225.
    PMID: 29673988 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.02.015
    In this present study, alcohol/salt liquid biphasic system was used to extract phlorotannin from brown macroalgae. Liquid biphasic system is a new green technology that integrated with various processes into one-step, by concentrating, separating and purifying the bioproduct in a unit operation. The solvent used is non-toxic and there is potential for solvent recovery which is beneficial to the environment. Phlorotannin is a bioactive compound that has gained much attention due to its health beneficial effect. Therefore, the isolation of phlorotannin is lucrative as it contains various biological activities that are capable to be utilised into food and pharmaceutical application. By using 2-propanol/ammonium sulphate system, the highest recovery of phlorotannin was 76.1% and 91.67% with purification factor of 2.49 and 1.59 from Padina australis and Sargassum binderi, respectively. A recycling study was performed and the salt phase of system was recycled where maximum salt recovery of 41.04% and 72.39% could be obtained from systems containing P. australis and S. binderi, respectively. Similar recovery of phlorotannin was observed after performing two cycles of the system, this concludes that the system has good recyclability and eco-friendly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  15. Liang H, Qin X, Tan CP, Li D, Wang Y
    J Agric Food Chem, 2018 Nov 21;66(46):12361-12367.
    PMID: 30394748 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b04804
    Docosahexaenoyl and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamides (DHEA and EPEA) have physiological functions, including immunomodulation, brain development, and anti-inflammation, but their efficient production is still unresolved. In this study, choline-chloride-based natural deep eutectic solvents are used as media to improve the production of DHEA and EPEA. The water content showed a key effect on the reactant conversion. Adding water to choline chloride-glucose (CG, molar ratio of 5:2) led to a significant increase (13.03% for EPEA and 27.95% for DHEA) in the yields after 1 h. The high yields of EPEA (96.84%) and DHEA (90.06%) were obtained under the optimized conditions [fish oil ethyl esters/ethanolamine molar ratio of 1:2, temperature of 60 °C, 1 h, enzyme loading of 2195 units, and CG containing 8.50% water of 43.30% (w/w, relative to total reactants)]. The products could be easily separated using centrifugation. In summary, the research has the potential to produce fatty acyl ethanolamides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  16. Brza MA, Aziz SB, Anuar H, Al Hazza MHF
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 11;20(16).
    PMID: 31405255 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20163910
    The present work proposed a novel approach for transferring high-risk heavy metals tometal complexes via green chemistry remediation. The method of remediation of heavy metals developed in the present work is a great challenge for global environmental sciences and engineering because it is a totally environmentally friendly procedure in which black tea extract solution is used. The FTIR study indicates that black tea contains enough functional groups (OH and NH), polyphenols and conjugated double bonds. The synthesis of copper complex was confirmed by the UV-vis, XRD and FTIR spectroscopic studies. The XRD and FTIR analysis reveals the formation of complexation between Cu metal complexes and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) host matrix. The study of optical parameters indicates that PVA-based hybrids exhibit a small optical band gap, which is close to inorganic-based materials. It was noted that the absorption edge shifted to lower photon energy. When Cu metal complexes were added to PVA polymer, the refractive index was significantly tuned. The band gap shifts from 6.2 eV to 1.4 eV for PVA incorporated with 45 mL of Cu metal complexes. The nature of the electronic transition in hybrid materials was examined based on the Taucs model, while a close inspection of the optical dielectric loss was also performed in order to estimate the optical band gap. The obtained band gaps of the present work reveal that polymer hybrids with sufficient film-forming capability could be useful to overcome the drawbacks associated with conjugated polymers. Based on the XRD results and band gap values, the structure-property relationships were discussed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods
  17. Gorjian H, Raftani Amiri Z, Mohammadzadeh Milani J, Ghaffari Khaligh N
    Food Chem, 2021 Apr 16;342:128342.
    PMID: 33092927 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128342
    Nanoliposome and nanoniosome formulations containing myrtle extract were prepared without using cholesterol and toxic organic solvents for the first time. The formulations had different concentrations of lecithin (5, 7, and 9% w/w) and Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) values (6.76, 8.40, and 9.59). The physicochemical characterization results showed a nearly spherical shape for the prepared nanosamples. The particle sizes, zeta potentials and encapsulation efficiencies for the prepared nanoliposomes and nanoniosomes were at a range of 260-293 nm and 224-520 nm; -33.16 to - 31.16 mV and - 33.3 to - 10.36 mV; and 68-73% and 79-83%, respectively. The formulated nanoniosomes showed better stability during storage time. Besides, the encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release rate of myrtle extract could be controlled by adjusting the lecithin concentration and HLB value. The release of myrtle extract from nanovesicles showed a pH-responsive character. The FTIR analysis confirmed that the myrtle extract was encapsulated in nanovesicles physically.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  18. Andra S, Balu SK, Jeevanandham J, Muthalagu M, Vidyavathy M, Chan YS, et al.
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 2019 07;392(7):755-771.
    PMID: 31098696 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-019-01666-7
    Developments in nanotechnology field, specifically, metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted the attention of researchers due to their unique sensing, electronic, drug delivery, catalysis, optoelectronics, cosmetics, and space applications. Physicochemical methods are used to fabricate nanosized metal oxides; however, drawbacks such as high cost and toxic chemical involvement prevail. Recent researches focus on synthesizing metal oxide nanoparticles through green chemistry which helps in avoiding the involvement of toxic chemicals in the synthesis process. Bacteria, fungi, and plants are the biological sources that are utilized for the green nanoparticle synthesis. Due to drawbacks such as tedious maintenance and the time needed for the nanoparticle formation, plant extracts are widely used in nanoparticle production. In addition, plants are available all over the world and phytosynthesized nanoparticles show comparatively less toxicity towards mammalian cells. Secondary metabolites including flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins are present in plant extracts, and these are highly responsible for nanoparticle formation and reduction of toxicity. Hence, this article gives an overview of recent developments in the phytosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles and their toxic analysis in various cells and animal models. Also, their possible mechanism in normal and cancer cells, pharmaceutical applications, and their efficiency in disease treatment are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
  19. Letchumanan D, Sok SPM, Ibrahim S, Nagoor NH, Arshad NM
    Biomolecules, 2021 04 12;11(4).
    PMID: 33921379 DOI: 10.3390/biom11040564
    Plants are rich in phytoconstituent biomolecules that served as a good source of medicine. More recently, they have been employed in synthesizing metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) due to their capping and reducing properties. This green synthesis approach is environmentally friendly and allows the production of the desired NPs in different sizes and shapes by manipulating parameters during the synthesis process. The most commonly used metals and oxides are gold (Au), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu). Among these, Cu is a relatively low-cost metal that is more cost-effective than Au and Ag. In this review, we present an overview and current update of plant-mediated Cu/copper oxide (CuO) NPs, including their synthesis, medicinal applications, and mechanisms. Furthermore, the toxic effects of these NPs and their efficacy compared to commercial NPs are reviewed. This review provides an insight into the potential of developing plant-based Cu/CuO NPs as a therapeutic agent for various diseases in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods
  20. Devasvaran K, Lim V
    Pharm Biol, 2021 Dec;59(1):494-503.
    PMID: 33905665 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2021.1910716
    CONTEXT: Pectin is a plant heteropolysaccharide that is biocompatible and biodegradable, enabling it to be an excellent reducing agent (green synthesis) for metallic nanoparticles (MNPs). Nevertheless, in the biological industry, pectin has been left behind in synthesising MNPs, for no known reason.

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the biological activities of pectin synthesised MNPs (Pe-MNPs).

    METHODS: The databases Springer Link, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, PubMed, Mendeley, and ResearchGate were systematically searched from the date of their inception until 10th February 2020. Pectin, green synthesis, metallic nanoparticles, reducing agent and biological activities were among the key terms searched. The data extraction was focussed on the biological activities of Pe-MNPs and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations for systematic reviews.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 studies outlined 7 biological activities of Pe-MNPs in the only three metals that have been explored, namely silver (Ag), gold (Au) and cerium oxide (CeO2). The activities reported from the in vitro and in vivo studies were antimicrobial (9 studies), anticancer (2 studies), drug carrier (3 studies), non-toxic (4 studies), antioxidant (2 studies), wound healing (1 study) and anti-inflammation (1 study).

    CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review demonstrates the current state of the art of Pe-MNPs biological activities, suggesting that Ag and Au have potent antibacterial and anticancer/chemotherapeutic drug carrier activity, respectively. Further in vitro, in vivo, and clinical research is crucial for a better understanding of the pharmacological potential of pectin synthesised MNPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Green Chemistry Technology/methods*
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