Objective: This study aims to fractionate water extract of Labisia pumila, identify the compound(s) involved and elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of its vasorelaxant effects.
Methods: Water extract of Labisia pumila was subjected to liquid-liquid extraction to obtain ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions. In SHR aortic ring preparations, water fraction (WF-LPWE) was established as the most potent fraction for vasorelaxation. The pharmacological mechanisms of the vasorelaxant effect of WF-LPWE were investigated with and without the presence of various inhibitors. The cumulative dose-response curves of potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions were conducted to study the possible mechanisms of WF-LPWE in reducing vasoconstriction.
Results: WF-LPWE produced dose-dependent vasorelaxant effect in endothelium-denuded aortic ring and showed non-competitive inhibition of dose-response curves of PE-induced contraction, and at its higher concentrations reduced KCl-induced contraction. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited vasorelaxant effect of WF-LPWE. WF-LPWE significantly reduced the release of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) from the intracellular stores and suppressed the calcium chloride (CaCal2)-induced contraction. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue, indomethacin and atropine did not influence the vasorelaxant effects of WF-LPWE.
Conclusion: WF-LPWE exerts its vasorelaxant effect independently of endothelium and possibly by inhibiting the release of calcium from intracellular calcium stores, receptor-operated calcium channels and formation of inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate. WF-LPWE vasorelaxant effect may also mediated via nitric oxide-independent direct involvement of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathways.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of metformin on parameters involved in testicular lactate production, transport/utilisation, and sexual behaviour in diabetic state.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated diabetic group (n = 6/group). Metformin (300 mg/kg b.w./day) was administrated orally for 4 weeks.
RESULTS: Intra-testicular glucose and lactate levels, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity increased, while the mRNA transcript levels of genes responsible for testicular glucose and lactate transport/utilisation (glucose transporter 3, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), MCT2, and LDH type C) decreased in DC group. Furthermore, penile nitric oxide increased, while cyclic guanosine monophosphate decreased, with impaired sexual behaviour in DC group. Treatment with metformin improved these parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: Metformin increases testicular lactate transport/utilisation and improves sexual behaviour in diabetic state.