Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

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  1. Ashraf K, Ng CJ, Teo CH, Goh KL
    J Glob Health, 2019 Jun;9(1):010405.
    PMID: 30701069 DOI: 10.7189/jogh.09.010405
    Background: Population health indices such as disability adjusted life years (DALY) and quality adjusted life years (QALY) are often used in an effort to measure health of populations and identify areas of concern that require interventions. There has been an increase of number of population health indices since the last review published more than a decade ago. Therefore, this study aims to provide an overview of existing population health indices and examine the methods used to develop them.

    Methods: The search was conducted across three databases: PubMed, CINAHL and Emerald using four key concepts: 'health', 'index', 'context', 'develop', which was supplemented with Google searching and reference scanning. A researcher screened the titles, abstracts and subsequently full texts and confirmed the findings with the research team at each stage. Data charting was performed according to the included publications and identified indices. The collation was performed by describing the indices and made observation on its development method using a priori framework consist of four processes: underpinning theory, model or framework; data selection and processing; formation of index; testing of index.

    Results: Twenty-six publications describing population health indices were included, and 27 indices were identified. These indices covered the following health topics: overall health outcomes (n = 15), outcomes for specific health topics (n = 4), diseases outcome (n = 6), assist health resource allocation for priority minority subgroup or geographic area (n = 4), quality of health or health care (n = 2). Twenty-one indices measure health for general populations while six measure defined subpopulations. Fourteen of the indices reported at least one of the development processes according to the a priori framework: underpinning theory, model or framework (n = 7); data selection and processing (n = 8); formation of index (n = 12); testing of index (n = 9).

    Conclusions: Few population health indices measure specific health topics or health of specific sub-population. There is also a lack of usage of theories, models or framework in developing these indices. Efforts to develop a guideline is proposed on how population health indices can be developed systematically and rigorously to ensure validity and comprehensive assessment of the indices.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  2. Arokiasamy JT
    J Hum Ergol (Tokyo), 1990 Dec;19(2):201-12.
    PMID: 2130092
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  3. Chen PCY
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Sep;42(3):146-55.
    PMID: 3506636
    In Malaysia, the elderly are still a relatively neglected group of people in that little priority is given to the important health issues associated with an aging population. This paper examines some of the relevant findings obtained during a survey which was carried out in 1984/1985. These findings have serious policy implications concerning family support, work, income, retirement, community involvement, social network, transport, and housing as pertaining to the elderly. There is an urgent need, as the population ages and social changes occur in society, for health planners, politicians and policy-makers to scrutinise the existing policies and develop new policies so as to retain those traditional practices that support, improve and maintain the psychological and social well-being of the elderly; and to develop new policies and programmes thus promoting a better lease of life for this small but important group to whom we owe so much.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  4. Sharif R, Chong KH, Zakaria NH, Ong ML, Reilly JJ, Wong JE, et al.
    J Phys Act Health, 2016 11;13(11 Suppl 2):S201-S205.
    PMID: 27848721 DOI: 10.1123/jpah.2016-0404
    BACKGROUND: The 2016 Malaysia Active Healthy Kids Report Card aims to collect, assess, and grade current and comprehensive data on physical activity (PA) and associated factors in Malaysian children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years.
    METHODS: This report card was developed following the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card protocol. The Research Working Group identified the core matrices, assessed the key data sources, and evaluated the evidence gathered for grade assignments. A grade was assigned to each indicator by comparing the best available evidence against relevant benchmark using a standardized grading scheme.
    RESULTS: Overall Physical Activity, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behavior were assigned the D grade. The lowest grade of F was assigned to Diet, while School and Government Strategies and Investments were graded higher with a B. Five indicators were assigned INC (incomplete) due to a lack of representative data.
    CONCLUSIONS: The report card demonstrates that Malaysian children and adolescents are engaging in low levels of PA and active commuting, high levels of screen time, and have extremely low compliance with dietary recommendations. More efforts are needed to address the root causes of physical inactivity while increasing the opportunities for children and adolescents to be more physically active.
    MESH: screen time
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  5. Hopkins S
    Health Policy, 2006 Feb;75(3):347-57.
    PMID: 15896870
    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  6. Chen PCY
    Med J Malaysia, 1985 Sep;40(3):177-84.
    PMID: 3842713
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators
  7. Ismail NA, Kasim MM, Noor Aizuddin A, Umar NA
    Gynecol. Endocrinol., 2013 Jul;29(7):691-4.
    PMID: 23772780 DOI: 10.3109/09513590.2013.797398
    OBJECTIVE: This was to determine HOMA-IR score as well as to assess its association in fetal and maternal outcomes among pregnant women with diabetes risks.
    METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant women with diabetes risks was done. GDM was diagnosed using modified glucose tolerance test. Serum insulin was taken and measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method. Plasma glucose was measured by enzymatic reference method with hexokinase. HOMA-IR score was calculated for each patient. Maternal and fetal outcomes were analyzed.
    RESULTS: From 279 women recruited, 22.6% had GDM with higher HOMA-IR score (4.07 ± 2.44 versus 2.08 ± 1.12; p = 0.001) and fasting insulin (16.76 ± 8.63 µIU/L versus 10.15 ± 5.07 µIU/L; p = 0.001). Area under ROC curve for HOMA-IR score was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.84) with optimum cut-off value of 2.92 (sensitivity = 63.5%; specificity = 89.8%), higher than recommended by IDF (2.38). This point showed significant association with neonatal hypoglycemia (p = 0.02) and Cesarean section (p = 0.04) in GDM mothers.
    CONCLUSIONS: HOMA-IR score and insulin resistance levels were higher in GDM women in our population. With the cut-off HOMA-IR value of 2.92, neonatal hypoglycemia and Cesarean section were significant complications in GDM mothers. This can be used in anticipation of maternal and fetal morbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  8. Dickin SK, Schuster-Wallace CJ, Elliott SJ
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e63584.
    PMID: 23667642 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063584
    The Water-associated Disease Index (WADI) was developed to identify and visualize vulnerability to different water-associated diseases by integrating a range of social and biophysical determinants in map format. In this study vulnerability is used to encompass conditions of exposure, susceptibility, and differential coping capacity to a water-associated health hazard. By assessing these conditions, the tool is designed to provide stakeholders with an integrated and long-term understanding of subnational vulnerabilities to water-associated disease and contribute to intervention strategies to reduce the burden of illness. The objective of this paper is to describe and validate the WADI tool by applying it to dengue. A systemic ecohealth framework that considers links between people, the environment and health was applied to identify secondary datasets, populating the index with components including climate conditions, land cover, education status and water use practices. Data were aggregated to create composite indicators of exposure and of susceptibility in a Geographic Information System (GIS). These indicators were weighted by their contribution to dengue vulnerability, and the output consisted of an overall index visualized in map format. The WADI was validated in this Malaysia case study, demonstrating a significant association with dengue rates at a sub-national level, and illustrating a range of factors that drive vulnerability to the disease within the country. The index output indicated high vulnerability to dengue in urban areas, especially in the capital Kuala Lumpur and surrounding region. However, in other regions, vulnerability to dengue varied throughout the year due to the influence of seasonal climate conditions, such as monsoon patterns. The WADI tool complements early warning models for water-associated disease by providing upstream information for planning prevention and control approaches, which increasingly require a comprehensive and geographically broad understanding of vulnerability for implementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  9. Cheah WL, Wan Muda WA, Mohd Hussin ZA, Thon CC
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2012 Mar;24(2):330-42.
    PMID: 20833668 DOI: 10.1177/1010539510380737
    The aim of the study was to identify the factors associated with undernutrition indicators in children 5 years and younger in a rural community in Malaysia. A total of 295 children and their carers were selected from community clinics based on a multistage sampling method. Pretested questionnaire, anthropometric measurement, and dietary assessment were used for data collection. There was 69% stunting, 63.4% underweight, 40% wasting, and 26.8% with mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age below a z score of -2 among children. In all, 10 factors were found to be associated with different indicators of undernutrition. Age was the only factor that had association with all the undernutrition indicators. Total household income and total expenditure showed significant association with underweight. Birth weight was reported to have significant association with underweight, stunting, and low MUAC-for-age. The findings suggest that the factors of undernutrition were different for different indicators of undernutrition and thus give a more comprehensive picture on factors contributing to acute and chronic malnutrition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  10. Mahadeva S, Wee HL, Goh KL, Thumboo J
    BMC Gastroenterol, 2009;9:20.
    PMID: 19284606 DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-9-20
    There is little information of the validity of generic instruments in measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with dyspepsia. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the EQ-5D, a brief and simple instrument, in measuring HRQOL in adult patients with dyspepsia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  11. Yong YV, Shafie AA
    J Asthma, 2016 10;53(8):835-42.
    PMID: 27049693 DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2016.1156694
    OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the feasibility and validity of a computer-based utility assessment tool that used standard gamble (SG) method for measuring asthma-specific health utilities.

    METHODS: A computer-based SG (CBSG) tool was developed using Microsoft® PowerPoint 2007 to value asthma-specific health states in Malaysia. Eight hypothetical health states were considered, including two anchor states (healthy and dead), three chronic (C) states and three temporary (T) states (each numbered 1 through 3, with increasing severity) in addition to the subject's current health state. Twenty adult asthma patients completed the CBSG tool in addition to paper-based Asthma Control Test, three health status measures (EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ)), and VAS utility assessment tool. Patients and interviewers rated the difficulty of the VAS and CBSG tools. Correlations between current health state values derived from the various measures were determined.

    RESULTS: The SG and the VAS received similar difficulty ratings. 17 patients completed the CBSG tool within 30 minutes. The mean utilities determined by the CBSG tool for the T1-T3 asthma health states met the expected logical order of 1>2>3, but those for the C1-C3 states did not. Correlation between current health state values derived from the CBSG tool and other measurement tools was poor.

    CONCLUSION: The CBSG tool developed for measuring utilities of asthma health states showed acceptable feasibility and overall validity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  12. Wah-Yun Low, Siti Norazah Zulkifli, Rajeswari Karuppiah
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(2):110-7.
    PMID: 12862416 DOI: 10.1177/101053950201400210
    Iodine deficiency is recognized as a public health problem. This paper assesses iodine status by socioeconomic factors in school children in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Kuching, Bau and Simunjan districts were chosen based on advice from the Sarawak's Medical and Health Authority. 803 school children, aged eight years, were selected from 19 schools via proportionate systematic sampling. About half the proportion of the school children were from Kuching, 24% from Simunjan and 22% from Bau. Almost all were equally distributed by sex. By mother's race, almost half were Malays, followed by Bidayuh, Iban, Chinese and other races. Mean urinary iodine concentration was 3.36 microg/ 100ml, mean creatinine level was 111.10 mg/100ml and mean creatinine/iodine ratio was 39.45 microg/ gram. Four female children (0.5%) were found to have enlarged thyroid. Urinary iodine levels were significantly different by district, mother's race and household income. It was highest in Kuching, among children with Malay mothers, and with household incomes more than RM500 per month. Conversely, it was lowest in Bau, among children of Iban/Dayak and Chinese mothers, and incomes of RM500 or less per month. Based on the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD classification, the Sarawak school children in the present study fall into the moderate IDD category. The low prevalence of goitre is a positive finding indicating that iodine deficiency is corrected over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  13. Atif M, Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Asif M, Sarfraz MK, Low HC, et al.
    PMID: 24528499 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-12-19
    At present, much of the attention within tuberculosis (TB) management is spent on microbiological cure, and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is either undervalued or seldom considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of TB treatment on HRQoL of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Moreover, we also aimed to determine whether the selected socio-demographic and clinical variables were predictive of variability in the HRQoL scores over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  14. ul Haq N, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Saleem F, Aljadhey H
    PMID: 22866752 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-91
    The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  15. Jinam TA, Phipps ME, Indran M, Kuppusamy UR, Mahmood AA, Hong LC, et al.
    Ethn Health, 2008 Jun;13(3):277-87.
    PMID: 18568977 DOI: 10.1080/13557850801930478
    Health scenarios are constantly evolving, particularly in developing countries but little is known regarding the health status of indigenous groups in Malaysia. This study aims to elucidate the current health status in four indigenous populations in the country, who by and large been left out of mainstream healthcare developments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  16. Wee HL, Li SC, Cheung YB, Fong KY, Thumboo J
    J. Diabetes Complicat., 2006;20(3):170-8.
    PMID: 16632237
    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in diabetic participants using both profile [the Short-Form 36 (SF-36)] and single-index (the SF-6D) instruments and to evaluate the usefulness of the SF-6D as a summary measure for the SF-36.
    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional, population-based survey of Chinese, Malay, and Indians in Singapore, we analyzed the influence of ethnicity and other variables on each SF-36 scale and SF-6D scores using linear regression models to adjust for the influence of known determinants of HRQoL.
    RESULTS: Data from 309 diabetic respondents were analyzed. Compared with other ethnicities, Indians were most likely to report impaired HRQoL. The unadjusted influence of ethnicity on HRQoL exceeded the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for all SF-36 scales (MCID: 5 points) and the SF-6D (MCID: 0.033 points). After adjusting for gender, age, and education, the influence of Chinese ethnicity exceeded the MCID for all SF-36 scales, except vitality (VT) and mental health (MH), as well as for the SF-6D. The influence of Malay ethnicity exceeded the MCID only for the SF-36 MH scale and the SF-6D. The influence of ethnicity on HRQoL persisted after adjusting further for other determinants of HRQoL. The SF-6D reflected the ethnic trends for some but not all SF-36 scales.
    CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and other factors known to influence HRQoL, ethnicity remained an important factor influencing HRQoL in this population-based multiethnic sample of diabetic Asians. Further studies to identify modifiable factors explaining the ethnic disparities in HRQoL among diabetic participants are needed. The SF-6D may be a useful summary measure for the SF-36.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  17. Zulkifli SN, U KM, Yusof K, Lin WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1994;7(3):151-8.
    PMID: 7794653 DOI: 10.1177/101053959400700302
    This paper describes selected maternal and child health indicators based on a cross-sectional study of citizens and migrants in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 1,515 women were interviewed from a multi-stage random sample of households in eight urban centers. Among the 1,411 women in the sample who had experienced a pregnancy before, 76% were local citizens and 24% were migrants. There were statistically significant differences between citizens and migrants in ethnicity, religion, education, household income, and access to treated water supply and sanitary toilet facilities. Significantly fewer migrants practiced any form of contraception and obtained any antenatal care during any pregnancy. Furthermore, citizens tended to initiate care as early as three months but migrants as late as seven months. Despite these differences, only the infant mortality rate, and not pregnancy wastage, was statistically significantly higher among migrants. Pregnancy interval was also similar between the two groups. The influence of several socioeconomic factors on pregnancy wastage and infant mortality was explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  18. Lai EL, Huang WN, Chen HH, Hsu CY, Chen DY, Hsieh TY, et al.
    Lupus, 2019 Jul;28(8):945-953.
    PMID: 31177913 DOI: 10.1177/0961203319855122
    The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) has been used universally for the purpose of fracture risk assessment. However, the predictive capacity of FRAX for autoimmune diseases remains inconclusive. This study aimed to compare the applicability of FRAX for autoimmune disease patients. This retrospective study recruited rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) patients with bone mineral density (BMD) tests. Patients with any osteoporotic fractures were identified. Taiwan-specific FRAX with and without BMD were then calculated. In total, 802 patients (451 RA, 233 SLE and 118 pSS) were enrolled in this study. The cumulative incidences of osteoporotic fractures in the RA, SLE and pSS patients were 43.0%, 29.2% and 33.1%, respectively. For those with a previous osteoporotic fracture, T-scores were classified as low bone mass. Overall, the patients' 10-year probability of major fracture risk by FRAX without BMD was 15.8%, which then increased to 20.3% after incorporation of BMD measurement. When analyzed by disease group, the fracture risk in RA patients was accurately predicted by FRAX. In contrast, current FRAX, either with or without BMD measurement, underestimated the fracture risk both in SLE and pSS patients, even after stratification by age and glucocorticoid treatment. For pSS patients with major osteoporotic fractures, FRAX risks imputed by RA were comparable to major osteoporotic fracture risks of RA patients. Current FRAX accurately predicted fracture probability in RA patients, but not in SLE and pSS patients. RA-imputed FRAX risk scores could be used as a temporary substitute for SLE and pSS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  19. Saddki N, Mohamad H, Mohd Yusof NI, Mohamad D, Mokhtar N, Wan Bakar WZ
    PMID: 23786866 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-11-100
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay translated Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
    METHODS: In this cross sectional study, the Malay version of SAQLI was administered to 82 OSA patients seen at the OSA Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia prior to their treatment. Additionally, the patients were asked to complete the Malay version of Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-three patients completed the Malay version of SAQLI again after 1-2 weeks to assess its reliability.
    RESULTS: Initial factor analysis of the 40-item Malay version of SAQLI resulted in four factors with eigenvalues >1. All items had factor loadings >0.5 but one of the factors was unstable with only two items. However, both items were maintained due to their high communalities and the analysis was repeated with a forced three factor solution. Variance accounted by the three factors was 78.17% with 9-18 items per factor. All items had primary loadings over 0.5 although the loadings were inconsistent with the proposed construct. The Cronbach's alpha values were very high for all domains, >0.90. The instrument was able to discriminate between patients with mild or moderate and severe OSA. The Malay version of SAQLI correlated positively with the SF-36. The intraclass correlation coefficients for all domains were >0.90.
    CONCLUSIONS: In light of these preliminary observations, we concluded that the Malay version of SAQLI has a high degree of internal consistency and concurrent validity albeit demonstrating a slightly different construct than the original version. The responsiveness of the questionnaire to changes in health-related quality of life following OSA treatment is yet to be determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
  20. Dhabali AA, Awang R
    Health Policy Plan, 2010 Mar;25(2):162-9.
    PMID: 19923207 DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czp051
    BACKGROUND: Managed care is one of the means advocated for health care reforms. The Malaysian government has proposed managed care for its citizens. In the Malaysian private health care sector, managed care is practised on a small scale with crude risk adjustment. The main determinant of an individual's health service utilization is their health status (HS). HS is used as a risk adjuster for capitation payment. Prescribed medications represent a useful source for HS estimation. We aimed to develop and validate a medication-based HS estimate and to incorporate it in the Andersen model of health service utilization. This is a preparatory step in studying the feasibility of developing a model for risk assessment in the Malaysian context.
    METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from an academic year from computerized databases in University Sains Malaysia (USM) about users of USM primary care services. A user is a USM health scheme beneficiary who made at least one visit in the academic year to USM-assigned primary care providers. Socio-demographic variables, enrolment period, medications prescribed and number of visits were also collected. Chronic illness medications and some non-chronic illness medications were used to calculate the Long-Term Therapeutic Groups Index (LTTGI) which is an estimate of the HS of users. Using a random 50% of users, weighted least square methods were used to develop a model that predicts a user's number of visits. The other 50% were used for validation.
    RESULTS: Socio-demographic variables explained 15% of variability in number of primary care visits among users. Adding the LTTGI improved the explanatory power of the model to 36% (P < 0.001). A similar contribution of the LTTGI was noted in the validation.
    CONCLUSIONS: The Long-Term Therapeutic Groups Index was successfully developed. Variability in number of primary care visits can be predicted by LTTGI-based models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Status Indicators*
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