Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Ahmed N, Loke MF, Kumar N, Vadivelu J
    Helicobacter, 2013 Sep;18 Suppl 1:1-4.
    PMID: 24011237 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12069
    We describe features of key additions to the existing pool of publicly accessible Helicobacter pylori genome sequences and sequences of Helicobacter pylori phages from April 2012 to March 2013. In addition, important studies involving H. pylori genomes, especially those pertaining to genomic diversity, disease outcome, H. pylori population structure and evolution are reviewed. High degree of homologous recombination contributes to increased diversity of H. pylori genomes. New methods of resolving H. pylori population structure to an ultrafine level led to the proposal of new subpopulations. As the magnitude of diversity in the H. pylori gene pool becomes more and more clear, geographic and demographic factors should be brought to analysis while identifying disease-specific biomarkers and defining new virulence mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  2. Hsu PI, Yamaoka Y, Goh KL, Manfredi M, Wu DC, Mahachai V
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:278308.
    PMID: 26078943 DOI: 10.1155/2015/278308
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  3. Suhaila N, Hussin S, Rahman MM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Nov 01;13(21):1057-61.
    PMID: 21313878
    Abstract: A total number of 157 samples were examined by 4 different tests-In-house rapid urease (iRUT), Culture, Histopathology and Immunochromatography (Immuno CardSTAT) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori from the patients reported to Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2007 to 2008. Out of the samples examined 47 (29.9%) were positive for H. pylori by the tests used in the laboratory. Efficacy of detection of the bacteria by the tests- In-house rapid urease, Culture, Histopathology and Immuno CardSTAT were 31.8, 13.9, 30.3 and 32.8%, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity of the iRUT were 91.5 and 93.6%, respectively and the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was 86% and the Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 96.3%. The sensitivity for Immuno CardSTAT rapid test was 100% and the specificity was 79.3%. The PPV was 50% and the NPV was 100%. Convenient methods to the authors were 'In house rapid urease test and Immunochromatography though variability of specificities were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  4. Khosravi Y, Dieye Y, Loke MF, Goh KL, Vadivelu J
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e112214.
    PMID: 25386948 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112214
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major gastric pathogen that has been associated with humans for more than 60,000 years. H. pylori causes different gastric diseases including dyspepsia, ulcers and gastric cancers. Disease development depends on several factors including the infecting H. pylori strain, environmental and host factors. Another factor that might influence H. pylori colonization and diseases is the gastric microbiota that was overlooked for long because of the belief that human stomach was a hostile environment that cannot support microbial life. Once established, H. pylori mainly resides in the gastric mucosa and interacts with the resident bacteria. How these interactions impact on H. pylori-caused diseases has been poorly studied in human. In this study, we analyzed the interactions between H. pylori and two bacteria, Streptococcus mitis and Lactobacillus fermentum that are present in the stomach of both healthy and gastric disease human patients. We have found that S. mitis produced and released one or more diffusible factors that induce growth inhibition and coccoid conversion of H. pylori cells. In contrast, both H. pylori and L. fermentum secreted factors that promote survival of S. mitis during the stationary phase of growth. Using a metabolomics approach, we identified compounds that might be responsible for the conversion of H. pylori from spiral to coccoid cells. This study provide evidences that gastric bacteria influences H. pylori physiology and therefore possibly the diseases this bacterium causes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  5. Goh KL, Chan WK, Shiota S, Yamaoka Y
    Helicobacter, 2011 Sep;16 Suppl 1:1-9.
    PMID: 21896079 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2011.00874.x
    This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified an infected sibling as an important risk factor. An oral-oral route of spread has been substantiated with several studies showing the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in drinking water and the role of poor living conditions and sanitation in H. pylori infection, supporting an oral-fecal route of spread. Screening for H. pylori as a gastric cancer pre-screening strategy has been described in Japan, and the importance of H. pylori eradication as a gastric cancer-prevention strategy has now been further emphasized in Japanese guidelines. Two studies have shown a decrease in the burden of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori eradication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  6. Ahmad N, Zakaria WR, Mohamed R
    Helicobacter, 2011 Feb;16(1):47-51.
    PMID: 21241412 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2010.00816.x
    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance varies in geographic areas. The information on the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in our local setting is therefore relevant as a guide for the treatment options.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  7. Khosravi Y, Bunte RM, Chiow KH, Tan TL, Wong WY, Poh QH, et al.
    Gut Microbes, 2016;7(1):48-53.
    PMID: 26939851 DOI: 10.1080/19490976.2015.1119990
    Helicobacter pylori have been shown to influence physiological regulation of metabolic hormones involved in food intake, energy expenditure and body mass. It has been proposed that inducing H. pylori-induced gastric atrophy damages hormone-producing endocrine cells localized in gastric mucosal layers and therefore alter their concentrations. In a recent study, we provided additional proof in mice under controlled conditions that H. pylori and gut microbiota indeed affects circulating metabolic gut hormones and energy homeostasis. In this addendum, we presented data from follow-up investigations that demonstrated H. pylori and gut microbiota-associated modulation of metabolic gut hormones was independent and precedes H. pylori-induced histopathological changes in the gut of H. pylori-infected mice. Thus, H. pylori-associated argumentation of energy homeostasis is not caused by injury to endocrine cells in gastric mucosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  8. Lee WC, Goh KL, Loke MF, Vadivelu J
    Helicobacter, 2017 Feb;22(1).
    PMID: 27258354 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12321
    Helicobacter pylori colonizes almost half of the human population worldwide. H. pylori strains are genetically diverse, and the specific genotypes are associated with various clinical manifestations including gastric adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). However, our current knowledge of the H. pylori metabolism is limited. To understand the metabolic differences among H. pylori strains, we investigated four Malaysian H. pylori clinical strains, which had been previously sequenced, and a standard strain, H. pylori J99, at the phenotypic level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  9. Ansari S, Yamaoka Y
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2020 10;18(10):987-996.
    PMID: 32536287 DOI: 10.1080/14787210.2020.1782739
    Introduction Helicobacter pylori causes, via the influence of several virulence factors, persistent infection of the stomach, which leads to severe complications. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is observed in almost all clinical strains of H. pylori; however, only some strains produce the toxigenic and pathogenic VacA, which is influenced by the gene sequence variations. VacA exerts its action by causing cell vacuolation and apoptosis. We performed a PubMed search to review the latest literatures published in English language. Areas covered Articles regarding H. pylori VacA and its genotypes, architecture, internalization, and role in gastric infection and pathogenicity are reviewed. We included the search for recently published literature until January 2020. Expert opinion H. pylori VacA plays a crucial role in severe gastric pathogenicity. In addition, VacA mediated in vivo bacterial survival leads to persistent infection and an enhanced bacterial evasion from the action of antibiotics and the innate host defense system, which leads to drug evasion. VacA as a co-stimulator for the CagA phosphorylation may exert a synergistic effect playing an important role in the CagA-mediated pathogenicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  10. Péré-Védrenne C, Flahou B, Loke MF, Ménard A, Vadivelu J
    Helicobacter, 2017 Sep;22 Suppl 1.
    PMID: 28891140 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12407
    The current article is a review of the most important and relevant literature published in 2016 and early 2017 on non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter infections in humans and animals, as well as interactions between H. pylori and the microbiota of the stomach and other organs. Some putative new Helicobacter species were identified in sea otters, wild boars, dogs, and mice. Many cases of Helicobacter fennelliae and Helicobacter cinaedi infection have been reported in humans, mostly in immunocompromised patients. Mouse models have been used frequently as a model to investigate human Helicobacter infection, although some studies have investigated the pathogenesis of Helicobacters in their natural host, as was the case for Helicobacter suis infection in pigs. Our understanding of both the gastric and gut microbiome has made progress and, in addition, interactions between H. pylori and the microbiome were demonstrated to go beyond the stomach. Some new approaches of preventing Helicobacter infection or its related pathologies were investigated and, in this respect, the probiotic properties of Saccharomyces, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. were confirmed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  11. Castaño-Rodríguez N, Goh KL, Fock KM, Mitchell HM, Kaakoush NO
    Sci Rep, 2017 11 21;7(1):15957.
    PMID: 29162924 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-16289-2
    The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome α-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  12. Khosravi Y, Dieye Y, Poh BH, Ng CG, Loke MF, Goh KL, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:610421.
    PMID: 25105162 DOI: 10.1155/2014/610421
    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  13. Sasidharan S, Lachumy SJ, Ravichandran M, Latha LY, Gegu SR
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Jan;4(1):72-5.
    PMID: 21771421 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60037-0
    OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection according to age group.

    METHODS: H. pylori infection data among 1 965 consecutive patients referred to the Endoscopy Unit collected at Sungai Petani Hospital for oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy (OGD). The patients were divided into 9 age groups (10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-99 years). In addition these groups were further divided into three minor group namely young adults (10-39), older adults (40-69) and geriatric groups (70-99).

    RESULTS: Overall prevalence of infection of H. pylori was analyzed and found that the prevalence increase with age (P<0.05). When the patients divided by ethnic and gender group with age, prevalence rate among young adults and older adults significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to geriatric groups across all races and gender (P<0.05). Furthermore, significantly higher number of males were infected compared to female (P<0.05) but such trend was only observed among older adult groups. In addition, there is a significant differences in H. pylori infection prevalence rates among ethnic groups (highest in Indians adults, followed Chinese and low in Malays, P<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori did increase with age group across ethnicity and gender, in Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  14. Goh KL, Navaratnam P
    Helicobacter, 2011 Jun;16(3):241-5.
    PMID: 21585611 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2011.00841.x
    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is the single most important determinant of treatment success. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori resistance to clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, levofloxacin, rifabutin, and furazolidone in our local bacterial strains.
    METHODS: Samples from consecutive ninety patients were obtained for culture and sensitivity testing. Resistance to individual antibiotics were tested using the E-test and MIC(90) read from the strips. Resistance to rifampicin and nitrofurantoin were used as a surrogate for rifabutin and furazolidine.
    RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of resistance to metronidazole 68/90 (75.5%). No male (34/45 (75.5%) versus female (35/45 (77.7%) difference in frequency of metronidazole resistance was noted (p = 1.000). There was zero resistance (0) to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin/furazolidone. Resistance to rifampicin/rifabutin was for breakpoints of 1 and 4 μg/mL of 14.4 and 2.2% respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although there was high bacterial resistance to metronidazole, the absence of resistance particularly to the key antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication therapy: clarithromycin and levofloxacin is reassuring to note. Continued monitoring of antibiotic resistance should be carried out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  15. Yap TW, Leow AH, Azmi AN, Francois F, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(8):e0135771.
    PMID: 26291794 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135771
    More than half of the world's adults carry Helicobacter pylori. The eradication of H. pylori may affect the regulation of human metabolic hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in appetite-controlled insulinotropic and digestive hormones, and to assess post-eradication changes in body mass index as part of a currently on-going multicentre ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  16. Yap TW, Gan HM, Lee YP, Leow AH, Azmi AN, Francois F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0151893.
    PMID: 26991500 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151893
    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome.

    METHODS: As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 years-old) volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline.

    RESULTS: We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000-170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen and be cautious in the clinical management of H. pylori infection, particularly in immunocompromised patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
  17. Boey CC, Goh KL, Lee WS, Parasakthi N
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):151-2.
    PMID: 10365351
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in healthy Malaysian children and to discover whether differences exist among children of different races.

    METHODS: Serum samples from asymptomatic children tested for H. pylori seropositivity using an ELISA test.

    RESULTS: Five hundred and fourteen healthy urban Malaysian children aged 0.5 to 17 (mean 5.9) years from three different racial groups had their blood tested for H. pylori antibodies. The overall prevalence was 10.3%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between boys and girls, but a significant rise was noted with increasing age (P = 0.009). Seropositivity was most common in the Indians and lowest in the Malays (P = 0.001). Father's level of education did not affect the child's rate of H. pylori seropositivity.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity among asymptomatic urban Malaysian children is lowest in Malays. Intermediate in Chinese and highest in Indians. The racial differences found in children are consistent with those found in Malaysian adults.

    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  18. Tay CY, Mitchell H, Dong Q, Goh KL, Dawes IW, Lan R
    BMC Microbiol, 2009;9:126.
    PMID: 19538757 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-126
    Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*
  19. Gunaletchumy SP, Teh X, Khosravi Y, Ramli NS, Chua EG, Kavitha T, et al.
    J Bacteriol, 2012 Oct;194(20):5695-6.
    PMID: 23012278
    Helicobacter pylori is the main bacterial causative agent of gastroduodenal disorders and a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The draft genomes of 10 closely related H. pylori isolates from the multiracial Malaysian population will provide an insight into the genetic diversity of isolates in Southeast Asia. These isolates were cultured from gastric biopsy samples from patients with functional dyspepsia and gastric cancer. The availability of this genomic information will provide an opportunity for examining the evolution and population structure of H. pylori isolates from Southeast Asia, where the East meets the West.
    Matched MeSH terms: Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
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