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  1. Pourshahrestani S, Kadri NA, Zeimaran E, Towler MR
    Biomater Sci, 2018 Dec 18;7(1):31-50.
    PMID: 30374499 DOI: 10.1039/c8bm01041b
    Immediate control of uncontrolled bleeding and infection are essential for saving lives in both combat and civilian arenas. Inorganic well-ordered mesoporous silica and bioactive glasses have recently shown great promise for accelerating hemostasis and infection control. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive report assessing their specific mechanism of action in accelerating the hemostasis process and exerting an antibacterial effect. After providing a brief overview of the hemostasis process, this review presents a critical overview of the recently developed inorganic mesoporous silica and bioactive glass-based materials proposed for hemostatic clinical applications and specifically investigates their unique characteristics that render them applicable for hemostatic applications and preventing infections. This article also identifies promising new research directions that should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of these materials for hemostatic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemostasis/drug effects*
  2. Stasyshyn O, Djambas Khayat C, Iosava G, Ong J, Abdul Karim F, Fischer K, et al.
    J Thromb Haemost, 2017 04;15(4):636-644.
    PMID: 28166608 DOI: 10.1111/jth.13647
    Essentials rVIII-SingleChain is a novel recombinant factor VIII with covalently bonded heavy and light chains. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were studied in pediatric patients with severe hemophilia A. Across all prophylaxis regimens, the median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00. rVIII-SingleChain showed excellent hemostatic efficacy and a favorable safety profile.

    SUMMARY: Background rVIII-SingleChain is a novel B-domain truncated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) comprised of covalently bonded FVIII heavy and light chains, demonstrating a high binding affinity to von Willebrand factor. Objectives This phase III study investigated the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of rVIII-SingleChain in previously treated pediatric patients < 12 years of age with severe hemophilia A. Patients/Methods Patients could be assigned to prophylaxis or on-demand therapy by the investigator. For patients assigned to prophylaxis, the treatment regimen and dose were based on the bleeding phenotype. For patients receiving on-demand therapy, dosing was guided by World Federation of Hemophilia recommendations. The primary endpoint was treatment success, defined as a rating of 'excellent' or 'good' on the investigator's clinical assessment of hemostatic efficacy for all treated bleeding events. Results The study enrolled 84 patients (0 to < 6 years, n = 35; ≥ 6 to < 12 years, n = 49); 81 were assigned to prophylaxis and three to an on-demand regimen. Patients accumulated a total of 5239 exposure days (EDs), with 65 participants reaching > 50 EDs. In the 347 bleeds treated and evaluated by the investigator, hemostatic efficacy was rated as excellent or good in 96.3%. The median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (Q1, Q3: 0.00, 2.20), and the median annualized bleeding rate was 3.69 (Q1, Q3: 0.00, 7.20) across all prophylaxis regimens. No participant developed an inhibitor. Conclusions rVIII-SingleChain is a novel rFVIII molecule showing excellent hemostatic efficacy and a favorable safety profile in a clinical study in children < 12 years of age with severe hemophilia A.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hemostasis/drug effects
  3. Salamah MF, Ravishankar D, Kodji X, Moraes LA, Williams HF, Vallance TM, et al.
    Blood Adv, 2018 11 13;2(21):2973-2985.
    PMID: 30413433 DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2018021758
    Platelet-associated complications including thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage are commonly observed during various inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Despite the reported evidence on numerous mechanisms/molecules that may contribute to the dysfunction of platelets, the primary mechanisms that underpin platelet-associated complications during inflammatory diseases are not fully established. Here, we report the discovery of formyl peptide receptor 2, FPR2/ALX, in platelets and its primary role in the development of platelet-associated complications via ligation with its ligand, LL37. LL37 acts as a powerful endogenous antimicrobial peptide, but it also regulates innate immune responses. We demonstrate the impact of LL37 in the modulation of platelet reactivity, hemostasis, and thrombosis. LL37 activates a range of platelet functions, enhances thrombus formation, and shortens the tail bleeding time in mice. By utilizing a pharmacological inhibitor and Fpr2/3 (an ortholog of human FPR2/ALX)-deficient mice, the functional dependence of LL37 on FPR2/ALX was determined. Because the level of LL37 is increased in numerous inflammatory diseases, these results point toward a critical role for LL37 and FPR2/ALX in the development of platelet-related complications in such diseases. Hence, a better understanding of the clinical relevance of LL37 and FPR2/ALX in diverse pathophysiological settings will pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies for a range of thromboinflammatory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemostasis/drug effects
  4. Ravishankar D, Salamah M, Attina A, Pothi R, Vallance TM, Javed M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 18;7(1):5738.
    PMID: 28720875 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-05936-3
    The constant increase in cardiovascular disease rate coupled with significant drawbacks of existing therapies emphasise the necessity to improve therapeutic strategies. Natural flavonoids exert innumerable pharmacological effects in humans. Here, we demonstrate the effects of chrysin, a natural flavonoid found largely in honey and passionflower on the modulation of platelet function, haemostasis and thrombosis. Chrysin displayed significant inhibitory effects on isolated platelets, however, its activity was substantially reduced under physiological conditions. In order to increase the efficacy of chrysin, a sulfur derivative (thio-chrysin), and ruthenium-complexes (Ru-chrysin and Ru-thio-chrysin) were synthesised and their effects on the modulation of platelet function were evaluated. Indeed, Ru-thio-chrysin displayed a 4-fold greater inhibition of platelet function and thrombus formation in vitro than chrysin under physiologically relevant conditions such as in platelet-rich plasma and whole blood. Notably, Ru-thio-chrysin exhibited similar efficacy to chrysin in the modulation of haemostasis in mice. Increased bioavailability and cell permeability of Ru-thio-chrysin compared to chrysin were found to be the basis for its enhanced activity. Together, these results demonstrate that Ru-thio-coupled natural compounds such as chrysin may serve as promising templates for the development of novel anti-thrombotic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemostasis/drug effects*
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