Immediate control of uncontrolled bleeding and infection are essential for saving lives in both combat and civilian arenas. Inorganic well-ordered mesoporous silica and bioactive glasses have recently shown great promise for accelerating hemostasis and infection control. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive report assessing their specific mechanism of action in accelerating the hemostasis process and exerting an antibacterial effect. After providing a brief overview of the hemostasis process, this review presents a critical overview of the recently developed inorganic mesoporous silica and bioactive glass-based materials proposed for hemostatic clinical applications and specifically investigates their unique characteristics that render them applicable for hemostatic applications and preventing infections. This article also identifies promising new research directions that should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of these materials for hemostatic applications.
Chitosan-derived hemostatic agents with various formulations may have distinct potential in hemostasis. This study assessed the ability of different grades and forms of chitosan derivatives as hemostatic agents to enhance platelet adhesion and aggregation in vitro. The chitosan derivatives utilized were 2% NO-CMC, 7% NO-CMC (with 0.45 mL collagen), 8% NO-CMC, O-C 52, 5% O-CMC-47, NO-CMC-35, and O-C 53. Samples of chitosan derivatives weighing 5mg were incubated at 37°C with 50 μL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (pH 7.4) for 60 min. The morphological features of the platelets upon adherence to the chitosan were viewed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the platelet count was analyzed with an Automated Hematology Analyzer. For platelet aggregation, we added an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) agonist to induce the chitosan-adhered platelets. O-C 52 bound with platelets exhibited platelet aggregates and clumps on the surface of the membrane layer with approximately 70-80% coverage. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.01) for the platelet count was identified between the baseline value and the values at 10 min and 20 min. The results indicate that O-C 53 and O-C 52 were able to promote clotting have the potential to induce the release of platelets engaged in the process of hemostasis.