Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 87 in total

  1. Granados-García V, Flores YN, Díaz-Trejo LI, Méndez-Sánchez L, Liu S, Salinas-Escudero G, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(2):e0212558.
    PMID: 30807590 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212558
    AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis characterizes the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in upper middle-income countries.

    METHODS: Five databases were searched from 1990-2016 for studies that took place in countries with a GDP per capita of $7,000 to $13,000 USD. The data extraction was performed based on information regarding prevalence, sample size, age of participants, duration of intravenous drug use (IDU), recruitment location, dates of data collection, study design, sampling scheme, type of tests used in identifying antibody reactivity to HCV, and the use of confirmatory tests. The synthesis was performed with a random effects model. The Cochrane statistical Q-test was used to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity of the results.

    RESULTS: The 33 studies included in the analysis correspond to a sample of seven countries and 23,342 observations. The point prevalence value estimates and confidence intervals of the random effects model were 0.729 and 0.644-0.800, respectively for all seven countries, and were greatest for China (0.633; 0.522-0.732) as compared to Brazil (0.396; 0.249-0.564). Prevalence for Montenegro (0.416; 0.237-0.621) and Malaysia (0.475; 0.177-0.792) appear to be intermediate. Mexico (0.960) and Mauritania (0.973) had only one study with the largest prevalence. A clear association was not observed between age or duration of IDU and prevalence of HCV, but the data from some groups may indicate a possible relationship. The measures of heterogeneity (Q and I2) suggest a high level of heterogeneity in studies conducted at the country level and by groups of countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that the pooled prevalence of HCV was high (0.729) among a group of seven upper middle income countries. However, there was significant variation in the prevalence of HCV observed in China (0.633) and Brazil (0.396).

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus*
  2. Mohamed NA, Rashid ZZ, Wong KK
    J Clin Lab Anal, 2014 May;28(3):224-8.
    PMID: 24478138 DOI: 10.1002/jcla.21670
    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is important for treatment and epidemiological purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT kit in comparison to sequencing method for genotyping.

    METHODS: A total of 17 samples collected from December 2009 to January 2011 were analyzed. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, followed by sequencing technique. Results were analyzed based on sequence information in GenBank. A second genotyping method (AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT) was done, which differentiates HCV genotypes by means of real-time hybridization-fluorescence detection.

    RESULTS: From 17 samples, four were untypeable by AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT. Eleven of 13 (84.6%) results showed concordant genotypes. A specimen that was determined as genotype 3a by sequencing was genotype 1 by the AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT. Another specimen that was genotype 1 by sequencing was identified as genotype 3 by AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT.

    CONCLUSION: HCV genotyping with AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT using real-time PCR method provides a much simpler and more feasible workflow with shorter time compared to sequencing method. There was good concordance compared to sequencing method. However, more evaluation studies would be required to show statistical significance, and to troubleshoot discordant results. AmpliSens(®) HCV-1/2/3-FRT does differentiate between genotype but not until subtype level.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/genetics*
  3. Ng KT, Lee YM, Al-Darraji HA, Xia X, Takebe Y, Chan KG, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2013 Jan;1(1).
    PMID: 23409272 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00168-12
    We report the full genome sequence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtype 6n from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolate 10MYKJ032 suggests that Southeast Asia might be the origin for the HCV subtype 6n and highlights the possible spread of this lineage from Southeast Asia to other regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  4. AR Siti Nurul Fazlin, H Hairul Aini, HM Hadzri, MM Mohammed Imad
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is very important for the clinical management of HCV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypes of HCV-infected patients and to identify their risk factors and comorbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  5. Isahak I, Baharin R, Hakim AS, Abu Bakar M, George E
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Jun;15(1):85-7.
    PMID: 8277796
    A specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was developed by recombinant DNA technology. Abbott HCV EIA was used to detect antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) in non-transfused and multiply-transfused thalassemia patients. None of 11 non-transfused patients had anti-HCV but 3 of 52 (5.8%) multiply-transfused patients had anti-HCV. This study showed that the prevalence rate of HCV infection is low in thalassemia patients. However, it is still important to identify hepatitis C virus infected patients in high risk groups because hepatitis C is associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/immunology*
  6. Ooi BG, Sinniah M, Ismail S, Baharuddin R
    Malays J Pathol, 1996 Dec;18(2):89-93.
    PMID: 10879228
    The Serodia-HCV Particle Agglutination (HCV-PA) for the detection of HCV antibodies was compared with the Enzyme Immunoassay Test (UBI HCV EIA) for possible in-house use. A total of 150 specimens were analysed using UBI HCV EIA and Serodia-HCV PA. Of these, 80 (53.3%) were both PA and EIA positive and 59 (39.3%) were negative by both techniques. Eleven sera (7.4%) were found to be EIA-positive but PA-negative. These 11 discordant sera were further tested by the LiaTek-HCV III Immunoassay (Organon Teknika). Ten were found to be line immunoassay negative and one was line immunoassay positive. Failure of the PA to detect the HCV positive serum meant that a small proportion of HCV antibody positives may be missed by the PA test. We conclude that (i) EIA should continue to be the first line screening test in our laboratory, (ii) PA with its 100% specificity could be a useful supplementary screen for all EIA-positive sera and finally (iii) line immunoassay could be used on sera to resolve discordant results in the EIA and PA assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/genetics; Hepacivirus/immunology; Hepacivirus/isolation & purification*
  7. Mellor J, Walsh EA, Prescott LE, Jarvis LM, Davidson F, Yap PL, et al.
    J Clin Microbiol, 1996 Feb;34(2):417-23.
    PMID: 8789027
    Previous surveys of the prevalences of genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in different populations have often used genotyping assays based upon analysis of amplified sequences from the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR), such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or hybridization with type-specific probes (e.g., InnoLipa). Although highly conserved, this region contains several type-specific nucleotide polymorphisms that allow major genotypes 1 to 6 to be reliably identified. Recently, however, novel HCV variants found in Vietnam and Thailand that are distantly related to the type 6a genotype (type 6 group) by phylogenetic analysis of coding regions of the genome often have sequences in the 5'NCR that are similar or identical to those of type 1 and could therefore not be identified by an assay of sequences in this region. We developed a new genotyping assay based upon RFLP of sequences amplified from the more variable core region to investigate their distribution elsewhere in southeast (SE) Asia. Among 108 samples from blood donors in seven areas that were identified as type 1 by RFLP in the 5'NCR, type 6 group variants were found in Thailand (7 from 28 samples originally identified as type 1) and Burma (Myanmar) (1 of 3) but were not found in Hong Kong (n = 43), Macau (n = 8), Taiwan (n = 6), Singapore (n = 2), or Malaysia (n = 18). Although this small survey suggests a relatively limited distribution for type 6 group variants in SE Asia, larger studies will be required to explore their distribution in other geographical regions and the extent to which their presence would limit the practical usefulness of 5'NCR-based genotyping assays for clinical or epidemiological purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/classification*; Hepacivirus/genetics*; Hepacivirus/isolation & purification
  8. Wasitthankasem R, Vongpunsawad S, Siripon N, Suya C, Chulothok P, Chaiear K, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(5):e0126764.
    PMID: 25962112 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126764
    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/classification; Hepacivirus/genetics*
  9. Al-Kubaisy WA, Obaid KJ, Noor NA, Ibrahim NS, Al-Azawi AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(18):7725-30.
    PMID: 25292053
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause for cancer death in the world, now being especially linked to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This case-control study consisting of 65 HCC patients and 82 patients with other malignant tumours as controls was conducted to determine the association of HCV markers with HCC. Serum of each participant was obtained for detection of HCV Ab and RNA by DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA). Twenty six per cent (26.0%) of HCC patients had positive anti-HCV which was significantly greater than the control group (p=0.001). HCC patients significantly have a risk of exposure to HCV infection almost 3 times than the control group (OR=2.87, 95% C.I=1.1-7). Anti-HCV seropositive rate was significantly (p=0.03) higher among old age HCC patients and increases with age. Males with HCC significantly showed to have more than 9 times risk of exposure to HCV infection (OR=9.375, 95 % CI=1.299-67.647) than females. HCV-RNA seropositive rate was (70.8%) significantly higher among HCC patients compared to (22.2%) the control group (p=0.019). The most prevalent genotype (as a single or mixed pattern of infection) was HCV- 1b. This study detected a significantly higher HCV seropositive rate of antibodies and RNA in HCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/genetics*; Hepacivirus/immunology; Hepacivirus/isolation & purification
  10. Mohamed NA, Zainol Rashid Z, Wong KK, S A A, Rahman MM
    Pak J Med Sci, 2013 Sep;29(5):1142-6.
    PMID: 24353708
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is important for treatment and epidemiological purposes. The objective was to determine HCV genotype and their associations with certain risk factors at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  11. Tan SS, Abu Hassan MR, Abdullah A, Ooi BP, Korompis T, Merican MI
    J Viral Hepat, 2010 Jun;17(6):410-8.
    PMID: 19758272 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01191.x
    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in persons undergoing haemodialysis. This single-arm, open-label clinical trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an escalating dosage regimen of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b in this patient population. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who were undergoing haemodialysis began treatment with PEG-IFN alpha-2b at a dose of 0.5 microg/kg/week, which was increased every 4 weeks to a maximum of 1 microg/kg/week. Treatment duration was 24 weeks for patients with genotype (G) 2 or 3 infection and 48 weeks for patients with G1 infection. The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR). Of 46 patients screened, 34 (G1: 70.6%; G3: 29.4%) were treated and 23 (67.6%) completed treatment. Overall, 85.3% of patients experienced early virological response, 52.9% experienced end-of-treatment response, and 50% attained SVR, with a trend toward higher SVR rates in G3 compared with G1 patients (80%vs 37.5%; P = 0.06). Anaemia was the main reason for discontinuation of treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who are undergoing haemodialysis can be successfully treated with an escalating dosage regimen of PEG-IFN alpha-2b monotherapy. G3-infected patients can attain high rates of SVR with only 24 weeks of therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/classification; Hepacivirus/genetics; Hepacivirus/isolation & purification
  12. Subramaniam, U.
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2007;28(2):103-106.
    Gingival overgrowth is a well-recognized unwanted effect associated with three major drugs / drug groups - phenytoin, cyclosporine and the calcium channel blockers. Cyclosporine is the first-choice immunosuppressant for preventing allograft rejection in patients who have received organ or bone marrow transplants. This report aims to highlight a case in which the patient on cyclosporine therapy had also contracted Hepatitis C virus infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  13. Siti Nurul Fazlin Abdul Rahman, Hairul Aini Hamzah, Mohammed Imad Mustafa, Mohamed Hadzri Hasmoni
    The existence of new entity called occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) has
    become a raising and escalating concern among healthcare professionals worldwide. It
    is defined by the presence of viral RNA in liver and/or peripheral blood mononuclear
    cells (PBMCs) within non HCV-infected patients. Previous study had shown the occult
    HCV is infectious and capable of transmitting the virus to another host. Till today, HCV
    infection remains common among hemodialysis patients despite having the best
    preventive plans. Because of this, there is a significant concern about the source of viral
    transmission. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize occult HCV infection
    in PBMC sample of hemodialysis patients. This was an observational and cross sectional
    study. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  14. Raihan R, Mohamed R, Radzi Abu Hassan M, Md Said R
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol, 2017 Jan-Jun;7(1):65-67.
    PMID: 29201775 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1214
    Malaysia is a country where an estimated 1 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and an estimated 2.5% of the adult population are positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Effective nationwide vaccine coverage seems to be a highly effective measure to prevent new HBV infection. Treatment of HCV infection is also a regular practice in Malaysia. These measures highlight the possibility to reach the World Health Organization elimination target by 2030. To achieve this target, the Health Ministry and other nongovernmental organizations, such as My Commitment to Cure (MyC2C) are working together to develop a strategic road map to reach the global elimination target in Malaysia by 2030. How to cite this article: Raihan R, Mohamed R, Hasan MRA, Rosaida MS. Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Malaysia: "Where are we now?" Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):65-67.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  15. Anasir MI, Poh CL
    Front Microbiol, 2019;10:738.
    PMID: 31040832 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00738
    Although vaccines have proven pivotal against arrays of infectious viral diseases, there are still no effective vaccines against many viruses. New structural insights into the viral envelope, protein conformation, and antigenic epitopes can guide the design of novel vaccines against challenging viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus, enterovirus A71, and dengue virus. Recent studies demonstrated that applications of this structural information can solve some of the vaccine conundrums. This review focuses on recent advances in structure-based vaccine design, or structural vaccinology, for novel and innovative viral vaccine design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  16. Narayanamurthy V, Jeroish ZE, Bhuvaneshwari KS, Samsuri F
    Anal Methods, 2021 02 14;13(6):740-763.
    PMID: 33511975 DOI: 10.1039/d0ay02045a
    Humans are subjected to various diseases; hence, proper diagnosis helps avoid further disease consequences. One such severe issue that could cause significant damage to the human liver is the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Several techniques are available to detect HCV under various categories, such as detection through antibodies, antigens, and RNA. Although immunoassays play a significant role in discovering hepatitis viruses, there is a need for point-of-care tests (POCT). Some developing strategies are required to ensure the appropriate selection of POCT for HCV detection, initiate appropriate antiviral therapy, and define associated risks, which will be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. Though molecular assays are precise, reproducible, sensitive, and specific, alternative strategies are required to enhance HCV diagnosis among the infected population. Herein, we described and assessed the potential of various microfluidic detection techniques and confirmatory approaches used in present communities. In addition, current key market players in HCV chip-based diagnosis and the future perspectives on the basis of which the diagnosis can be made easier are presented in the present review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus
  17. Yoo SJ, Wang LL, Ning HC, Tao CM, Hirankarn N, Kuakarn S, et al.
    J Clin Virol, 2015 Mar;64:20-7.
    PMID: 25728074 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.12.015
    Early diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is essential to allow appropriate treatment and prevent transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/immunology*
  18. Morad Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):145-6.
    PMID: 22822631
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/genetics*
  19. Hairul Aini H, Mustafa MIA, Seman MR, Nasuruddin BA
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):199-203.
    PMID: 22822643 MyJurnal
    Mixed-genotypes hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are normally ignored in chronic hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of mixed-genotypes infections among hemodialysis patients in Pahang province, Malaysia. Reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction methods were performed using two different sets of primers, targeting the 5' untranslated region and nonstructural 5B region. Target region base sequences were obtained by direct sequencing. Discrepancy in outcomes from phylogenetic analysis of both regions suggests double infections. Of 40 subjects in eight hemodialysis centres, evidence of mixed-genotypes infections was found in 5 subjects (12.5%) from three different centres. Four patients were infected with mixed genotypes 3 and 1 and one with genotypes 3 and 4. Cases of mixed HCV genotypes infection were considered high among hemodialysis patients in Pahang. However, further investigation is needed to confirm whether they are true mixed infections or perhaps infection with recombinant virus and also to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/genetics*
  20. Poynard T
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:70-1.
    PMID: 16108178
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepacivirus/immunology*
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