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  1. Naing C, Mak JW, Ahmed SI, Maung M
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2012 Apr 14;18(14):1642-51.
    PMID: 22529694 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i14.1642
    AIM: To investigate the association between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    METHODS: Observational studies assessing the relationship between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified via electronic and hand searches. Studies published between 1988 to March 2011 were screened, according to the inclusion criteria set for the present analysis. Authors performed separate analyses for the comparisons between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected and not infected, and HCV infected and hepatitis B virus infected. The included studies were further subgrouped according to the study design. Heterogenity was assessed using I(2) statistics. The summary odds ratios with their corresponding 95% CIs were calculated based on a random-effects model. The included studies were subgrouped according to the study design. To assess any factor that could potentially affect the outcome, results were further stratified by age group (proportion of ≥ 40 years), gender (proportion of male gender), body mass index (BMI) (proportion of BMI ≥ 27), and family history of diabetes (i.e., self reported). For stability of results, a sensitivity analysis was conducted including only prospective studies.
    RESULTS: Combining the electronic database and hand searches, a total of 35 observational studies (in 31 articles) were identified for the final analysis. Based on random-effects model, 17 studies (n = 286,084) compared hepatitis C-infected patients with those who were uninfected [summary odds ratio (OR): 1.68, 95% CI: 1.15-2.45]. Of these 17 studies, 7 were both a cross-sectional design (41.2%) and cohort design (41.2%), while 3 were case-control studies (17.6%). Nineteen studies (n = 51,156) compared hepatitis C-infected participants with hepatitis B-infected (summary OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.41-2.62). Of these 19 studies, 4 (21.1%), 6 (31.6%) and 9 (47.4%) were cross-sectional, cohort and case-control studies, respectively. A sensitivity analysis with 3 prospective studies indicated that hepatitis C-infected patients had a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with uninfected controls (summary odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.7; I(2) = 0%). Among hepatitis C-infected patients, male patients (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.54) with age over 40 years (summary OR: 7.39, 95% CI: 3.82-9.38) had an increased frequency of type 2 diabetes. Some caution must be taken in the interpretation of these results because there may be unmeasured confounding factors which may introduce bias.
    CONCLUSION: The findings support the association between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The direction of association remains to be determined, however. Prospective studies with adequate sample sizes are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  2. Naing C, Mak JW, Wai N, Maung M
    Curr. Diab. Rep., 2013 Jun;13(3):428-34.
    PMID: 23463119 DOI: 10.1007/s11892-013-0370-3
    Individual epidemiologic studies as well as the pooled analysis of observational studies have indicated the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). Whether HCV infection is the cause of diabetes or diabetic patients are more prone to get HCV infection is still in question. The objective of the present review was to provide answers to this issue, based on available evidence from epidemiologic, molecular, experimental and therapeutic studies. Our current understanding of how chronic HCV infection could induce T2D is incomplete, but it seems twofold based on both direct and indirect roles of the virus. HCV may directly induce insulin resistance (IR) through its proteins. HCV core protein was shown to stimulate suppressor of cytokine signaling, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of tyrosine kinase phosphorylated insulin receptor substrates (IRS1/2) in proteasomes. HCV-nonstructural protein could increase protein phosphatase 2A which has been shown to inactivate the key enzyme Akt by dephosphorylating it. Insulin signaling defects in hepatic IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3-kinase association/activation may contribute to IR, which leads to the development of T2D in patients with HCV infection. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are also implicated. PPARα/γ, together with their obligate partner RXR, are the main nuclear receptors expressed in the liver. PPARα upregulates glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol kinase, and glycerol transport proteins, which allows for glucose synthesis during fasting states. Decreased activity of PPARs could attribute to HCV-induced IR. Immune-mediated mechanisms may be involved in the indirect role of HCV in inducing IR. It is speculated that TNF-alpha plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IR through lowering IRS1/2. Furthermore, HCV infection- triggered ER stress could lead to the activation of PP2A, which inhibits both Akt and the AMP-activated kinase, the regulators of gluconeogenesis. In summary, we illustrate that HCV infection is accompanied by multiple defects in the upstream insulin signaling pathway in the liver that may contribute to the observed prevalence of IR and diabetes. Future studies are needed to resolve this issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  3. Murugasu R, Wang F, Dissanaike AS
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1978;72(4):389-91.
    PMID: 705845
    The first living patient with a Schistosoma japonicum-type infection who presented with the nephrotic syndrome is reported in detail. It is not clear whether the nephrotic syndrome was due to the schistosome infection or to the deposition of hepatitis B antigen and antibody complexes. This is the tenth case of schistosomiasis reported from aborigines in Malaysia and a sylvatic source of infection is suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  4. Rosmawati M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:125-6.
    PMID: 16108192
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  5. Yasmin AM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Jun;52(2):105-7.
    PMID: 10968066
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  6. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP, Yap SF
    Cancer, 1990 Jan 1;65(1):174-6.
    PMID: 2152851
    In the 7-year period between 1980 and 1987, six cases of childhood primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) were confirmed histologically in our institution. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was confirmed in five of the cases, and tissue HBsAg was shown in four of these using the Shikata's orcein stain. An associated maternal HBsAg seropositivity was shown in two of the seropositive children. The youngest seropositive patient who developed PHC was 7 years old. The mother of this patient was also seropositive. These observations support a causal relation between childhood Hepatitis B virus infection and PHC. The importance of vertical or perinatal transmission of HBV in the causation of childhood PHC and the prophylactic role of childhood vaccination is emphasized. Attention is also drawn to the relative short malignant transformation time seen in some of these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  7. Nem-Yun B, Isahak I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):162-5.
    PMID: 3237132
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  8. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  9. Yasmin AM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Jun;52(2):188-92; quiz 193.
    PMID: 10968083
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  10. Sumithran E, Looi LM
    Cancer, 1985 Sep 1;56(5):1124-7.
    PMID: 2990666
    In West Malaysia, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common in the Chinese and in the members of the Senoi aboriginal tribe, two racial groups with diametrically opposite life-styles. Certain fundamental differences exist between the liver tumors in the two races. In the Senoi, the tumor occurs in a younger age group and there is a greater male preponderance than in the Chinese. There is also a very close relationship between hepatitis B virus infection, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cell dysplasia, and HCC in the Senoi and the tumors generally present as multiple nodules studding both lobes of the liver. In the Chinese, although a relationship between hepatitis B virus infection, HCC, and cirrhosis exists, this association is not as strong as in the Senoi and the tumors are generally large and solitary. The data suggest that, although the hepatitis B virus is probably an important oncogenic agent in both racial groups, there may be a difference in the pathogenesis of HCC in the two races.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  11. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  12. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  13. Lopez JB, Thambyrajah V, Balasegaram M, Satgunasingam N
    Br. J. Biomed. Sci., 1994 Jun;51(2):177-80.
    PMID: 7519505
    Sera from 80 Malaysians with confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma were tested for five markers of the hepatitis B virus, anti-HCV and anti-HDV by enzyme immunoassay, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Of the patients, 98.8% had evidence of HBV infection and 75% were positive for HBsAg--which latter correlated with AFP raised above cut-off values of 500 ng/ml (P = 0.0001) and 200 ng/ml (P = 0.005). Males correlated significantly with the presence of HBsAg (P = 0.002). Thirty-one per cent of HBsAg positive patients were also positive for HBeAg and 74% for anti-HBe. Twenty per cent of the cases were concurrently positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs. Six of 70 (8.6%) patients were positive for anti-HCV, of whom four were also positive for HBsAg. None of 67 patients tested for anti-HDV were positive. The results strongly indicate an important aetiological role for hepatitis B virus in causation of hepatocellular carcinoma among Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  14. Lee SM, Wong NW
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Feb;35(1):53-6.
    PMID: 8009280
    A prospective comparative study was carried out on thirty-seven consecutive patients presenting with bleeding oesophageal varices at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. All patients received injection sclerotherapy if active bleeding was seen at the time of initial endoscopy, followed by repetitive courses of sclerotherapy to obliterate the varices. Predominant aetiological factors were hepatitis-B cirrhosis (43%) and alcoholic cirrhosis (30%). Chinese ethnic group accounted for 62.5% of hepatitis-B cirrhotics and Indian 73% of alcoholic cirrhotics. After excluding patients lost to follow-up, analysis of the remaining thirty-four patients showed reduced long-term survival in patients with Child's C disease. Log-rank analysis of survival curves between hepatitis-B cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis in patients with Child's C liver disease showed no significant difference in long-term survival (p = 0.07). However, six deaths were seen in hepatitis-B cirrhosis compared to one death in alcoholic cirrhosis in the first eight months of follow-up. Most patients died from progressive liver failure. Median survival for Child's C hepatitis-B cirrhosis was 7.5 months whereas this had not been reached for Child's C alcoholic cirrhosis (median follow-up 11.6 months). We conclude that variceal haemorrhage in Child's C hepatitis-B cirrhosis is a bad prognostic sign and is associated with reduced survival with a median survival of 7.5 months despite control of the variceal bleed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  15. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP, Yap SF
    Pathology, 1991 Jan;23(1):66-8.
    PMID: 1648195
    A case of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) developing in a 10 year old boy who contracted Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the course of maintenance phase chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was seen at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. This case is of interest in that it (1) supports an etiological relationship between HBV infection and PHC, (2) manifested a distinctly short malignant transformation time, and (3) draws attention to the possible contributory role of chemotherapy in increasing the risk of developing PHC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  16. Sinniah M, Dimitrakakis M, Tan DS
    PMID: 3787309
    Sera from one hundred and fifty nine Malaysian individuals were screened for the prevalence of delta markers. These included 15 HBsAg positive homosexuals, 16 acute hepatitis B cases, 9 chronic hepatitis B patients, 13 healthy HBsAg carriers and 106 intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers, of whom 27 were positive for HBsAg only and the rest were anti-HBc IgG positive but HBsAg negative. The prevalence of delta markers in the homosexuals was found to be 6.7%, in the HBsAg positive drug abusers 17.8%, in acute hepatitis B cases 12.5%. No evidence of delta infection was detected in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B cases and HBsAg negative i.v. drug abusers. With reference to i.v. drug abusers, the prevalence of delta markers was higher in Malays (23%) than in Chinese (7%) although the latter had a higher HBsAg carrier rate. Although the HBsAg carrier rate in the homosexuals was high, their delta prevalence rate was low as compared to drug abusers. In Malaysia, as in other non-endemic regions, hepatitis delta virus transmission appeared to occur mainly via the parenteral and sexual routes. This is the first time in Malaysia that a reservoir of delta infection has been demonstrated in certain groups of the population at high risk for hepatitis B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications*
  17. Gan CY, Yap SF, Ngeow YF, Wong HC
    Sex Transm Dis, 1991 4 1;18(2):84-8.
    PMID: 1862464
    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  18. Naing C, Poovorawan Y, Tong KS
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 Nov 14;18(1):564.
    PMID: 30428847 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3506-x
    BACKGROUND: There are randomized trials assessing a variety of antiviral drugs for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but the relative effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains unclear. The objectives of the current study were to estimate and rank the relative effectiveness of antiviral drugs for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients.

    METHODS: Randomized trials, assessing the efficacy of antiviral drugs for HBV and HIV co-infected patients were searched in health-related databases. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Main outcome in this meta-analysis study was the success of treatment by antivirals as determined by virologic response. We performed pairwise and network meta-analysis of these trials and assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach.

    RESULTS: Seven randomized trials (329 participants) were included in this network meta-analysis study. A network geometry was formed with six treatment options including four antiviral drugs, adefovir (ADV), emtricitabine (FTC), lamivudine (LMV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), combination treatment of TDF plus LMV, and placebo. The weighted percentage contributions of each comparison distributed fairly equally in the entire network of evidence. An assumption of consistency required for network meta-analysis was not violated (the global Wald test for inconsistency: Chi2(4) = 3.63, p = 0.46). The results of estimates showed no differences between the treatment regimens in terms of viral response for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients, which spanned both benefit and harm (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: OR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.06-2.41). Overall, the certainty of evidence was very low in all comparisons (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: 218 fewer per 1000,121 more to 602 fewer, very low certainty). Therefore, we remained uncertain to the true ranking of the antiviral treatments in HBV/ HIV co-infected patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the evidence is insufficient to provide guidance to the relative effectiveness of currently available antiviral drugs with dual activity in treating co-infection of HBV/HIV. Well-designed, large clinical trials in this field to address other important outcomes from different epidemiological settings are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
  19. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2014;16:69-78.
    PMID: 24014801
    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide, and more than 350 million people are chronic carriers, constituting a major global threat. Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have the highest levels of endemicity in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence ranging between 2% and 31%. Mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported in many parts of the world but are most common in Asian infants; such mutants have several clinical effects, such as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagnostic failures by commercial assays have reduced the diagnostic effectiveness of HBsAg detection. For example the substitution of an amino acid in the major hydrophilic region of the S gene reduces the binding of hepatitis B surface antibodies leading to immune escape. The safety of blood transfusion may be compromised by current screening tests due to escape from being neutralised by antibodies induced by HBsAg mutants, and undetectable levels of viral surface protein. Data on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific are scant; however, this manuscript has reviewed the available information on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/complications
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