Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

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  1. Lopez CG
    Malays J Pathol, 1985 Aug;7:7-10.
    PMID: 3843253
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  2. Yousuf R, Rapiaah M, Ahmed SA, Rosline H, Salam A, Selamah S, et al.
    PMID: 18613548
    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in hepatitis B infection among blood donors attending the Transfusion Medicine Unit at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the results of HBsAg among blood donors for the years 2000 to 2004. During this period, 44,658 blood donors were studied. We noted that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection between regular and first time donors. There was also a decreasing trend noticed in both study groups. The mean prevalence was significantly different between first time (1.83%) and regular donors (0.45%) (p < 0.005). There is a need to improve public awareness programs to lower the incidence of hepatitis B infection in the general population and consequently first time blood donors. Future studies are also required to determine the trends and outcomes of these programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  3. Mangalam S, Tan DS, Vijayamalar B, Collett D, Fang R
    PMID: 3787308
    Sera from 200 Malaysian male drug abusers were tested for markers of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, viz. HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc using commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits supplied by Abbot Laboratories, Chicago. Of these, 103 (51.5%) were positive for at least one HBV marker, 11 (5.5%) were positive for HBsAg; 4 (2%) for HBeAg, 74 (37%) for anti-HBs and 85 (42.5%) for anti-HBc. The HBsAg carrier rate was roughly the same as the carrier rate in the general population of Malaysia. The majority of drug abusers (95%) have had subclinical, asymptomatic HBV infection. Racially the Malay drug abusers had the highest exposure rate (54.2%). The HBsAg carrier rate was highest in the Chinese drug abusers (15.3%) and lowest in the Indians (0%). The mean age for the HBsAg carriers was found to be 26 years with a mean duration of drug abuse of 72 months. The Malaysian Anti-Narcotics Task Force of the National Security Council reported in the Malay Mail (July 13, 1985) that there were about 106,000 identified drug abusers in Malaysia and that 63% of these were in the 20-29 age groups. It appears from our study that this age group also coincides with the period of high HBsAg carrier rate. Age wise, those less than 21 years old had the highest HBsAg (11%) and HBeAg (5.6%) prevalence rates indicating high infectivity. After the age of 30 years, nearly 50% of the drug abusers appear to be immune with the HBe prevalence of 0%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  4. Alexander MJ, Sinnatamby AS, Rohaimah MJ, Harun AH, Ng JS
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1990 May;19(3):344-6.
    PMID: 2393233
    Brunei Darussalam has a mixed population with entirely different cultures and religions. The overall incidence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is 6%. A racial analysis of the incidence of HBV infection in Brunei shows a significantly higher incidence in Chinese compared to the other races. This is consistent with the incidence in the neighbouring countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  5. Tan TC, Vadivale M, Ong CN
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1992;6(3):134-9.
    PMID: 1342800 DOI: 10.1177/101053959200600303
    This study was based on a hepatitis B screening program conducted in one of the states in Malaysia in 1989. The majority (84.6%) of the 2986 health employees were screened. One quarter (25%) was found to have serological markers for the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV); 2.1% had Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and 22.8% had antibody to the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (anti-HBs). The occurrence of HBsAg was higher in ethnic Chinese (6.3%) compared to Malays (1.8%) and Indians (0.9%), even when analyzed by sex, but not with age, type of institution and geographical locality. The distribution of anti-HBs was higher with ethnic Chinese (41.6%), male sex (27.2%) and age. There was a wide variation of the prevalence of serological markers among occupations and increased relative risks of HBsAg were found among medical assistants (RR3.7; 95% CI 1.4-9.1) and laboratory staff (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1-8.8), and that of anti-HBs among medical assistants (RR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-3.7). The variations of HBsAg among occupations by type of institutions was marginal while that of anti-HBs was higher among attendants and midwives in hospitals, medical assistants in health departments, and assistant nurses and dentists in dental centers. The patterns of distribution of serological markers of HBV among health staff reflect the situation in the community with high endemicity and resemble specific occupational factors noted in previous studies in the West.
    Publication year is 1992-1993
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  6. Ross IN, Dass PK, Thavarasah AS, Noor SS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Dec;43(4):278-83.
    PMID: 3241593
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  7. Kamath S, Lopez CG
    Med. J. Aust., 1973 Nov 3;2(18):867-8.
    PMID: 4782397
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  8. Mohamed R, Desmond P, Suh DJ, Amarapurkar D, Gane E, Guangbi Y, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2004 Sep;19(9):958-69.
    PMID: 15304110
    The Asia-Pacific Expert Committee on Hepatitis B Management recently reviewed the impact of hepatitis B in the region and assessed the differences and similarities observed in the practical management of the disease in individual Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and of all chronically infected carriers worldwide, approximately 75% are found in Asia. The disease poses a considerable burden on healthcare systems, and is likely to remain a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades. Disease prevention activities, including screening and vaccination programs, have been implemented successfully in some Asia-Pacific countries and similar measures are being established in other parts of the region. The management of hepatitis B in the Asia-Pacific varies throughout the region, with each country confronting different issues related to treatment options, disease monitoring and duration of therapy. The influence of cost, availability of diagnostic equipment, and patient awareness and compliance are of additional concern. Although guidelines such as those developed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver have been created to address problems encountered in the management of hepatitis B, many physicians in the region still find it difficult to make satisfactory management decisions because of the treatment choices available. This article examines the different approaches to hepatitis B management in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, and highlights the difficulties that can arise when adhering to treatment guidelines and disease prevention solutions that have proved to be successful in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  9. Khairullah NS, Merican DI
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2004 Mar;19 Suppl:S13-6.
    PMID: 15156929
    The MLF since its inception in 1996 has endeavored to develop a coordinated approach towards the improved care and treatment of liver diseases in Malaysia. Its close liaison with the Malaysian MOH, local medical associations, and corporate bodies has contributed to the success of its many programs. Educating the public, research, and training have been important elements of successful hepatitis disease control programs. Hepatitis Days have been proven to be very successful in raising the awareness of the general public to hepatitis disease. Rapid screening and vaccination has also helped to remove the social stigma associated with the disease, eliminated the need for numerous clinic appointments, and rendered vaccination more accessible to the public. The MLF perspective emphasizes the need for collaborative effort between Government bodies and other agencies, such as non-governmental organizations, laboratories, and the medical fraternity, to ensure the overall success of hepatitis disease management programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  10. André F
    Vaccine, 2000 Feb 18;18 Suppl 1:S20-2.
    PMID: 10683538
    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  11. Vadivale M, Tan TC, Ong CN
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Aug;33(4):367-9.
    PMID: 1411666
    Dental employees in government institutions in a State in Peninsular Malaysia were screened for exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 1989. Almost all (96.8%) of the 217 employees responded. One quarter (24.8%) was positive for at least one serological markers to HBV; 2.4% had hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 22.4% had anti-body to HBsAg (anti-HBs). The presence of HBsAg was unrelated to age, sex, ethnicity, geographical locality and occupations of the subjects. The prevalence of anti-HBs increased with age and was highest for ethnic Chinese (53.6%), followed by Indians (25%), compared to Malays (14.9%) (p less than 0.001) and were increased among dentists (53.1%) and assistant nurses (33.3%). The overall prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs were similar to the situation in the community. However, dentists and their chairside assistant nurses, with a higher proportion of Chinese, had higher anti-HBs prevalences compared with that of the general population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  12. Louisirirotchanakul S, Olinger CM, Arunkaewchaemsri P, Poovorawan Y, Kanoksinsombat C, Thongme C, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2012 Oct;84(10):1541-7.
    PMID: 22930500 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23363
    Phylogenetic analysis was performed on hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains obtained from 86 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donors from Thailand originating throughout the country. Based on the S gene, 87.5% of strains were of genotype C while 10.5% were of genotype B, with all genotype B strains obtained from patients originating from the central or the south Thailand. No genotype B strains were found in the north of Thailand. Surprisingly, one patient was infected with a genotype H strain while another patient was infected with a genotype G strain. Complete genome sequencing and recombination analysis identified the latter as being a genotype G and C2 recombinant with the breakpoint around nucleotide position 700. The origin of the genotype G fragment was not identifiable while the genotype C2 fragment most likely came from strains circulating in Laos or Malaysia. The performance of different HBsAg diagnostic kits and HBV nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was evaluated. The genotype H and G/C2 recombination did not interfere with HBV detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  13. ul Haq N, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Saleem F, Aljadhey H
    PMID: 22866752 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-91
    The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  14. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  15. Le Bras J, Larouze B, Geniteau M, Andrieu B, Dazza MC, Rodhain F
    Lab. Anim., 1984 Jan;18(1):61-4.
    PMID: 10628790
    Naturally occurring malaria, arbovirus infection and hepatitis in monkeys can be a hazard for the investigator and might interfere with the outcome of experiments. 63 young adult Macaca fascicularis from Malaysia were screened for these infections. About 1 year after their arrival in France, parasitaemia due to Plasmodium spp., was present in 6.4% of the animals and specific antibodies in 55.5%. 19 of 35 initially positive monkeys were tested again 2 years later. Parasitaemia was found in 1 of 4 monkeys and antibodies in 11 of 19 monkeys which were initially positive. 9 of the monkeys initially tested had low titres of antibodies to the Flavivirus genus. All animals were negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBc. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against hepatitis A was 46.0%. The implications in terms of control are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  16. Quak SH, Singh R, Oon CJ, Wong HB
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1982 Jun;2(2):53-6.
    PMID: 6185078
    A study of race-related distribution of hepatitis B markers was conducted in 458 children admitted consecutively to Singapore General Hospital. The positive rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 11.2, 8.0 and 12.2% respectively and the corresponding figures for anti-HBs were 30.2, 12.0 and 14.6%. In Chinese children HBsAg prevalence was shown to be sex-related, being higher in males than females. The percentages of Chinese children positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc were also higher than those of the Indians. This study confirmed that Singapore children were exposed to hepatitis B infection from early life. All three races were equally susceptible to this infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  17. Ross IN, Madhavan HN, Tan SH, Abdul Rahim K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Dec;40(4):301-6.
    PMID: 3025569
    Serological markers were used to determine the infective agents causing acute viral hepatitis in 246 patients. The frequencies of the five viral infections investigated were: non-A, non-B hepatitis - 99 patients (40.2%); hepatitis A - 98 patients (39.8%); hepatitis B - 43 patients (17.5%); cytomegalovirus - 4 patients (1.6%); and Epstein-Barr virus - 2 patients (0.8%). The log mean ages of presentation for the three predominant infections were: hepatitis A - 18 years; hepatitis B - 25 years; and non-A, non-B hepatitis - 30 years (F = 18.8, p =< 0.001). 52% of all cases were Malays (expected 32. 7%); 32% Chinese (expected 54.6%); and 16% Indians (expected 1l.5%) (X2 = 53, p = < 0.001). Hepatitis A virus infection was more common amongst Malays whilst non-A, non-B hepatitis was more frequent amongst Chinese and Indians. 28% of children <16 years) and 50% of adults had serological markers of previous hepatitis B infection. The variation in frequency for the different forms of hepatitis amongst the three main ethnic groups would suggest that socioeconomic and/or cultural factors are important in the propagation of acute viral hepatitis in Malaysia. HBsAg-negative chronic liver disease in our community may be a product of the high incidence of non-A, non-B hepatitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  18. Ramachandran S, Ngeow YF
    Genitourin Med, 1990 Oct;66(5):334-6.
    PMID: 2245980
    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases was determined among 370 prostitutes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Chlamydial cervicitis (26.5%) was detected more frequently than gonorrhoea (14.25%) and was associated more often with pelvic inflammatory disease. Concurrent infections and asymptomatic infections were common. Seropositivity to hepatitis B and syphilis were 66.3% and 13.6% respectively. Women under 20 years of age had significantly higher rates of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and hepatitis B virus than older women.
    Study site: private clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  19. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Afr Health Sci, 2016 Sep;16(3):677-683.
    PMID: 27917199
    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

    PATIENT AND METHODS: A total of 1000 randomly selected hepatitis B surface antigen-negative sera from blood donors were tested for hepatitis B core antibody and hepatitis B surface antibody using an ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction was done using primers specific to the surface gene (S-gene).

    RESULTS: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result.

    CONCLUSION: This study reveals the 5.5% prevalence of occult hepatitis B among Malaysian blood donors as well as the reliability of using hepatitis B core antibody in screening for occult hepatitis B infection in low endemic, low socioeconomic settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
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