Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Ng KP, Ngeow YF, Rozainah K, Rosmawati M
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):144-7.
    PMID: 23629561 MyJurnal
    A nationwide HBV vaccination for neonates in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was implemented in Malaysia in 1989. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc among the new student intakes in the Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Malaya from 2005 to 2011.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines*
  2. Sinniah M, Halimah M, Krishnamurthy T, Lye MS, Choo CH, Shamsiah I
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):336-40.
    PMID: 7674968
    Immunisation of health care workers and staff working in laboratory and hospital settings has been implemented since 1988. However due to the high cost of currently available HBV vaccine, many health personnel outside the Ministry of Health are not being immunised. This study sought to determine the immunogenicity of three doses of a low cost plasma-derived Korean HBV vaccine on employees of an institute for mentally handicapped and their spouses and children. We found that the Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC to be safe and immunogenic. The response to 10 mcg and 20 mcg Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC after third dose was good with 100% seroconversion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology*
  3. Tong NK, Beran J, Kee SA, Miguel JL, Sánchez C, Bayas JM, et al.
    Kidney Int, 2005 Nov;68(5):2298-303.
    PMID: 16221232
    Due to their impaired immune system, patients with renal insufficiency have a suboptimal response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccination and frequent boosters are needed to maintain protection. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has developed a HB vaccine containing a new adjuvant system AS04 for use in this immunocompromised patient population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage*; Hepatitis B Vaccines/adverse effects; Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology*
  4. Cheang HK, Wong HT, Ho SC, Chew KS, Lee WS
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Apr;54(4):224-6.
    PMID: 23624451
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the immune response in infants who received the three-shot hepatitis B vaccine in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Consecutive infants born between March 2002 and April 2010 who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine at a community clinic in Malaysia were enrolled in the study. Screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) was performed after the completion of primary immunisation, at approximately one year of age.

    RESULTS: A total of 572 infants (median age 9.3 ± 2.7 months; range 6.3-48 months) were screened for immune response to hepatitis B vaccination - 553 (96.7%) infants had adequate levels of anti-HBs (≥ 10 IU/L). Of the 440 mothers whose HBsAg status was known, 14 (3.2%) were positive for HBsAg. None of the 14 infants who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers were positive for HBsAg, and all but one infant had anti-HBs level ≥ 10 IU/L. Gender, gestational age and maternal HBsAg status were not found to significantly affect the subsequent immune response in infants following vaccination.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of Malaysian mothers who are positive for HBsAg remains high. The three-shot hepatitis B vaccine, given as part of universal vaccination against hepatitis B, provides adequate anti-HBs in the vast majority of infants in a community setting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage*; Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology*
  5. André F
    Vaccine, 2000 Feb 18;18 Suppl 1:S20-2.
    PMID: 10683538
    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology
  6. Mahmood S, Shah KU, Khan TM
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 22;8(1):12550.
    PMID: 30135554 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30512-8
    A systematic review was performed to estimate the duration of protection of Hepatitis-B vaccine after primary vaccination during infancy. The number of seropositive participants with anti-HBs antibody titer ≥ 10 mIU/ml and seronegative participants who had anti-HBs antibody titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml after booster dose was the main outcome criteria to find out the protection time of Hepatitis-B vaccine. Twelve studies were selected for systematic review. Overall, results from the meta-analysis have revealed that the risk of Anti-HBs Titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml reduced by 50%. Upon performing the sub-group analysis it was revealed that the overall risk of having Anti-HBs Titre ≤ 10 mIU/ml was reduced up to 62% among the subjects age 21-30 years (0.38 [0.34, 0.44]; I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.938). Furthermore, it was observed that the risk of having titre level less than 10 mIU/ml for plasma derived vaccines were to be 56% [0.44, CI 0.33-0.57, I2 90.9%, p = <0.001]. Vaccination in early infancy does not ensure protection against Hepatitis-B infection. There is a strong correlation between the duration of protection and time elapsed after primary immunization during infancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology*
  7. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Alshrari AS, Sekawi Z
    Ann Saudi Med, 2014 1 15;33(6):591-4.
    PMID: 24413864 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2013.591
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are detected in almost every patient with previous exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, with this marker alone, one cannot understand the activity of the disease; therefore, this study aimed to identify the implication of isolated hepatitis B core antibody and evaluate the effect of hepatitis B vaccine booster in isolated anti-HBc among adults who received the HBV vaccine as infants.

    DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A prospective cohort study of vaccinated undergraduate students of University Putra Malaysia.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 408 undergraduate students who received infant hepatitis B vaccination volunteered for this study; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from the volunteers. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core antibodies were tested using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (DRG international Inc., USA). Molecular detection of hepatitis B viral DNA was performed using nested polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc among the vaccinated cohort was found to be 5.0%, out of which 80% had a hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) titer higher than 10 IU/L, while 20% had less than 10 IU/L anti-HBs titer. All the anti-HBc positivesubjects had detectable hepatitis B viral DNA in their serum. Anamnestic response was found to be 100% among isolated anti-HBc with negative antibody.

    CONCLUSION: Isolated anti-HBc developed protective levels of anti-HBs after a single dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. HBV DNA was detected in all isolated anti-HBc indicating occult chronic HBV infection with undetectable HBsAg.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage*; Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology
  8. Yap SF
    Malays J Pathol, 2004 Jun;26(1):1-12.
    PMID: 16190102
    "Parenteral" or "serum" hepatitis is known to have afflicted man for centuries. However, it was not until the mid-1960s that the causative agent of this infection, the hepatitis B virus, was discovered. Since then, the biology and the replication strategy of the virus, and the clinical features and the epidemiology of the hepatitis B infection have been determined. Knowledge about the virus and the infection it causes led to the development of firstly, a plasma-derived vaccine and later a recombinant vaccine for the prevention of the infection. Integration of the hepatitis B vaccine into newborn vaccination programmes on a worldwide basis represents a major step in the effort to eliminate this infectious disease and its complications. Laboratory tests are available for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Therapies have been developed to halt the progress of the chronic infection in affected individuals. While these developments have resulted in a decrease of the frequency of infection in many countries, particularly those that have implemented universal immunization of newborns, the chronic infection remains a significant global problem. Worldwide, over 300 million individuals are infected and each year, an estimated 1 million persons die from chronic complications of the disease including hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic failure. The therapies currently available result in elimination of the virus in only a relatively small proportion of subjects and carry with it serious side effects. Geopolitical, economic and other factors hinder the vision of elimination of the infection through immunization programmes. Nevertheless, work continues to clarify further the underlying pathological mechanism of the infection, the host and viral factors that promote elimination or persistence of the virus in the human host. It is hoped that such investigations will reveal viral targets for the design of newer and potentially more effective drugs to treat the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology; Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use
  9. Yong CY, Yeap SK, Goh ZH, Ho KL, Omar AR, Tan WS
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2015 Feb;81(3):882-9.
    PMID: 25416760 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03695-14
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a deadly pathogen that has killed countless people worldwide. Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived HBV vaccines based upon hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is highly effective. However, the emergence of vaccine escape mutants due to mutations on the HBsAg and polymerase genes has produced a continuous need for the development of new HBV vaccines. In this study, the "a" determinant within HBsAg was displayed on the recombinant capsid protein of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), which can be purified easily in a single step through immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) when observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immunization of BALB/c mice with this chimeric protein induced specific antibodies against the "a" determinant. In addition, it induced significantly more natural killer and cytotoxic T cells, as well as an increase in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secretion, which are vital for virus clearance. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that the MrNV capsid protein is a potential carrier for the HBV "a" determinant, which can be further extended to display other foreign epitopes. This paper is the first to report the application of MrNV VLPs as a novel platform to display foreign epitopes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage; Hepatitis B Vaccines/genetics; Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology*
  10. Wong SL, Soosai P, Teoh YL, Han HH, Lefevre I, Bock HL
    PMID: 18564687
    Malaysian infants would have to receive nine injections during the first few months of life in order to be protected against disease caused by hepatitis B (HBV), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) if single HBV and Hib vaccines were used. We evaluated a combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine administered at 1.5, 3 and 5 months after a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). One month after completion of the primary vaccination, 99% of subjects had seroprotective anti-HBV antibody levels, and at least 98% had seroprotective antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, and Hib, and were seropositive for pertussis antibodies. The immune response to the combined vaccine was comparable to that induced by separate injections with DTPw, HBV and Hib vaccines. Overall, the DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was as well tolerated as separate administration of DTPw, HBV and Hib vaccines. The combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine induces protection against five diseases as recommended in the Malaysian routine vaccination schedule. Use of the combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine can reduce the required number of injections from nine to four in the first few months of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage*; Hepatitis B Vaccines/adverse effects; Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology
  11. Kong NC, Beran J, Kee SA, Miguel JL, Sánchez C, Bayas JM, et al.
    Kidney Int, 2008 Apr;73(7):856-62.
    PMID: 18160963
    Prehemodialysis and hemodialysis patients are at an increased risk of hepatitis B infection and have an impaired immune response to hepatitis B vaccines. We evaluated the immune response to the new adjuvant of hepatitis B vaccine AS04 (HBV-AS04) in this population. We measured antibody persistence for up to 42 months, and the anamnestic response and safety of booster doses in patients who were no longer seroprotected. The primary vaccination study showed that HBV-AS04 elicited an earlier antibody response and higher antibody titers than four double doses of standard hepatitis B vaccine. Seroprotection rates were significantly higher in HBV-AS04 recipients throughout the study. The decline in seroprotection over time was significantly less in the HBV-AS04 group with significantly fewer primed patients requiring a booster dose over the follow-up period. Solicited/unsolicited adverse events were rare following booster administration. Fifty-seven patients experienced a serious adverse event during the follow-up; none of which was vaccine related. When HBV-AS04 was used as the priming immunogen, the need for a booster dose occurred at a longer time compared to double doses of standard hepatitis B vaccine. Hence, in this population, the HBV-AS04 was immunogenic, safe, and well-tolerated both as a booster dose after HBV-AS04 or standard hepatitis B vaccine priming.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology*
  12. Hesham R, Zamberi S, Tajunisah ME, Ariza A, Ilina I
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):407-10.
    PMID: 16570700
    Health care workers (HCW) are at higher risk of acquiring blood borne infections such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus from patients. To minimise exposure, Universal Precautions Policy guidelines were introduced. This study looked into one of the aspects of hepatitis B prevention among HCW in the Malaysian context. The objective of this study was to assess hepatitis B vaccine coverage among HCW. A cross sectional study involving pre-tested questionnaires was undertaken from February 2001 to August 2001. Hospital staff in Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as well as undergraduate students undergoing clinical attachments were randomly chosen. A total of 625 subjects were enrolled. Only 58.4% had taken a complete hepatitis B vaccination. However, 82.2% have taken at least one dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and were supposed to complete the schedule in due course. Not all HCW were protected against hepatitis B. Preventing hepatitis B in HCW should be one of the priorities of the hospital management as it is definitely cheaper than managing chronic hepatitis B cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage*
  13. Leung N
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines*
  14. Rajamoorthy Y, Radam A, Taib NM, Rahim KA, Wagner AL, Mudatsir M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(12):e0208402.
    PMID: 30521602 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208402
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia has a comprehensive, publicly-funded immunization program for hepatitis B (HepB) among infants, but adults must pay for the vaccine. The number of HepB carriers among adults is expected to increase in the future; therefore, we examined the impact of five constructs (cues to action, perceived barriers, perceived benefit, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility) on adults' willingness to pay (WTP) for HepB vaccine; secondarily, we examined the association between perceived barriers and perceived benefits.

    METHODS: Adults were selected through a stratified, two-stage cluster community sample in Selangor, Malaysia. The reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the measurement model were assessed before implementing a partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) to evaluate the significance of the structural paths.

    RESULTS: A total of 728 participants were enrolled. The five constructs all showed adequate internal reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. There was a significant, positive relationship to WTP from constructs (perceived barriers [Path coefficient (β) = 0.082, P = 0.036], perceived susceptibility [β = 0.214, P<0.001], and cues to action [β = 0.166, P<0.001]), and the model all together accounted for 8.8% of the variation in WTP. There was a significant, negative relationship between perceived barriers and perceived benefit [β = -0.261, P<0.001], which accounted for 6.8% of variation in perceived benefit.

    CONCLUSIONS: Policy and programs should be targeted that can modify individuals' thoughts about disease risk, their obstacles in obtaining the preventive action, and their readiness to obtain a vaccine. Such programs include educational materials about disease risk and clinic visits that can pair HepB screening and vaccination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/economics*
  15. Chen XY, Butt AM, Mohd Amin MCI
    Mol Pharm, 2019 09 03;16(9):3853-3872.
    PMID: 31398038 DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00483
    The development of oral vaccine formulation is crucial to facilitate an effective mass immunization program for various vaccine-preventable diseases. In this work, the efficacy of hepatitis B antigen delivered by bacterial nanocellulose/poly(acrylic acid) composite hydrogel microparticles (MPs) as oral vaccine carriers was assessed to induce both local and systemic immunity. Optimal pH-responsive swelling, mucoadhesiveness, protein drug loading, and drug permeability were characterized by MPs formulated with minimal irradiation doses and acrylic acid concentration. The composite hydrogel materials of bacterial nanocellulose and poly(acrylic acid) showed significantly greater antigen release in simulated intestinal fluid while ensuring the integrity of antigen. In in vivo study, mice orally vaccinated with antigen-loaded hydrogel MPs showed enhanced vaccine immunogenicity with significantly higher secretion of mucosal immunoglobulin A, compared to intramuscular vaccinated control. The splenocytes from the same group demonstrated lymphoproliferation and significant increased secretion of interleukin-2 cytokines upon stimulation with hepatitis B antigen. Expression of CD69 in CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD19+ B lymphocytes in splenocytes from mice orally vaccinated with antigen-loaded hydrogel MPs was comparable to that of the intramuscular vaccinated control, indicating early activation of lymphocytes elicited by our oral vaccine formulation in just two doses. These results demonstrated the potential of antigen-loaded hydrogel MPs as an oral vaccination method for hepatitis B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage*; Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology
  16. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2015 Jul;34(7):1349-59.
    PMID: 25792010 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2358-1
    Hepatitis B virus surface mutants are of enormous importance because they are capable of escaping detection by serology and can infect both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations, thus putting the whole population at risk. This study aimed to detect and characterise hepatitis B-escaped mutants among blood donors and vaccinees. One thousand serum samples were collected for this study from blood donors and vaccinees. Hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies and core antibodies were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. DNA detection was performed via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the S gene was sequenced and analysed using bioinformatics. Of the 1,000 samples that were screened, 5.5% (55/1,000) were found to be HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc- and HBV DNA-positive. All 55 isolates were found to belong to genotype B. Several mutations were found across all the sequences from synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, with the most nucleotide mutations occurring at position 342, where adenine was replaced by guanine, and cytosine at position 46 was replaced by adenine in 96.4% and 98% of the isolates, respectively. Mutation at position 16 of the amino acid sequence was found to be common to all the Malaysian isolates, with 85.7% of the mutations occurring outside the major hydrophilic region. This study revealed a prevalence of 5.5% for hepatitis B-escaped mutations among blood donors and vaccinated undergraduates, with the most common mutation being found at position 16, where glutamine was substituted with lysine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology
  17. Wan Jamaludin WF, Kok WH, Loong L, Palaniappan SK, Zakaria MZ, Ong TC, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 12;73(6):430-432.
    PMID: 30647224
    Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura (ITP) secondary to vaccinations is rare, especially after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A 31-yearold female received autologous HSCT for relapsed Hodgkin Disease, with platelet engraftment at Day+14. One week after receiving second scheduled vaccinations, she developed severe thrombocytopenia (3x109/L) associated with pharyngeal hematoma. Bone marrow (BM) examinations were consistent with ITP, possibly secondary to Influenza vaccine. Platelet increment was poor despite high dose corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), Danazol and Eltrombopag. A repeated BM biopsy was in agreement with ITP. Re-treatment with tapering doses of prednisolone resulted in stable platelet counts at 120x109/L a year later.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/adverse effects
  18. Rajamoorthy Y, Radam A, Taib NM, Rahim KA, Munusamy S, Wagner AL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(4):e0215125.
    PMID: 30964934 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215125
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, one million individuals are estimated to be infected with the hepatitis B virus. A vaccine for infants has been compulsory since 1989, whereas those born before 1989 need to spend their own money to be vaccinated in private clinics or hospitals. The aim of this study was to investigate and ascertain the determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for adult hepatitis B vaccine in Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: In 2016, 728 households were selected through a stratified, two stage cluster sample and interviewed. Willingness to pay for hepatitis B vaccine was estimated using the Contingent Valuation Method, and factors affecting WTP were modelled with logit regression.

    RESULTS: We found that 273 (37.5%) of the households were willing to pay for hepatitis B vaccination. The mean and median of WTP was estimated at Ringgit Malaysia (RM)303 (approximately US$73) for the three dose series. The estimated WTP was significantly greater in those with higher levels of education, among Malays and Chinese (compared to others, predominantly Indians), and for those with greater perceived susceptibility to hepatitis B virus infection. Other factors-perceived severity, barriers, benefits and cues to action-were not significantly associated with WTP for adult hepatitis B vaccination.

    CONCLUSION: Additional resources are needed to cover the households that are not willing to pay for hepatitis B vaccination. More awareness (particularly in regards to hepatitis B virus susceptibility) could change the national perception towards self-paid hepatitis B virus vaccination and increase hepatitis B vaccine coverage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/economics*
  19. Tan WS, Ho KL
    World J Gastroenterol, 2014 Sep 7;20(33):11650-70.
    PMID: 25206271 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i33.11650
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has killed countless lives in human history. The invention of HBV vaccines in the 20(th) century has reduced significantly the rate of the viral infection. However, currently there is no effective treatment for chronic HBV carriers. Newly emerging vaccine escape mutants and drug resistant strains have complicated the viral eradication program. The entire world is now facing a new threat of HBV and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Could phage display provide solutions to these life-threatening problems? This article reviews critically and comprehensively the innovative and potential applications of phage display in the development of vaccines, therapeutic agents, diagnostic reagents, as well as gene and drug delivery systems to combat HBV. The application of phage display in epitope mapping of HBV antigens is also discussed in detail. Although this review mainly focuses on HBV, the innovative applications of phage display could also be extended to other infectious diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use*
  20. Mohamed R, Desmond P, Suh DJ, Amarapurkar D, Gane E, Guangbi Y, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Sep;19(9):958-69.
    PMID: 15304110
    The Asia-Pacific Expert Committee on Hepatitis B Management recently reviewed the impact of hepatitis B in the region and assessed the differences and similarities observed in the practical management of the disease in individual Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and of all chronically infected carriers worldwide, approximately 75% are found in Asia. The disease poses a considerable burden on healthcare systems, and is likely to remain a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades. Disease prevention activities, including screening and vaccination programs, have been implemented successfully in some Asia-Pacific countries and similar measures are being established in other parts of the region. The management of hepatitis B in the Asia-Pacific varies throughout the region, with each country confronting different issues related to treatment options, disease monitoring and duration of therapy. The influence of cost, availability of diagnostic equipment, and patient awareness and compliance are of additional concern. Although guidelines such as those developed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver have been created to address problems encountered in the management of hepatitis B, many physicians in the region still find it difficult to make satisfactory management decisions because of the treatment choices available. This article examines the different approaches to hepatitis B management in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, and highlights the difficulties that can arise when adhering to treatment guidelines and disease prevention solutions that have proved to be successful in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B Vaccines
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