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  1. Poynard T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:77-9.
    PMID: 16108180
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  2. Bukhsh A, Goh BH, Lee LH, Khan TM
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 02 10;10(5):692-693.
    PMID: 28209323 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.09.012
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  3. Chan HLY, Chen CJ, Omede O, Al Qamish J, Al Naamani K, Bane A, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:25-43.
    PMID: 29105283 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12760
    Factors influencing the morbidity and mortality associated with viremic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection change over time and place, making it difficult to compare reported estimates. Models were developed for 17 countries (Bahrain, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Colombia, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar and Taiwan) to quantify and characterize the viremic population as well as forecast the changes in the infected population and the corresponding disease burden from 2015 to 2030. Model inputs were agreed upon through expert consensus, and a standardized methodology was followed to allow for comparison across countries. The viremic prevalence is expected to remain constant or decline in all but four countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Jordan and Oman); however, HCV-related morbidity and mortality will increase in all countries except Qatar and Taiwan. In Qatar, the high-treatment rate will contribute to a reduction in total cases and HCV-related morbidity by 2030. In the remaining countries, however, the current treatment paradigm will be insufficient to achieve large reductions in HCV-related morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy
  4. Suresh RL, Suryati Y, Merican I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):594-6.
    PMID: 15190636
    Chronic hepatitis C manifests with many extrahepatic features including renal involvement. However, less commonly, interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C can also result in renal involvement and we describe a case when interferon therapy resulted in minimal change glomerulopathy, a form of involvement which, carries a good prognosis. Our patient developed nephrotic syndrome while on interferon therapy and HCV RNA levels were undetectable at that time. The disease showed excellent response to steroid therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  5. Poynard T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:70-1.
    PMID: 16108178
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  6. Chen DS, Hamoudi W, Mustapha B, Layden J, Nersesov A, Reic T, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:44-63.
    PMID: 29105286 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12759
    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic was forecasted through 2030 for 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East, and interventions for achieving the Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis targets-"WHO Targets" (65% reduction in HCV-related deaths, 90% reduction in new infections and 90% of infections diagnosed by 2030) were considered. Scaling up treatment and diagnosis rates over time would be required to achieve these targets in all but one country, even with the introduction of high SVR therapies. The scenarios developed to achieve the WHO Targets in all countries studied assumed the implementation of national policies to prevent new infections and to diagnose current infections through screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy
  7. Seow EL, Robert Ding PH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):637-41.
    PMID: 16515116
    This was an open-label, uncontrolled study with the aim of assessing the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Island Hospital, Penang beween January 2002 and December 2003. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this study with ten defaulters. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) (Intention-To-Treat analysis) in naïve patients was 39.10%. However, when the study was adjusted to only include those who completed treatment and follow-up, overall SVR as 52.9%. Side-effects were tolerable in most patients with anaemia occurring in 22 patients (66.7%), leukopenia 23 patients (69.7%) and thrombocytopenia in 15 patients (45.5%). This study showed that pegylated interferon alfa-2b 1.5 mcg/kg/week plus ribavirin > 10.6 mg/kg/day is efficacious and safe to be used in the treatment of: chronic hepatitis C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  8. Gane E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:72-6.
    PMID: 16108179
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  9. Hamidah A, Yong JF, Zulkifli HI, Jamal R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Sep;57(3):353-6.
    PMID: 12440276
    We describe two cases of transfusion dependent thalassaemics with chronic hepatitis C virus infection whom were treated successfully with interferon and ribavirin, following failure of response or relapse after an initial response to interferon monotherapy. They had sustained virological response for more than twelve months after completing therapy. Transfusion requirements were significantly increased during the combination therapy, probably due to ribavirin-induced haemolysis. Serum ferritin level decreased significantly during the treatment. Combination therapy with interferon alfa and ribavirin may be a feasible treatment option for some nonresponders to prior interferon monotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  10. Naing C, Sitt T, Aung AT, Aung K
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2015 Jul;94(30):e1234.
    PMID: 26222859 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001234
    In Myanmar, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence is 2%. A combination therapy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PEG-IFNa/RBV) is a standard treatment, but the effect of this antiviral therapy needs evaluation as to determine the efficacy and safety of dual PEG-IFNa/RBV therapy in treating patients infected with HCV in Myanmar.This was a retrospective analysis of data from a single clinic exclusively for gastrointestinal diseases in Yangon, Myanmar. We assessed treatment responses at the defined time points and stratified by genotypes of HCV. We also determined incidences of adverse events (AEs). We investigated independent predictors of sustained virologic response (SVR) in the participants.A total of 362 HCV-infected cases were included in this study. The majority were females (51.7%) with mean age of 47.12 years (±11.6) and noncirrhosis patients (82%). Rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response (EVR), end of treatment response (ETR), and SVR 24 weeks after completion of the dual treatment were 50.3% (178/362), 88% (314/357), 80.1% (286/357), and 85.6% (167/195), respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were nausea/anorexia (72.8%) and flu-like symptoms (62.4%). In multivariate analysis, 4 factors were independently associated with SVR; SVR to genotype 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% CI: 1.24-4.62), EVR (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.3-0.95), and duration of treatment (OR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18-1.98). Study limitations were acknowledged.The efficacy and safety of the dual therapy in treating HCV-infected patient in Myanmar was acceptable. We recommend a prospective randomized control trial looking at duration of therapy and rates of achieving SVR, which could significantly impact the care of HCV-infected patients in Myanmar and perhaps other countries as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  11. Tan SS, Abu Hassan MR, Abdullah A, Ooi BP, Korompis T, Merican MI
    J. Viral Hepat., 2010 Jun;17(6):410-8.
    PMID: 19758272 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01191.x
    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in persons undergoing haemodialysis. This single-arm, open-label clinical trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an escalating dosage regimen of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b in this patient population. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who were undergoing haemodialysis began treatment with PEG-IFN alpha-2b at a dose of 0.5 microg/kg/week, which was increased every 4 weeks to a maximum of 1 microg/kg/week. Treatment duration was 24 weeks for patients with genotype (G) 2 or 3 infection and 48 weeks for patients with G1 infection. The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR). Of 46 patients screened, 34 (G1: 70.6%; G3: 29.4%) were treated and 23 (67.6%) completed treatment. Overall, 85.3% of patients experienced early virological response, 52.9% experienced end-of-treatment response, and 50% attained SVR, with a trend toward higher SVR rates in G3 compared with G1 patients (80%vs 37.5%; P = 0.06). Anaemia was the main reason for discontinuation of treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who are undergoing haemodialysis can be successfully treated with an escalating dosage regimen of PEG-IFN alpha-2b monotherapy. G3-infected patients can attain high rates of SVR with only 24 weeks of therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  12. Tan SS, Adlin Nadia Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 06;72(3):165-174.
    PMID: 28733564 MyJurnal
    AIM: To describe the clinical characteristic of hepatitis C (HCV) patients and the results of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy in a routine clinical practice.

    METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive HCV patients treated with PegIFN/RBV in 2004 to 2012.

    RESULTS: A total of 273 patients received treatment. The mean age was 44.16 ± 10.5 years and 76% were male. The top 2 self-reported risks were blood or blood product transfusion before 1994 and injection drug use, found in 57.1% of patients. The predominant HCV genotype (GT) was 3 at 60.6%, second was GT1 at 36.1% and other GTs were uncommon at about 1% or less. About half of our patients have high baseline viral load (>800,000 iu/ml), 18.3% had liver cirrhosis and 22.3% had HIV co-infection. Co-morbid illness was found in 42.9%, hypertension and type 2 diabetes were the two most common. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) by intention-to-treat analysis were 54.9% (n=150/273), 41.2% (40/97) for GT1, 100% (5/5) for GT2 and 62% (101/163) for GT3. Subgroup analysis for HCV monoinfected, treatment naïve showed SVR of 49.2% (31/63) for GT1, 100% (5/5) for GT2 and 67% (69/103) for GT3. In HCV mono-infected and treatment experienced (n=29), the SVR was 28.6% (4/14) for GT1, 21.4% (69/103) for GT3. In the HIV/HCV co-infected, treatment naïve (n=56), the SVR was 28.6% (4/14) for GT1 and 64.3% (27/42) for GT3. Treatment naïve GT3 mono-infected patients had a statistically significant higher SVR compared to treatment experienced patients (P=0.001). In GT3 patients who achieved rapid virological response, the SVR was significantly higher at 85.2% (P< 0.001). The SVR for cirrhotics were low especially for GT1 at 21% (4/19) and 31% (4/13) based on all patients and treatment naïve HCV monoinfected respectively. In GT3 cirrhotics the corresponding SVR were 57.1% (16/28) and 60.9% (14/23). Premature discontinuation rate was 21.2% with the majority due to intolerable adverse events at 12.1%.

    CONCLUSIONS: In our routine clinical practice, the HCV patients we treated were young, predominantly of GT3 and many had difficult-to-treat clinical characteristics. The SVR of our patients were below those reported in Asian clinical trials but in keeping with some "real world" data.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  13. Lim SG, Phyo WW, Shah SR, Win KM, Hamid S, Piratvisuth T, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2018 12;25(12):1533-1542.
    PMID: 30141214 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12989
    There is a paucity of information on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) in Asia. We invited Asia-Pacific physicians to collate databases of patients enrolled for CHC treatment, recording baseline clinical, virologic and biochemical characteristics, sustained virologic response at week 12 (SVR12) and virologic failure. SVR12 outcome was based on intention to treat (ITT). Multivariate analysis was used to assess independent risk factors for SVR12 using SPSS version 20. A total of 2171 patients from India (n = 977), Myanmar (n = 552), Pakistan (n = 406), Thailand (n = 139), Singapore (n = 72) and Malaysia (n = 25) were collected. At baseline, mean age was 49 years, 50.2% were males, and 41.8% had cirrhosis. Overall, SVR12 was 89.5% and by genotype (GT) based on ITT and treatment completion, respectively, was 91% and 92% for GT1, 100% and 100% for GT2, 91% and 97% for GT3, 64% and 95% for GT4, 87% and 87% for GT6 and 79% and 91% for GT untested. Patients with cirrhosis had SVR12 of 85% vs 93% for noncirrhosis (P < 0.001) (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.1, P = 0.0002). Patients with GT1 and GT3 treated with sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SR) had 88% and 89% SVR12, respectively, but those GT6 treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SL) had only 77.6% SVR12. Multivariate analysis showed absence of cirrhosis was associated with higher SVR12 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1, P = 0.002). In conclusion, patients with GT1 and GT3 with/without cirrhosis had surprisingly high efficacy using SR, suggesting that Asians may respond better to some DAAs. However, poor GT6 response to SL suggests this regimen is suboptimal for this genotype.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  14. Rafique G, Bukhsh A, Gul A, Khiljee S, Ashraf M, Omer MO
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Jan;30(1):11-16.
    PMID: 28603106
    180 million people are affected by chronic Hepatitis C Virus infection globally and more than 50 million in South East Asia. Combination of Interferon and Ribavirin is the current anti-HCV therapy in practice and is associated with certain hematologic adverse effects. In this concurrent observational study the incidence rate of major hematologic adverse effects and efficacy outcomes of Interferon and Ribavirin combination therapy was evaluated in 288 chronic hepatitis C patients at Lahore General Hospital. Levels of Hb, TLC, and Platelets counts were monitored for hematologic adverse effects monitoring, whereas, ALT, AST and bilirubin levels were monitored for efficacy. PCR was done at week 4, 12 &36 for therapeutic success evaluation. A significant reduction in Hb levels (p<0.05) was observed after week 4, 8 and 12 of therapy. Frequency of anemia increased in both genders with body weight <65kg and platelet count <150,000/mm(3). End Treatment Response (ETR) was achieved in 64.5%. Anemia was the major side effect of the combination therapy particularly in the males. Higher ETR was observed in patients who achieved RVR and were <50 years of age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  15. Kowdley KV, Sundaram V, Jeon CY, Qureshi K, Latt NL, Sahota A, et al.
    Hepatology, 2017 04;65(4):1094-1103.
    PMID: 28027579 DOI: 10.1002/hep.29005
    Eight weeks duration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) can be considered in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus-infected patients who are treatment-naive, do not have cirrhosis, and have a pretreatment viral load <6,000,000 IU/mL. The effectiveness of this regimen, however, has not been fully confirmed by real-world experience. Using data from real-world cohorts, we aimed to determine the effectiveness of 8 weeks of LDV/SOF treatment, examine variables associated with relapse after treatment with this regimen, and compare the effectiveness of 8 weeks and 12 weeks of LDV/SOF treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of 8 weeks of therapy and characteristics associated with relapse, we used individual patient data from the IFI (Institut für Interdisziplinäre Medizin), Burman's Pharmacy, and Kaiser Permanente Southern California. All patients had fibrosis staging assessed with biopsy, transient elastography, or serum biomarkers. We also performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of six additional real-world cohorts, to compare effectiveness of 8 weeks to 12 weeks duration. In our pooled data analysis, 634 patients were treated for 8 weeks with LDV/SOF, of whom all had outcomes of cure or relapse without loss to follow-up. Per protocol rates of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks were 98.1% (622/634) in the full cohort and 97.9% (571/583) among treatment-eligible patients. Exact logistic regression revealed no specific patient characteristics associated with relapse. Our meta-analysis of six additional real-world cohorts, comprised of 5,637 patients, demonstrated similar risk for relapse between 8 weeks and 12 weeks of LDV/SOF (relative risk = 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.00).

    CONCLUSION: An 8-week duration of treatment with LDV/SOF is highly effective in properly selected patients; greater use of this regimen is recommended. (Hepatology 2017;65:1094-1103).

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  16. Manns M, Zeuzem S, Sood A, Lurie Y, Cornberg M, Klinker H, et al.
    J. Hepatol., 2011 Sep;55(3):554-563.
    PMID: 21237227 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.12.024
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is increasing interest in identifying patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 infection in whom it is possible to lower the burden of therapy while retaining high levels of efficacy.

    METHODS: Treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2/3 infection were randomized to receive peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5μg/kg/wk) for 24weeks (group A); peginterferon alfa-2b (1.0μg/kg/wk) for 24weeks (group B); or peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5μg/kg/wk) for 16weeks (group C), each in combination with weight-based ribavirin (800-1200mg/d). The study population comprised two cohorts: the Hep-Net cohort enrolled in Germany and an International cohort enrolled at study sites throughout Europe and Asia. The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR).

    RESULTS: The study included 682 patients; 80.2% had genotype 3 infection. In the intent-to-treat population, SVR rates were 66.5%, 64.3%, and 56.6% in groups A, B, and C, and were similar in Asian and white patients. Treatment differences (A vs. B and A vs. C) failed to reach the predefined margin for noninferiority of -10%; and thus groups B and C failed to show noninferiority relative to group A. Among patients with undetectable HCV RNA at week 4, SVR rates were 75.3%, 75.9%, and 72.4%, respectively. Relapse rates were 17.8%, 16.3%, and 29.3%, respectively. Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were highest in group A and lowest in group C, and adverse events leading to discontinuation were similar across treatment arms.

    CONCLUSIONS: For patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2/3 infection, 24weeks of peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5μg/kg/wk) plus weight-based ribavirin remains a standard-of-care therapy; however, treatment for 16weeks may be considered for patients with undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 of the treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  17. Wei L, Lim SG, Xie Q, Văn KN, Piratvisuth T, Huang Y, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019 02;4(2):127-134.
    PMID: 30555048 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30343-1
    BACKGROUND: Treatment with combined sofosbuvir and velpatasvir has resulted in high sustained virological response rates in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with genotypes 1-6 in clinical trials and real-world settings, but its efficacy and safety has not been assessed in Asia, a region with diverse HCV genotypes.

    METHODS: In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 38 sites across China, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Malaysia, who were chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1-6, and were HCV treatment-naive or treatment-experienced, either without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Patients self-administered a combined sofosbuvir (400 mg) and velpatasvir (100 mg) tablet once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response, defined as HCV RNA less than 15 IU/mL at 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12), assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of adverse events leading to premature discontinuation of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02671500, and is completed.

    FINDINGS: Between April 14, 2016, and June 30, 2017, 375 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 374 completed the full treatment course and one discontinued treatment. Overall, 362 (97% [95% CI 94-98]) of 375 patients achieved SVR12. Among 42 patients with HCV genotype 3b, all of whom had baseline resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A, 25 (89% [95% CI 72-98]) of 28 patients without cirrhosis and seven (50% [23-77]) of 14 patients with cirrhosis achieved SVR12. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (36 [10%] patients) and headache (18 [5%] patients). There were no discontinuations due to adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in three (1%) patients, none of which was judged to be related to sofosbuvir-velpatasvir treatment.

    INTERPRETATION: Consistent with data from other phase 3 studies, single-tablet sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks is an efficacious and safe treatment for Asian patients with chronic HCV infection, but might have lower efficacy in those infected with HCV genotype 3b and with cirrhosis.

    FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
  18. Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Pham T, Tanwandee T, Nazareth S, Galhenage S, Mollison L, et al.
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2015 Jul 28;21(28):8660-9.
    PMID: 26229408 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i28.8660
    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*
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