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  1. Naing C, Mak JW, Wai N, Maung M
    Curr. Diab. Rep., 2013 Jun;13(3):428-34.
    PMID: 23463119 DOI: 10.1007/s11892-013-0370-3
    Individual epidemiologic studies as well as the pooled analysis of observational studies have indicated the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). Whether HCV infection is the cause of diabetes or diabetic patients are more prone to get HCV infection is still in question. The objective of the present review was to provide answers to this issue, based on available evidence from epidemiologic, molecular, experimental and therapeutic studies. Our current understanding of how chronic HCV infection could induce T2D is incomplete, but it seems twofold based on both direct and indirect roles of the virus. HCV may directly induce insulin resistance (IR) through its proteins. HCV core protein was shown to stimulate suppressor of cytokine signaling, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of tyrosine kinase phosphorylated insulin receptor substrates (IRS1/2) in proteasomes. HCV-nonstructural protein could increase protein phosphatase 2A which has been shown to inactivate the key enzyme Akt by dephosphorylating it. Insulin signaling defects in hepatic IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3-kinase association/activation may contribute to IR, which leads to the development of T2D in patients with HCV infection. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are also implicated. PPARα/γ, together with their obligate partner RXR, are the main nuclear receptors expressed in the liver. PPARα upregulates glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol kinase, and glycerol transport proteins, which allows for glucose synthesis during fasting states. Decreased activity of PPARs could attribute to HCV-induced IR. Immune-mediated mechanisms may be involved in the indirect role of HCV in inducing IR. It is speculated that TNF-alpha plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IR through lowering IRS1/2. Furthermore, HCV infection- triggered ER stress could lead to the activation of PP2A, which inhibits both Akt and the AMP-activated kinase, the regulators of gluconeogenesis. In summary, we illustrate that HCV infection is accompanied by multiple defects in the upstream insulin signaling pathway in the liver that may contribute to the observed prevalence of IR and diabetes. Future studies are needed to resolve this issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications*
  2. Naing C, Mak JW, Ahmed SI, Maung M
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2012 Apr 14;18(14):1642-51.
    PMID: 22529694 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i14.1642
    AIM: To investigate the association between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    METHODS: Observational studies assessing the relationship between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified via electronic and hand searches. Studies published between 1988 to March 2011 were screened, according to the inclusion criteria set for the present analysis. Authors performed separate analyses for the comparisons between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected and not infected, and HCV infected and hepatitis B virus infected. The included studies were further subgrouped according to the study design. Heterogenity was assessed using I(2) statistics. The summary odds ratios with their corresponding 95% CIs were calculated based on a random-effects model. The included studies were subgrouped according to the study design. To assess any factor that could potentially affect the outcome, results were further stratified by age group (proportion of ≥ 40 years), gender (proportion of male gender), body mass index (BMI) (proportion of BMI ≥ 27), and family history of diabetes (i.e., self reported). For stability of results, a sensitivity analysis was conducted including only prospective studies.
    RESULTS: Combining the electronic database and hand searches, a total of 35 observational studies (in 31 articles) were identified for the final analysis. Based on random-effects model, 17 studies (n = 286,084) compared hepatitis C-infected patients with those who were uninfected [summary odds ratio (OR): 1.68, 95% CI: 1.15-2.45]. Of these 17 studies, 7 were both a cross-sectional design (41.2%) and cohort design (41.2%), while 3 were case-control studies (17.6%). Nineteen studies (n = 51,156) compared hepatitis C-infected participants with hepatitis B-infected (summary OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.41-2.62). Of these 19 studies, 4 (21.1%), 6 (31.6%) and 9 (47.4%) were cross-sectional, cohort and case-control studies, respectively. A sensitivity analysis with 3 prospective studies indicated that hepatitis C-infected patients had a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with uninfected controls (summary odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.7; I(2) = 0%). Among hepatitis C-infected patients, male patients (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03-1.54) with age over 40 years (summary OR: 7.39, 95% CI: 3.82-9.38) had an increased frequency of type 2 diabetes. Some caution must be taken in the interpretation of these results because there may be unmeasured confounding factors which may introduce bias.
    CONCLUSION: The findings support the association between hepatitis C infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The direction of association remains to be determined, however. Prospective studies with adequate sample sizes are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications*
  3. Ismail SB, Kumar SK, Zain RB
    J Oral Sci, 2007 Jun;49(2):89-106.
    PMID: 17634721
    Lichen planus, a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease affects the oral mucosa (oral lichen planus or OLP) besides the skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails. An immune mediated pathogenesis is recognized in lichen planus although the exact etiology is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) which are considered variants of OLP, may be regarded as a disease by itself or as an exacerbation of an existing OLP, by the presence of medication (lichenoid drug reactions) or dental materials (contact hypersensitivity). OLP usually presents as white striations (Wickham's striae), white papules, white plaque, erythema, erosions or blisters. Diagnosis of OLP is established either by clinical examination only or by clinical examination with histopathologic confirmation. Direct immunofluorescence examination is only used as an adjunct to the above method of diagnosis and to rule out specific autoimmune diseases such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Histopathologic features of OLP and OLR are similar with suggestions of certain discriminatory features by some authors. Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for OLP although several other medications have been studied including retinoids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and photodynamic therapy. Certain OLP undergo malignant transformation and the exact incidence and mechanisms are still controversial. In this paper, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation of OLP and OLR have been reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  4. Rehman IU, Khan TM
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2017 Nov;27(11):735.
    PMID: 29132493 DOI: 2758
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications*
  5. Sultan S, Ahmed SI, Murad S, Irfan SM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 10;71(5):269-274.
    PMID: 28064294
    BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a hemorrhagic diathesis, characterized by platelets destruction alongside impaired production. Patients from Asian regions often exhibit distinctive characteristics in comparison to the western patients. We accomplished this study to evaluate the prevalence of primary versus secondary ITP along with the comparative analysis between them. The secondary objective was to determine the etiological spectrum of secondary ITP.

    METHODS: We illustrate the results of a large cohort of newly diagnosed adults ITP from southern Pakistan. The study extended from January 2009-December 2013. Complete blood counts, HbsAg, Anti-HCV, ANA, stool for Helicobacterpylori were done on all. HIV, TSH, anti-dsDNA, RA factor, APLA and direct coombs test were evaluated in cases where indicated.

    RESULTS: A total of 417 patients were included with a mean age of 40.95±14.82 years. Primarily disease was observed in the 3rd decade of life. Male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Mean platelets count was 46.21±27.45x109/l. At diagnosis 43.16% (n=180) patients had hemorrhagic manifestations whilst 56.8% (n=237) were asymptomatic. None of the patient presented with visceral, retropharyngeal or intracranial bleed. The prevalence of secondary ITP was substantially higher (64.8%) as compared to primary ITP (35.2%). Secondary ITP was predominantly seen in HCV reactive patients (24.4%) followed by helicobacter-pylori infection (11%). Nevertheless 16.4% patients had underlying autoimmune disorders. Providentially no study subject was found to be HIV reactive.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed predominance of secondary ITP. However bleeding manifestations and degree of thrombocytopenia were high in primary-ITP. Infectious etiology followed by autoimmune disorders is mainly implicated for secondary ITP in our setting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications*
  6. Deris ZZ, Leow VM, Wan Hassan WM, Nik Lah NA, Lee SY, Siti Hawa H, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Dec;26(3):320-5.
    PMID: 20237446
    Vibrio cholerae infection is mainly caused acute diarrhoea disease. Bacteraemia due to non-O1 V. cholerae is rare and mainly reported in liver cirrhotic patients. We report one case of non-O1 V. cholerae bacteraemia in splenectomised thalassaemic patient who presented with septic shock secondary to abdominal sepsis. She had undergone emergency laporatomy and was managed in the intensive care unit for nine days. She was treated with meropenem and doxycyline and discharged well after fourteen days of admission. The V. cholerae was identified by API 20NE, serotype and polymerase chain reaction showed as non-O1, non-O139 strain. Besides known cholera-like toxin and El Tor hemolysin, with increasing reported cases of V. cholerae bacteraemia, there is possibility of other virulence factors that allow this organism to invade the bloodstream.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  7. Ansari AW, Schmidt RE, Shankar EM, Kamarulzaman A
    J Transl Med, 2014;12:341.
    PMID: 25528160 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-014-0341-8
    Even in the era of successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), co-infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity among HIV-positive individuals as a consequence of accelerated liver fibrosis and end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The perturbed liver microenvironment and induction of host pro-inflammatory mediators in response to HIV and HCV infections, play a pivotal role in orchestrating the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. How these viruses communicate each other via chemokine CCL2 and exploit the liver specific cellular environment to exacerbate liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection setting is a topic of intense discussion. Herein, we provide recent views and insights on potential mechanisms of CCL2 mediated immuno-pathogenesis, and HIV-HCV cross-talk in driving liver inflammation. We believe CCL2 may potentially serve an attractive target of anti-fibrotic intervention against HIV/HCV co-infection associated co-morbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  8. Hamidah A, Thambidorai CR, Jamal R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):517-9.
    PMID: 16570722
    We describe a patient with HbE-beta thalassaemia and chronic hepatitis C virus infection (genotype 1a) who was treated successfully with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin, following failure to respond to standard interferon and ribavirin therapy. She had sustained virological response for nearly 24 months after completing peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin therapy. Transfusion requirements were significantly increased during combination therapy due to ribavirin-induced haemolysis. The adverse effects of interferon were well tolerated. Combination therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin maybe a feasible treatment option for a subset of thalassaemia/HCV infected non-responders to standard interferon-based therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  9. Yasmin AM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Jun;52(2):188-92; quiz 193.
    PMID: 10968083
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  10. Iakunchykova O, Meteliuk A, Zelenev A, Mazhnaya A, Tracy M, Altice FL
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2018 07;57:11-17.
    PMID: 29655101 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.03.022
    BACKGROUND: Among the estimated 340,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine, HCV prevalence is approximately 70%. As HCV treatment availability increases, an assessment of the HCV treatment cascade is needed to guide HCV prevention and treatment strategies.

    METHODS: Opioid dependent PWID were interviewed and tested for HIV and HCV in five Ukrainian cities from January 2014 to March 2015. Logistic regression was used to examine the independent correlates of two cascade steps: a) anti-HCV positive status awareness; b) chronic HCV confirmation; and of c) annual HCV testing for PWID.

    RESULTS: Among 1613 PWID, 1002 (62.1%) had anti-HCV positive test result, of which 568 (56.7%) were aware of it before the study and 346 (34.5%) reported previous confirmatory testing for chronic HCV. Independent correlates of being aware they had anti-HCV positivity included: current [AOR: 3.08; 95%CI: 2.16-4.40] or prior [AOR: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.27-2.68] opioid agonistic treatment (OAT) experience, relative to no prior OAT, living in Lviv [AOR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.31-0.81] or Odesa [AOR: 2.73; 95%CI: 1.51-4.93] relative to Kyiv and being aware of having HIV [AOR: 4.10; 95%CI: 2.99-5.62]. Independent correlates of confirming HCV infection among those who were aware of their anti-HCV positive status included: current OAT [AOR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.24-3.23], relative to prior OAT, the middle income category [AOR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.15-2.63], relative to the lowest, and receiving ART [AOR: 4.54; 95%CI: 2.85-7.23]. Among 1613 PWID, 918 (56.9%) were either HCV negative or not aware of their HCV positive status, of which 198 (21.6%) reported recent anti-HCV test (during last 12 month). Recent anti-HCV test in this group was associated with current [AOR: 7.17; 95%CI: 4.63-11.13] or prior [AOR: 2.24; 95%CI: 1.32-3.81] OAT experience, relative to no prior OAT.

    CONCLUSION: Encouraging PWID to participate in OAT may be an effective strategy to diagnose and link PWID who are HCV positive to care. Among HIV negative participants, regular HCV testing may be ensured by participation in OAT. More studies are needed to assess HCV treatment utilization among PWID in Ukraine and OAT as a possible way to retain them in treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  11. Kanapathipillai R, McManus H, Kamarulzaman A, Lim PL, Templeton DJ, Law M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(2):e86122.
    PMID: 24516527 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086122
    INTRODUCTION: Magnitude and frequency of HIV viral load blips in resource-limited settings, has not previously been assessed. This study was undertaken in a cohort from a high income country (Australia) known as AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database) and another cohort from a mixture of Asian countries of varying national income per capita, TAHOD (TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database).

    METHODS: Blips were defined as detectable VL (≥ 50 copies/mL) preceded and followed by undetectable VL (<50 copies/mL). Virological failure (VF) was defined as two consecutive VL ≥50 copies/ml. Cox proportional hazard models of time to first VF after entry, were developed.

    RESULTS: 5040 patients (AHOD n = 2597 and TAHOD n = 2521) were included; 910 (18%) of patients experienced blips. 744 (21%) and 166 (11%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips ever. 711 (14%) experienced blips prior to virological failure. 559 (16%) and 152 (10%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips prior to virological failure. VL testing occurred at a median frequency of 175 and 91 days in middle/low- and high-income sites, respectively. Longer time to VF occurred in middle/low income sites, compared with high-income sites (adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) 0.41; p<0.001), adjusted for year of first cART, Hepatitis C co-infection, cART regimen, and prior blips. Prior blips were not a significant predictor of VF in univariate analysis (AHR 0.97, p = 0.82). Differing magnitudes of blips were not significant in univariate analyses as predictors of virological failure (p = 0.360 for blip 50-≤1000, p = 0.309 for blip 50-≤400 and p = 0.300 for blip 50-≤200). 209 of 866 (24%) patients were switched to an alternate regimen in the setting of a blip.

    CONCLUSION: Despite a lower proportion of blips occurring in low/middle-income settings, no significant difference was found between settings. Nonetheless, a substantial number of participants were switched to alternative regimens in the setting of blips.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications*
  12. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications*
  13. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
  14. Lim SG, Aghemo A, Chen PJ, Dan YY, Gane E, Gani R, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2017 01;2(1):52-62.
    PMID: 28404015 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30080-2
    The Asia-Pacific region has disparate hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology, with prevalence ranging from 0·1% to 4·7%, and a unique genotype distribution. Genotype 1b dominates in east Asia, whereas in south Asia and southeast Asia genotype 3 dominates, and in Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos), genotype 6 is most common. Often, availability of all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is delayed because of differing regulatory requirements. Ideally, for genotype 1 infections, sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir, sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir, or ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir plus dasabuvir are suitable. Asunaprevir plus daclatasvir is appropriate for compensated genotype 1b HCV if baseline NS5A mutations are absent. For genotype 3 infections, sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir for 24 weeks or sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, and ribavirin for 12 weeks are the optimal oral therapies, particularly for patients with cirrhosis and those who are treatment experienced, whereas sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin for 12 weeks is an alternative regimen. For genotype 6, sofosbuvir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin, sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir, or sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks are all suitable. Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin has been replaced by sofosbuvir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin, and all-oral therapies where available, but cost and affordability remain a major issue because of the absence of universal health coverage. Few patients have been treated because of multiple barriers to accessing care. HCV in the Asia-Pacific region is challenging because of the disparate epidemiology, poor access to all-oral therapy because of availability, cost, or regulatory licensing. Until these problems are addressed, the burden of disease is likely to remain high.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis C/complications
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