A case of classical congenital diaphragmatic hernia is discussed. The rare right-sided classical type - incidence of 1 in 30,000 to 1 in 81,000 live births - and diaphragmatic eventration are often grouped together as Congenital Diaphragmatic Herniae. We had nine in 57,783 live births in ten years.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is rare in adults. We report a 24 year old woman presenting with shortness of breath, chest pain and nausea after the birth of her first baby. Clinical examination, plain radiography and a CT scan revealed herniation of abdominal contents into her left chest. Via a midline laparotomy, the contents were reduced and the defect repaired, using a mesh. She remains symptom-free three years since her surgery and even after a second childbirth. A brief review of the literature reporting adult diaphragmatic hernia of congenital origin accompanies this case report. We conclude that symptomatic CDH in adults usually presents as an emergency with gastrointestinal and occasionally respiratory complications. Early diagnosis and repair is essential to avoid subsequent morbidity and mortality.
A review of 24 children with posterolateral (Bochdalek) diaphragmatic hernia over a five-year period was carried out to highlight the problems of diagnosis and' management. Nine children were delivered in the Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur, giving an incidence of 1:10,000 live births which is half the expected incidence. Difficulty in diagnosis is apparent from the large number of initially misdiagnosed cases (29%) and those not detected
soon after birth (71% diagnosed after 24 hours). Less than half the babies had associated anomalies, commonest being malrotation and ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. Mortality (20.8%) appears to be related to the degree of lung hypoplasia and shunting, and the birthweight of the babies. Current evidence indicates that pulmonary hypertension is the main factor in the chain of events beginning with lung hypoplasia, which ultimately leads to their demise. Various methods to overcome this complication have been evolved which appear to give some hope for these high-risk infants.
A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of freeze-dried bovine pericardium (FDBP) as a biomaterial in diaphragmatic herniorrhapy in dogs. Eight adult dogs were randomly selected and divided into two equal groups. In FDBP group, a diaphragmatic defect was induced and repaired with an identical size of FDBP. In the control group, a diaphragmatic wall was incised at three-side border creating a flap and sutured. Grossly, only mild intrathoracic adhesion was observed for most of the animals, and no herniation occured. Microscopically, the biomaterial incorporated into the host's tissue by ingrowth of young muscle fiber and massive new blood vessel formation in between the fibrous tissue.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek may present after infancy. A 21/2-year-old Malay girl presented with acute respiratory distress. Chest examination showed reduced chest expansion and decreased breath sounds on the left side. Chest radiograph showed a large "cyst" in the left chest, which was thought to be a lung cyst under tension. Tube thoracostomy resulted in clinical improvement. Results of a barium study showed that the cyst perforated by the thoracostomy tube was the stomach, which had herniated through a Bochdalek diaphragmatic defect. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the perforated stomach was performed successfully. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young children. Nasogastric tube placement must be considered as an early diagnostic or therapeutic intervention when the diagnosis is suspected.