Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Cheah FC, Peskin AV, Wong FL, Ithnin A, Othman A, Winterbourn CC
    FASEB J, 2014 Jul;28(7):3205-10.
    PMID: 24636884 DOI: 10.1096/fj.14-250050
    Erythrocytes require glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) to generate NADPH and protect themselves against hemolytic anemia induced by oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is a major antioxidant enzyme that requires NADPH to recycle its oxidized (disulfide-bonded) form. Our aims were to determine whether Prx2 is more highly oxidized in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes and whether these cells are able to recycle oxidized Prx2 after oxidant challenge. Blood was obtained from 61 Malaysian neonates with G6PD deficiency (average 33% normal activity) and 86 controls. Prx2 redox state was analyzed by Western blotting under nonreducing conditions. Prx2 in freshly isolated blood was predominantly reduced in both groups, but the median level of oxidation was significantly higher (8 vs 3%) and the range greater for the G6PD-deficient population. When treated with reagent H2O2, the G6PD-deficient erythrocytes were severely compromised in their ability to recycle oxidized Prx2, with only 27 or 4% reduction after 1 h treatment with 0.1 or 1 mM H2O2 respectively, compared with >97% reduction in control erythrocytes. The accumulation of oxidized Prx2 in oxidatively stressed erythrocytes with common G6PD variants suggests that impaired antioxidant activity of Prx2 could contribute to the hemolysis and other complications associated with the condition.-Cheah, F.-C., Peskin, A. V., Wong, F.-L., Ithnin, A., Othman, A., Winterbourn, C. C. Increased basal oxidation of peroxiredoxin 2 and limited peroxiredoxin recycling in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes from newborn infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism*
  2. Das Gupta M, Chan SK, Monteiro A
    PLoS One, 2015;10(7):e0132882.
    PMID: 26173066 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132882
    Commonly used visible markers for transgenesis use fluorescent proteins expressed at the surface of the body, such as in eyes. One commonly used marker is the 3xP3-EGFP cassette containing synthetic binding sites for the eyeless/Pax6 conserved transcription factor. This marker cassette leads to fluorescent eyes in a variety of animals tested so far. Here we show that upon reaching adulthood, transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies containing this marker cassette exponentially loose fluorescence in their eyes. After 12 days, transgenic individuals are no longer distinguishable from wild type individuals. The decreased eye fluorescence is likely due to significantly decreased or halted eyeless/Pax6 expression observed in wild type animals upon adult emergence. Implications from these findings include care in screening transgenic animals before these reach adulthood, or shortly thereafter, and in using adult animals of the same age for quantitative screening of likely homozygote and heterozygote individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism*
  3. Ding SLS, Koh AE, Kumar S, Ali Khan MS, Alzahrani B, Mok PL
    PMID: 31060031 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.04.008
    Dysfunctional or death of retinal photoreceptors is an irreversible phenomenon that is closely associated with a broad range of retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), resulting in successive loss of visual function and blindness. In search for viable treatment for retinal degenerative diseases, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has demonstrated promising therapeutic capabilities to repair and replace damaged photoreceptor cells in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Nevertheless, the dearth of MSC differentiation capacity into photoreceptors has limited its use in cell replacement therapy. Erythropoietin (EPO) has vital role in early neural retinal cell differentiation and demonstrated rescue potential on dying photoreceptor cells. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the differentiation capacity of MSCs into photoreceptor cells in the presence of human EPO protein. We derived the MSC from human Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord and transduced the cells with lentivirus particles encoding EPO and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter gene. The transduced cells were selectively cultured and induced to differentiate into photoreceptors by exposing to photoreceptor differentiation cocktail. Our preliminary results showed that transduced cells exposed to induction medium had an enhanced differentiation capacity when compared to non-transduced cells. Our results demonstrated a novel strategy to increase the yield of in vitro photoreceptor differentiation and may be potentially useful in improving the efficiency of stem cell transplantation for ocular disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
  4. Karan D, Dubey S, Pirisi L, Nagel A, Pina I, Choo YM, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2020 02 28;83(2):286-295.
    PMID: 32022559 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00577
    Natural products remain an important source of drug leads covering unique chemical space and providing significant therapeutic value for the control of cancer and infectious diseases resistant to current drugs. Here, we determined the antiproliferative activity of a natural product manzamine A (1) from an Indo-Pacific sponge following various in vitro cellular assays targeting cervical cancer (C33A, HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki). Our data demonstrated the antiproliferative effects of 1 at relatively low and non-cytotoxic concentrations (up to 4 μM). Mechanistic investigations confirmed that 1 blocked cell cycle progression in SiHa and CaSki cells at G1/S phase and regulated cell cycle-related genes, including restoration of p21 and p53 expression. In apoptotic assays, HeLa cells showed the highest sensitivity to 1 as compared to other cell types (C33A, SiHa, and CaSki). Interestingly, 1 decreased the levels of the oncoprotein SIX1, which is associated with oncogenesis in cervical cancer. To further investigate the structure-activity relationship among manzamine A (1) class with potential antiproliferative activity, molecular networking facilitated the efficient identification, dereplication, and assignment of structures from the manzamine class and revealed the significant potential in the design of optimized molecules for the treatment of cervical cancer. These data suggest that this sponge-derived natural product class warrants further attention regarding the design and development of novel manzamine analogues, which may be efficacious for preventive and therapeutic treatment of cancer. Additionally, this study reveals the significance of protecting fragile marine ecosystems from climate change-induced loss of species diversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism*
  5. Wan Abdul Rahman WF, Fauzi MH, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(19):8441-5.
    PMID: 25339043
    BACKGROUND: Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) is another new marker in breast carcinoma since hypermethylation at P2 promoter of this gene was noted to be associated with poor prognosis. We investigated the expression of PITX2 protein using immunohistochemistry in invasive ductal carcinoma and its association with the established growth receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2).

    METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study using 100 samples of archived formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of invasive ductal carcinoma and stained them with immunohistochemistry for PITX2, ER, PR and HER2. All HER2 with scoring of 2+ were confirmed with chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH).

    RESULTS: PITX2 protein was expressed in 53% of invasive ductal carcinoma and lack of PITX2 expression in 47%. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between PITX2 expression with PR (p=0.001), ER (p=0.006), gland formation (p=0.044) and marginal association with molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma (p=0.051). Combined ER and PR expression with PITX2 was also significantly associated (p=0.003) especially in double positive cases. Multivariate analysis showed the most significant association between PITX2 and PR (RR 4.105, 95% CI 1.765-9.547, p=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: PITX2 is another potential prognostic marker in breast carcinoma adding significant information to established prognostic factors of ER and PR. The expression of PITX2 together with PR may carry a very good prognosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism*
  6. Mitutsova V, Yeo WWY, Davaze R, Franckhauser C, Hani EH, Abdullah S, et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017 04 18;8(1):86.
    PMID: 28420418 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-017-0539-9
    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic beta cells are unique effectors in the control of glucose homeostasis and their deficiency results in impaired insulin production leading to severe diabetic diseases. Here, we investigated the potential of a population of nonadherent muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) from adult mouse muscle to differentiate in vitro into beta cells when transplanted as undifferentiated stem cells in vivo to compensate for beta-cell deficiency.

    RESULTS: In vitro, cultured MDSC spontaneously differentiated into insulin-expressing islet-like cell clusters as revealed using MDSC from transgenic mice expressing GFP or mCherry under the control of an insulin promoter. Differentiated clusters of beta-like cells co-expressed insulin with the transcription factors Pdx1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, and MafA, and secreted significant levels of insulin in response to glucose challenges. In vivo, undifferentiated MDSC injected into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice engrafted within 48 h specifically to damaged pancreatic islets and were shown to differentiate and express insulin 10-12 days after injection. In addition, injection of MDSC into hyperglycemic diabetic mice reduced their blood glucose levels for 2-4 weeks.

    CONCLUSION: These data show that MDSC are capable of differentiating into mature pancreatic beta islet-like cells, not only upon culture in vitro, but also in vivo after systemic injection in STZ-induced diabetic mouse models. Being nonteratogenic, MDSC can be used directly by systemic injection, and this potential reveals a promising alternative avenue in stem cell-based treatment of beta-cell deficiencies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
  7. Qiang S, Alsaeedi HA, Yuhong C, Yang H, Tong L, Kumar S, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2018 Jun;183:127-132.
    PMID: 29704860 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.04.003
    BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration is a condition ensued by various ocular disorders such as artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and retinitis pigmentosa which cause abnormal loss of photoreceptor cells and lead to eventual vision impairment. No efficient treatment has yet been found, however, the use of stem cell therapy such as bone marrow and embryonic stem cells has opened a new treatment modality for retinal degenerative diseases. The major goal of this study is to analyze the potential of endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow to differentiate into retinal neural cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

    METHODS: In this study, endothelial progenitor cells were induced in-vitro with photoreceptor growth factor (taurine) for 21 days. Subsequently, the morphology and gene expression of CRX and RHO of the photoreceptors-induced EPCs were examined through immunostaining assay.

    FINDINGS: The results indicated that the induced endothelial progenitor cells demonstrated positive gene expression of CRX and RHO. Our findings suggested that EPC cells may have a high advantage in cell replacement therapy for treating eye disease, in addition to other neural diseases, and may be a suitable cell source in regenerative medicine for eye disorders.

    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism*
  8. Lawrenson K, Li Q, Kar S, Seo JH, Tyrer J, Spindler TJ, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2015 Sep 22;6:8234.
    PMID: 26391404 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9234
    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10(-5)). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10(-3), FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10(-10) for risk variants (P<10(-4)) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
  9. Choo SW, Beh CY, Russell S, White R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:191535.
    PMID: 25389534 DOI: 10.1155/2014/191535
    In Drosophila, protein trap strategies provide powerful approaches for the generation of tagged proteins expressed under endogenous control. Here, we describe expression and functional analysis to evaluate new Ubx and hth protein trap lines generated by the Cambridge Protein Trap project. Both protein traps exhibit spatial and temporal expression patterns consistent with the reported endogenous pattern in the embryo. In imaginal discs, Ubx-YFP is expressed throughout the haltere and 3rd leg imaginal discs, while Hth-YFP is expressed in the proximal regions of haltere and wing discs but not in the pouch region. The Ubx (CPTI000601) line is semilethal as a homozygote. No T3/A1 to T2 transformations were observed in the embryonic cuticle or the developing midgut. The homozygous survivors, however, exhibit a weak haltere phenotype with a few wing-like marginal bristles on the haltere capitellum. Although hth (CPTI000378) is completely lethal as a homozygote, the hth (CPTI000378) /hth (C1) genotype is viable. Using a hth deletion (Df(3R)BSC479) we show that hth (CPTI000378) /Df(3R)BSC479 adults are phenotypically normal. No transformations were observed in hth (CPTI000378), hth (CPTI000378) /hth (C1), or hth (CPTI000378) /Df(3R)BSC479 embryonic cuticles. We have successfully characterised the Ubx-YFP and Hth-YFP protein trap lines demonstrating that the tagged proteins show appropriate expression patterns and produce at least partially functional proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
  10. Lim MN, Hussin NH, Othman A, Umapathy T, Baharuddin P, Jamal R, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2012;18:1289-300.
    PMID: 22665977
    The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential. However, little is known about the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA-4) and the embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like properties of these cells. We studied the expression of SSEA-4 surface protein and the various ESC and MSC markers in the ex vivo cultured limbal stromal cells. The phenotypes and multipotent differentiation potential of these cells were also evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
  11. Matsui M, Kuraishi N, Eto K, Hamidy A, Nishikawa K, Shimada T, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2016 09;102:305-19.
    PMID: 27374495 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.06.009
    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
  12. Tong CK, Vellasamy S, Tan BC, Abdullah M, Vidyadaran S, Seow HF, et al.
    Cell Biol Int, 2011 Mar;35(3):221-6.
    PMID: 20946106 DOI: 10.1042/CBI20100326
    MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) promise a great potential for regenerative medicine due to their unique properties of self-renewal, high plasticity, modulation of immune response and the flexibility for genetic modification. Therefore, the increasing demand for cellular therapy necessitates a larger-scale production of MSC; however, the technical and ethical issues had put a halt on it. To date, studies have shown that MSC could be derived from human UC (umbilical cord), which is once considered as clinical waste. We have compared the two conventional methods which are classic enzymatic digestion and explant method with our newly tailored enzymatic-mechanical disassociation method to generate UC-MSC. The generated UC-MSCs from the methods above were characterized based on their immunophenotyping, early embryonic transcription factors expression and mesodermal differentiation ability. Our results show that enzymatic-mechanical disassociation method increase the initial nucleated cell yield greatly (approximately 160-fold) and maximized the successful rate of UC-MSC generation. Enzymatic-mechanical disassociation-derived UC-MSC exhibited fibroblastic morphology and surface markers expression of CD105, CD73, CD29, CD90 and MHC class I. Furthermore, these cells constitutively express early embryonic transcription factors (Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2 and Rex-1), as confirmed by RT-PCR, indicating their multipotency and high self-renewal capacity. They are also capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes when given an appropriate induction. The present study demonstrates a new and efficient approach in generating MSC from UC, hence serving as ideal alternative source of mesenchymal stem cell for clinical and research use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism
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