Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Ali Jadoo SA, Aljunid SM, Nur AM, Ahmed Z, Van Dort D
    Daru, 2015 Feb 10;23:14.
    PMID: 25889668 DOI: 10.1186/s40199-014-0075-4
    BACKGROUND: The service weight is among several issues and challenges in the implementation of case-mix in developing countries, including Malaysia. The aim of this study is to develop the Malaysian Diagnosis Related Group (MY-DRG) case-mix pharmacy service weight in University Kebangsaan Malaysia-Medical Center (UKMMC) by identifying the actual cost of pharmacy services by MY-DRG groups in the hospital.

    METHODS: All patients admitted to UKMMC in 2011 were recruited in this study. Combination of Step-down and Bottom-up costing methodology has been used in this study. The drug and supplies cost; the cost of staff; the overhead cost; and the equipment cost make up the four components of pharmacy. Direct costing approach has been employed to calculate Drugs and supplies cost from electronic-prescription system; and the inpatient pharmacy staff cost, while the overhead cost and the pharmacy equipments cost have been calculated indirectly from MY-DRG data base. The total pharmacy cost was obtained by summing the four pharmacy components' cost per each MY-DRG. The Pharmacy service weight of a MY-DRG was estimated by dividing the average pharmacy cost of the investigated MY-DRG on the average of a specified MY-DRG (which usually the average pharmacy cost of all MY-DRGs).

    RESULTS: Drugs and supplies were the main component (86.0%) of pharmacy cost compared o overhead cost centers (7.3%), staff cost (6.5%) and pharmacy equipments (0.2%) respectively. Out of 789 inpatient MY-DRGs case-mix groups, 450 (57.0%) groups were utilized by the UKMMC. Pharmacy service weight has been calculated for each of these 450 MY-DRGs groups. MY-DRG case-mix group of Lymphoma & Chronic Leukemia group with severity level three (C-4-11-III) has the highest pharmacy service weight of 11.8 equivalents to average pharmacy cost of RM 5383.90. While the MY-DRG case-mix group for Circumcision with severity level one (V-1-15-I) has the lowest pharmacy service weight of 0.04 equivalents to average pharmacy cost of RM 17.83.

    CONCLUSION: A mixed approach which is based partly on top-down and partly on bottom up costing methodology has been recruited to develop MY-DRG case-mix pharmacy service weight for 450 groups utilized by the UKMMC in 2011.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  2. Yong YV, Shafie AA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2018 May;15:6-11.
    PMID: 29474180 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.05.001
    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma need long-term management to maintain optimal control. In addition to routine maintenance, urgent visits and hospitalizations may be required, as these patients are prone to acute exacerbations. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of maintenance and acute exacerbation managements in patients with asthma in a suburban public hospital in Malaysia.

    METHODS: An activity-based microcosting approach was applied to estimate the unit cost of events from the hospital's perspective. First, activities and resources that were involved in each cost center were identified and valued against a suitable form of unit. Thereafter, the mean cost of each resource per event was calculated by dividing the product of the quantity of the resource used and the unit cost of the resource by the number of events. The mean cost per event was the sum of the cost of resources for all cost centers involved. The costs were expressed in 2014 US dollars ($) and Malaysian Ringgit (RM).

    RESULTS: Data were collected from 15 maintenance, 20 acute exacerbation, and 50 hospitalization events. The mean (±SD) cost of maintenance management was $48.04 (±10.10); RM154.68 (±32.52). The cost of acute exacerbation management in the Emergency Department was $13.50 (±2.21), RM43.46 (±7.10); and in the medical ward, the cost was $552.13 (±303.41), RM1777.86 (±976.98), per hospitalization event.

    CONCLUSION: The microcosting of management of asthma-related events provides more accurate estimates that could be used in local economic studies. However, its possible limited generalizability to other types of health care settings in Malaysia needs to be kept in mind.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  3. Chai PF, Lee WS
    Vaccine, 2009 Nov 20;27 Suppl 5:F112-5.
    PMID: 19931708 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.069
    From August 2006 to July 2007 a prospective study of out-of-pocket costs incurred by care-givers of children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis was conducted in a hospital in Malaysia. Data on caretaker out-of-pocket costs were collected from 260 children hospitalized with diarrhoea. A stool sample was collected from 198 of these children of which 46 (23%) were positive for rotavirus by latex agglutination assay. The mean (median; interquartile range) out-of-pocket cost incurred by the care-givers was US$194 (US$169; US$47-738), constituting 26% of average monthly income of the households surveyed. Major components of the cost were hospital expenses (45%) and productivity loss (37%). These findings will allow further assessment of the cost-effectiveness of any future rotavirus immunization program in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  4. Lee WS, Poo MI, Nagaraj S
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2007 Dec;43(12):818-25.
    PMID: 17608648
    To estimate the cost of an episode of inpatient care and the economic burden of hospitalisation for childhood rotavirus gastroenteritis (GE) in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  5. Lee KY, Wan Ahmad WA, Low EV, Liau SY, Anchah L, Hamzah S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(9):e0184410.
    PMID: 28873473 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184410
    INTRODUCTION: The increasing disease burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) calls for sustainable cardiac service. Teaching hospitals and general hospitals in Malaysia are main providers of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a common treatment for CAD. Few studies have analyzed the contemporary data on local cardiac facilities. Service expansion and budget allocation require cost evidence from various providers. We aim to compare the patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and cost profile between a teaching hospital (TH) and a general hospital (GH).

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from the healthcare providers' perspective from January 1st to June 30th 2014. TH is a university teaching hospital in the capital city, while GH is a state-level general hospital. Both are government-funded cardiac referral centers. Clinical data was extracted from a national cardiac registry. Cost data was collected using mixed method of top-down and bottom-up approaches. Total hospitalization cost per PCI patient was summed up from the costs of ward admission and cardiac catheterization laboratory utilization. Clinical characteristics were compared with chi-square and independent t-test, while hospitalization length and cost were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.

    RESULTS: The mean hospitalization cost was RM 12,117 (USD 3,366) at GH and RM 16,289 (USD 4,525) at TH. The higher cost at TH can be attributed to worse patients' comorbidities and cardiac status. In contrast, GH recorded a lower mean length of stay as more patients had same-day discharge, resulting in 29% reduction in mean cost of admission compared to TH. For both hospitals, PCI consumables accounted for the biggest proportion of total cost.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high PCI consumables cost highlighted the importance of cost-effective purchasing mechanism. Findings on the heterogeneity of the patients, treatment practice and hospitalization cost between TH and GH are vital for formulation of cost-saving strategies to ensure sustainable and equitable cardiac service in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  6. Chaiyakunapruk N, Kotirum S, Newall AT, Lambach P, Hutubessy RCW
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses, 2018 01;12(1):13-21.
    PMID: 29143498 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12491
    Influenza disease burden is recognized as one of the major public health problems globally. Much less is known about the economic burden of influenza especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A recent systematic review on the economic burden of influenza in LMICs suggests that information is scarce and/or incomplete and that there is a lack of standardized approaches for cost evaluations in LMICs. WHO commissioned and publicized a Manual for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza to support the standardization of estimates of the economic burden of seasonal influenza across countries. This article aims to describe the rationale of this manual development and opportunities that lie in collecting data to help policymakers estimate the economic burden of seasonal influenza. It describes a manual developed by WHO to help such estimation and also links to relevant literature and tools to ensure robustness of applied methods to assess the economic burden associated with seasonal influenza, including direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect costs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  7. Alkoshi S, Leshem E, Parashar UD, Dahlui M
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:26.
    PMID: 25616973 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1400-7
    Libya introduced rotavirus vaccine in October 2013. We examined pre-vaccine incidence of rotavirus hospitalizations and associated economic burden among children < 5 years in Libya to provide baseline data for future vaccine impact evaluations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  8. Othman J, Sahani M, Mahmud M, Ahmad MK
    Environ Pollut, 2014 Jun;189:194-201.
    PMID: 24682070 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.010
    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  9. Ong MP, Sam IC, Azwa H, Mohd Zakaria IE, Kamarulzaman A, Wong MH, et al.
    J Infect, 2010 Nov;61(5):440-2.
    PMID: 20708031 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2010.08.001
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  10. Loganathan T, Lee WS, Lee KF, Jit M, Ng CW
    PLoS One, 2015;10(5):e0125878.
    PMID: 25941805 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125878
    While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  11. Mia MS, Begum RA, Er AC, Pereira JJ
    PMID: 29634177
    Dengue is endemic in all parts of Malaysia. However, there is limited data regarding the cost burden of this disease at household level. We aimed to
    examine the cost of dengue infection at the household level in Seremban District,
    Malaysia. This cost assessment can provide an insight to policy-makers about
    economic impact of dengue infection in order to guide and prioritize control strategies.
    The data were collected via interview. We evaluated120 previous dengue
    infection patients registered at the Tuanku Ja’afar Hospital, Seremban District,
    Malaysia. The average duration of dengue illness was 9.69 days. The average
    household days lost was 18.7; students lost an average of 6.3 days of school and
    patients and caregivers lost an average of 12.5 days of work. The mean total cost
    per case of dengue infection was estimated to be USD365.16 with the indirect
    cost being USD327.90 (89.8% of the total cost) and the direct cost being USD37.26
    (10.2% of the total cost). Our findings suggest each episode of dengue infection
    imposes a significant financial burden at the household level in Seremban District,
    Malaysia; most of the burden being indirect cost. This cost needs to be factored
    into the overall cost to society of dengue infection. This data can inform policy
    makers when allocating resources to manage public health problems in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  12. Ismail A, Suddin LS, Sulong S, Ahmed Z, Kamaruddin NA, Sukor N
    Indian J Public Health, 2017 12 9;61(4):243-247.
    PMID: 29219128 DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_24_16
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that consumes a large amount of health-care resources. It is essential to estimate the cost of managing T2DM to the society, especially in developing countries. Economic studies of T2DM as a primary diagnosis would assist efficient health-care resource allocation for disease management.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to measure the economic burden of T2DM as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization from provider's perspective.

    METHODS: A retrospective prevalence-based costing study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Financial administrative data and inpatient medical records of patients with primary diagnosis (International Classification Disease-10 coding) E11 in the year 2013 were included in costing analysis. Average cost per episode of care and average cost per outpatient visit were calculated using gross direct costing allocation approach.

    RESULTS: Total admissions for T2DM as primary diagnosis in 2013 were 217 with total outpatient visits of 3214. Average cost per episode of care was RM 901.51 (US$ 286.20) and the average cost per outpatient visit was RM 641.02 (US$ 203.50) from provider's perspective. The annual economic burden of T2DM for hospitalized patients was RM 195,627.67 (US$ 62,104) and RM 2,061,520.32 (US$ 654,450) for those being treated in the outpatient setting.

    CONCLUSIONS: Economic burden to provide T2DM care was higher in the outpatient setting due to the higher utilization of the health-care service in this setting. Thus, more focus toward improving T2DM outpatient service could mitigate further increase in health-care cost from this chronic disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  13. Aljunid SM, Aung YN, Ismail A, Abdul Rashid SAZ, Nur AM, Cheah J, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(10):e0211248.
    PMID: 31652253 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211248
    This study mainly aims to identify the direct cost and economic burden of hypoglycemia for patients with type II diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study explored the cost incurred for hypoglycemia among patients admitted to University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). The study covered patients aged 20-79 years hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ICD-10 hypoglycemia and discharged between January 2010 and September 2015 according to the casemix database. A costing analysis was done through a step-down approach from the perspective of health providers. Cost data were collected for three levels of cost centers with the help of a hospital-costing template. The costing data from UKMMC were used to estimate the national burden of hypoglycemia among type II diabetics for the whole country. Of 244 diabetes patients admitted primarily for hypoglycemia to UKMMC, 52% were female and 88% were over 50 years old. The cost increased with severity. Managing a hypoglycemic case requires five days (median) of inpatient stay on average, with a range of 2-26 days, and costs RM 8,949 (USD 2,289). Of the total cost, 30% related to ward (final cost center), 16% to ICU, and 15% to pharmacy (secondary-level cost center) services. Considering that 3.2% of all admissions were hypoglycemia related, the total annual cost of hypoglycemia care for adult diabetics in Malaysia is estimated at RM 117.4 (USD 30.0) million, which translates to 0.5% of the Ministry of Health budget. Hypoglycemia imposes a substantial economic impact even without the direct and indirect cost incurred by patients and other cost of complications. Diabetic management needs to include proper diabetic care and health education to reduce episodes of hypoglycemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  14. Shakirah MS, Jamalludin AR, Hasniah AL, Rus Anida A, Mariana D, Ahmad Fadzil A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 04;74(2):138-144.
    PMID: 31079125
    INTRODUCTION: Uncontrolled asthma may cause an increase in healthcare utilisation, hospital admission and productivity loss. With the increasing burden of asthma in Malaysia, strategies aimed at reducing cost of care should be explored.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if a clinical pathway (CPW) for inpatient paediatric asthma would reduce average length of stay (ALOS), improve asthma management and decrease cost.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental, pre-post study was used to evaluate the CPW effectiveness. Paediatric inpatients aged 5-18 years old, admitted for acute asthma exacerbation from September 2015 to April 2016 were prospectively recruited. Data from patients admitted from January-July 2015 were used as control. CPW training was carried out in August 2015 using standardised modules. Direct admission cost from the provider's prospective was calculated. Outcomes compared were differences in ALOS, discharge medication, readmission within 28 days of discharge and cost.

    RESULTS: ALOS is 26 hours lower in the CPW group for severe exacerbations and underlying uncontrolled asthma (19.2 hours) which is clinically significant as patients have shorter hospital stay. More newly-diagnosed intermittent asthmatics were discharged with relievers in the CPW group (p-value 0.006). None of the patients in the CPW group had readmissions (p-value 0.16). Mean treatment cost for patients in the intervention group is higher at RM843.39 (SD ±48.99, versus RM779.21 SD±44.33).

    CONCLUSION: This study found that management using a CPW may benefit asthmatic patients with uncontrolled asthma admitted with severe exacerbation. Further studies will be needed to explore CPW's impact on asthma management starting from the emergency department.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  15. Hassan NH, Aljunid SM, Nur AM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2020 Oct 14;20(1):945.
    PMID: 33054861 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-05776-4
    BACKGROUND: The current healthcare sector consists of diverse services to accommodate the high demands and expectations of the users. Nursing plays a major role in catering to these demands and expectations, but nursing costs and service weights are underestimated. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the nursing costs and service weights as well as identify the factors that influence these costs.

    METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using 85,042 hospital discharges from 2009 to 2012. A casemix costing method using the step-down approach was used to derive the nursing costs and service weights. The cost analysis was performed using the hospital data obtained from five departments of the UKMMC: Finance, Human Resource, Nursing Management, Maintenance and Medical Information. The costing data were trimmed using a low trim point and high trim point (L3H3) method.

    RESULTS: The highest nursing cost and service weights for medical cases were from F-4-13-II (bipolar disorders including mania - moderate, RM6,129; 4.9871). The highest nursing cost and service weights for surgical cases were from G-1-11-III (ventricular shunt - major, RM9,694; 7.8880). In obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G), the highest nursing cost and service weights were from O-6-10-III (caesarean section - major, RM2,515; 2.0467). Finally, the highest nursing cost and service weights for paediatric were from P-8-08-II (neonate birthweight > 2499 g with respiratory distress syndrome congenital pneumonia - moderate, RM1,300; 1.0582). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that nursing hours were significantly related to the following factors: length of stay (β = 7.6, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  16. Wu DB, Roberts CS, Huang YC, Chien L, Fang CH, Chang CJ
    J Med Econ, 2014 May;17(5):312-9.
    PMID: 24575941 DOI: 10.3111/13696998.2014.898644
    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal pneumonia cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the disease burden from pneumococcal disease in older adults in Taiwan from a health insurer's perspective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  17. Othman GQ, Ibrahim MI, Raja'a YA
    East Mediterr Health J, 2012 Apr;18(4):393-8.
    PMID: 22768704
    This study determined the costs associated with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for the public health services and patients in Sana'a, Yemen. Data were collected prospectively from 320 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients (160 each) who were followed until completion of treatment. Direct medical and nonmedical costs and indirect costs were calculated. The proportionate cost to the patients for pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB was 76.1% arid 89.4% respectively of the total for treatment. The mean cost to patients for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 108.4 and US$ 328.0 respectively. The mean cost per patient to the health services for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 34.0 and US$ 38.8 respectively. For pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, drug treatment represented 59.3% and 77.9% respectively of the total cost to the health services. The greatest proportionate cost to patients for pulmonary TB treatment was time away from work (67.5% of the total cost), and for extrapulmonary TB was laboratory and X-ray costs (55.5%) followed by transportation (28.6%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics
  18. Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Li H, Ratanawijitrasin S, Vidyasagar S, Wang XY, Aljunid S, et al.
    Diabet Med, 2010 Jan;27(1):101-8.
    PMID: 20121896 DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02874.x
    The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has grown rapidly, but little is known about the drivers of inpatient spending in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to compare the clinical presentation and expenditure on hospital admission for inpatients with a primary diagnosis of Type 2 DM in India, China, Thailand and Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  19. Chan PW, Abdel-Latif ME
    Acta Paediatr, 2003 Apr;92(4):481-5.
    PMID: 12801117
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) chest infection is a common cause of hospitalization in the very young child. The aim of this study was to determine the direct cost of resource utilization in the treatment of children hospitalized with RSV chest infection and the potential cost-savings with passive immunization for high-risk infants. An audit of the hospital resource consumption and its costs was performed for 216 children aged < 24 mo admitted with RSV chest infection between 1995 and 1997. The cost-saving potential of passive immunization using monoclonal RSV antibodies during the RSV season was determined by assuming an 0.55 efficacy in hospitalization reduction when administered to "high-risk" infants according to the guidelines outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The hospital treatment cost of 1064 bed-days amounted to USD 64 277.70. Each child occupied a median of 4.0 bed-days at a median cost of USD 169.99 (IQ1 128.08, IQ3 248.47). Children, who were ex-premature or with an underlying illness were more likely to have a longer hospital stay, higher treatment costs and need for intensive care. Ten (42%) of 24 ex-premature infants fulfilled the recommended criteria for passive immunization. Its use resulted in an incremental cost of USD 31.39 to a potential cost saving of USD 0.91 per infant for each hospital day saved.

    CONCLUSION: Ex-prematurity and the presence of an underlying illness results in escalation of the direct treatment cost of RSV chest infection. Current guidelines for use of passive RSV immunization do not appear to be cost-effective if adopted for Malaysian infants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
  20. Jan S, Lee SW, Sawhney JPS, Ong TK, Chin CT, Kim HS, et al.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2018 07 04;18(1):139.
    PMID: 29973147 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-018-0859-4
    BACKGROUND: The EPICOR Asia (long-tErm follow-uP of antithrombotic management patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients in Asia) study (NCT01361386) was an observational study of patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) enrolled in 218 hospitals in eight countries/regions in Asia. This study examined costs, length of stay and the predictors of high costs during an ACS hospitalization.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Data for patients hospitalized for an ACS (n = 12,922) were collected on demographics, medical history, event characteristics, socioeconomic and insurance status at discharge. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks' post-hospitalization for an ACS event to assess associated treatment costs from a health sector perspective. Primary outcome was the incurring of costs in the highest quintile by country and index event diagnosis, and identification of associated predictors. Cost data were available for 10,819 patients. Mean length of stay was 10.1 days. The highest-cost countries were China, Singapore, and South Korea. Significant predictors of high-cost care were age, male sex, income, country, prior disease history, hospitalization in 3 months before index event, no dependency before index event, having an invasive procedure, hospital type and length of stay.

    CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variability exists in healthcare costs for hospitalized ACS patients across Asia. Of concern is the observation that the highest costs were reported in China, given the rapidly increasing numbers of procedures in recent years.


    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitalization/economics*
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