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  1. Moniruzzaman M, Yung An C, Rao PV, Hawlader MN, Azlan SA, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:737490.
    PMID: 25045696 DOI: 10.1155/2014/737490
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  2. Ali NM, Yeap SK, Yusof HM, Beh BK, Ho WY, Koh SP, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2016 Mar 30;96(5):1648-58.
    PMID: 26009985 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7267
    BACKGROUND: Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects, while fermentation is a well-known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non-fermented mung bean and soybean were compared.

    RESULTS: Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ.

    CONCLUSION: Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry*
  3. Gholivand S, Lasekan O, Tan CP, Abas F, Wei LS
    Food Chem, 2017 Jun 01;224:365-371.
    PMID: 28159281 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.12.075
    The solubility limitations of phenolic acids in many lipidic environments are now greatly improved by their enzymatic esterification in ionic liquids (ILs). Herein, four different ILs were tested for the esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol and the best IL was selected for the synthesis of four other n-alkyl esters with different chain-lengths. The effect of alkyl chain length on the anti-oxidative properties of the resulted purified esters was investigated using β-carotene bleaching (BCB) and free radical scavenging method DPPH and compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as reference compound. All four esters (methyl, hexyl, dodecyl and octadecyl dihydrocaffeates) exhibited relatively strong radical scavenging abilities. The scavenging activity of the test compounds was in the following order: methyl ester>hexyl ester⩾dodecyl ester>octadecyl ester>BHT while the order for the BCB anti-oxidative activity was; BHT>octadecyl ester>dodecyl ester>hexyl ester>methyl ester.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  4. Chia TS, Quah CK
    Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater, 2017 Apr 01;73(Pt 2):285-295.
    PMID: 28362293 DOI: 10.1107/S2052520616019405
    Isonicotinamide-4-methoxybenzoic acid co-crystal (1), C6H6N2O·C8H8O3, is formed through slow evaporation from methanol solution and it undergoes a first-order isosymmetry (monoclinic I2/a ↔ monoclinic I2/a) structural phase transition at Tc= 142.5 (5) K, which has been confirmed by an abrupt jump of crystallographic interaxial angle β from variable-temperature single-crystal XRD and small heat hysteresis (6.25 K) in differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The three-dimensional X-ray crystal structures of (1) at the low-temperature phase (LTP) (100, 140 and 142 K) and the high-temperature phase (HTP) (143, 150, 200, 250 and 300 K) were solved and refined as a simple non-disordered model with final R[F2> 2σ(F2)] ≃ 0.05. The asymmetric unit of (1) consists of crystallographically independent 4-methoxybenzoic acid (A) and isonicotinamide (B) molecules in both enantiotropic phases. Molecule A adopts a `near-hydroxyl' conformation in which the hydroxyl and methoxy groups are positioned on the same side. Both `near-hydroxyl' and `near-carbonyl' molecular conformations possess minimum conformational energies with an energy difference of
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  5. Syarifah-Noratiqah SB, Zulfarina MS, Ahmad SU, Fairus S, Naina-Mohamed I
    Int J Med Sci, 2019;16(5):711-719.
    PMID: 31217739 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.29934
    The oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) from the family Arecaceae is a high oil-producing agricultural crop. A significant amount of vegetation liquor is discarded during the palm oil milling process amounting to 90 million tons per year around the world. This water-soluble extract is rich in phenolic compounds known as Oil Palm Phenolics (OPP). Several phenolic acids including the three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid (CFA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), protocatechuic acid (PCA) and hydroxytyrosol are among the primary active ingredients in the OPP. Previous investigations have reported several positive pharmacological potentials by OPP such as neuroprotective and atheroprotective effects, anti-tumor and reduction in Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease model. In the current review, the pharmacological potential for CFA, PHBA, PCA and hydroxytyrosol is carefully reviewed and evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  6. Barahuie F, Hussein MZ, Abd Gani S, Fakurazi S, Zainal Z
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:3137-49.
    PMID: 25061291 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S59541
    We characterize a novel nanocomposite that acts as an efficient anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  7. Abdullah NH, Salim F, Ahmad R
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 27;21(5).
    PMID: 27128898 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050525
    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  8. Yew YP, Shameli K, Mohamad SEB, Nagao Y, Teow SY, Lee KX, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Dec 15;572:118743.
    PMID: 31705969 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118743
    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocomposites (Fe3O4-NCs) were successfully synthesized, which comprised of montmorillonite (MMT) as matrix support, Kappaphycus alvarezii (SW) as bio-stabilizer and Fe3O4 as filler in the composites to form MMT/SW/Fe3O4-NCs. Nanocomposite with 0.5 g Fe3O4 (MMT/SW/0.5Fe3O4) was selected for anticancer activity study because it revealed high crystallinity, particle size of 7.2 ± 1.7 nm with majority of spherical shape, and Ms = 5.85 emu/g with negligible coercivity. Drug loading and release studies were carried out using protocatechuic acid (PCA) as the model for anticancer drug, which showed 19% and 87% of PCA release in pH 7.4 and 4.8, respectively. Monolayer anticancer assay showed that PCA-loaded MMT/SW/Fe3O4 (MMT/SW/Fe3O4-PCA) had selectivity towards HCT116 (colorectal cancer cell line). Although MMT/SW/Fe3O4-PCA (0.64 mg/mL) showed higher IC50 than PCA (0.148 mg/mL) and MMT/SW/Fe3O4 (0.306 mg/mL, MMT/SW/Fe3O4-PCA showed more effective killing towards tumour spheroid model generated from HCT116. The IC50 for MMT/SW/Fe3O4-PCA, MMT/SW/Fe3O4 and PCA were 0.132, 0.23 and 0.55 mg/mL, respectively. This suggests the improved penetration efficiency and drug release of MMT/SW/Fe3O4-PCA towards HCT116 spheroids. Moreover, concentration that lower than 2 mg/mL MMT/SW/Fe3O4-PCA did not result any hemolysis in human blood, which suggests them to be ideal for intravenous injection. This study highlights the potential of MMT/SW/Fe3O4-NCs as drug delivery agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  9. Ghasemzadeh A, Nasiri A, Jaafar HZ, Baghdadi A, Ahmad I
    Molecules, 2014 Oct 30;19(11):17632-48.
    PMID: 25361426 DOI: 10.3390/molecules191117632
    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cancer cells with IC50 value of 56.8 µg/mL. These results indicate that early harvesting of snake grass (6-month-old) may yield increased concentrations of secondary metabolites, which are potent antioxidant compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  10. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    PMID: 24289290 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-341
    Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  11. Barahuie F, Hussein MZ, Hussein-Al-Ali SH, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S, Zainal Z
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:1975-87.
    PMID: 23737666 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S42718
    In the study reported here, magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was intercalated with an anticancer drug, protocatechuic acid, using ion-exchange and direct coprecipitation methods, with the resultant products labeled according to the method used to produce them: "PANE" (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the ion-exchange method) and "PAND" (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the direct method), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the intercalation of protocatechuic acid into the inter-galleries of Mg/Al-LDH. The protocatechuic acid between the interlayers of PANE and PAND was found to be a monolayer, with an angle from the z-axis of 8° for PANE and 15° for PAND. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the thermal stability of protocatechuic acid was markedly enhanced upon intercalation. The loading of protocatechuic acid in PANE and PAND was estimated to be about 24.5% and 27.5% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro release study of protocatechuic acid from PANE and PAND in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4, 5.3, and 4.8 revealed that the nanocomposites had a sustained release property. After 72 hours incubation of PANE and PAND with MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa human cervical cancer cell lines, it was found that the nanocomposites had suppressed the growth of these cancer cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 35.6 μg/mL for PANE and 36.0 μg/mL for PAND for MCF-7 cells, and 19.8 μg/mL for PANE and 30.3 μg/mL for PAND for HeLa cells. No half maximal inhibitory concentration for either nanocomposite was found for 3T3 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  12. Usman MS, Hussein MZ, Kura AU, Fakurazi S, Masarudin MJ, Ahmad Saad FF
    Molecules, 2018 Feb 24;23(2).
    PMID: 29495251 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23020500
    We have synthesized a graphene oxide (GO)-based theranostic nanodelivery system (GOTS) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using naturally occurring protocatechuic acid (PA) as an anticancer agent and gadolinium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Gd) as the starting material for a contrast agent,. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were subsequently used as second diagnostic agent. The GO nanosheets were first prepared from graphite via the improved Hummer's protocol. The conjugation of the GO and the PA was done via hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions, followed by surface adsorption of the AuNPs through electrostatic interactions. GAGPA is the name given to the nanocomposite obtained from Gd and PA conjugation. However, after coating with AuNPs, the name was modified to GAGPAu. The physicochemical properties of the GAGPA and GAGPAu nanohybrids were studied using various characterization techniques. The results from the analyses confirmed the formation of the GOTS. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) results showed the diffractive patterns for pure GO nanolayers, which changed after subsequent conjugation of the Gd and PA. The AuNPs patterns were also recorded after surface adsorption. Cytotoxicity and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast tests were also carried out on the developed GOTS. The GAGPAu was significantly cytotoxic to the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) but nontoxic to the standard fibroblast cell line (3T3). The GAGPAu also appeared to possess higher T1 contrast compared to the pure Gd and water reference. The GOTS has good prospects of serving as future theranostic platform for cancer chemotherapy and diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
  13. Bullo S, Buskaran K, Baby R, Dorniani D, Fakurazi S, Hussein MZ
    Pharm. Res., 2019 Apr 24;36(6):91.
    PMID: 31020429 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-019-2621-8
    BACKGROUND: The chemotherapy of cancer has been complicated by poor bioavailability, adverse side effects, high dose requirement, drug resistance and low therapeutic indices. Cancer cells have different ways to inhibit the chemotherapeutic drugs, use of dual/multiple anticancer agents may be achieve better therapeutic effects in particular for drug resistant tumors. Designing a biocompatible delivery system, dual or multiple drugs could addressing these chemotherapy drawbacks and it is the focus of many current biomedical research.

    METHODS: In the present study, graphene oxide-polyethylene glycol (GOPEG) nanocarrier is designed and loaded with two anticancer drugs; Protocatechuic acid (PCA) and Chlorogenic acid (CA). The designed anticancer nanocomposite was further coated with folic acid to target the cancer cells, as their surface membranes are overexpressed with folate receptors.

    RESULTS: The particle size distribution of the designed nanocomposite was found to be narrow, 9-40 nm. The release profiles of the loaded drugs; PCA and CA was conducted in human body simulated PBS solutions of pH 7.4 (blood pH) and pH 4.8 (intracellular lysosomal pH). Anticancer properties were evaluated against cancerous cells i.e. liver cancer, HEPG2 and human colon cancer, HT-29 cells. The cytocompatbility was assessed on normal 3T3 fibroblasts cells.

    CONCLUSION: The size of the final designed anticancer nanocomposite formulation, GOPEG-PCACA-FA was found to be distributed at 9-40 nm with a median of 8 nm. The in vitro release of the drugs PCA and CA was found to be of sustained manner which took more than 100 h for the release. Furthermore, the designed formulation was biocompatible with normal 3T3 cells and showed strong anticancer activity against liver and colon cancer cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry*
  14. Yew YP, Shameli K, Mohamad SE, Lee KX, Teow SY
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jul 09;21(14).
    PMID: 32659939 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21144851
    Discovery of a novel anticancer drug delivery agent is important to replace conventional cancer therapies which are often accompanied by undesired side effects. This study demonstrated the synthesis of superparamagnetic magnetite nanocomposites (Fe3O4-NCs) using a green method. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as matrix support, while Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and carrageenan (CR) were used as filler and stabilizer, respectively. The combination of these materials resulted in a novel nanocomposite (MMT/CR/Fe3O4-NCs). A series of characterization experiments was conducted. The purity of MMT/CR/Fe3O4-NCs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the uniform and spherical shape of Fe3O4 NPs with an average particle size of 9.3 ± 1.2 nm. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis showed an Ms value of 2.16 emu/g with negligible coercivity which confirmed the superparamagnetic properties. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) was loaded onto the MMT/CR/Fe3O4-NCs and a drug release study showed that 15% and 92% of PCA was released at pH 7.4 and 4.8, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that both MMT/CR/Fe3O4-NCs and MMT/CR/Fe3O4-PCA effectively killed HCT116 which is a colorectal cancer cell line. Dose-dependent inhibition was seen and the killing was enhanced two-fold by the PCA-loaded NCs (IC50-0.734 mg/mL) compared to the unloaded NCs (IC50-1.5 mg/mL). This study highlights the potential use of MMT/CR/Fe3O4-NCs as a biologically active pH-responsive drug delivery agent. Further investigations are warranted to delineate the mechanism of cell entry and cancer cell killing as well as to improve the therapeutic potential of MMT/CR/Fe3O4-NCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry*
  15. Buskaran K, Hussein MZ, Mohd Moklas MA, Fakurazi S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Aug 16;21(16).
    PMID: 32824281 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21165874
    The development of nanocomposites has swiftly changed the horizon of drug delivery systems in defining a new platform. Major understanding of the interaction of nanocomposites with cells and how the interaction influences intracellular uptake is an important aspect to study in order to ensure successful utilisation of the nanocomposites. Studies have suggested that the nanocomposites' ability to permeate into biological cells is attributable to their well-defined physicochemical properties with nanoscale size, which is relevant to the nanoscale components of biology and cellular organelles. The functionalized graphene oxide coated with polyethylene glycol, loaded with protocatechuic acid and folic acid (GOP-PCA-FA) nanocomposite intracellular uptake was analysed using transmission electron microscope. The accumulation of fluorescent-labelled nanocomposites in the HepG2 cell was also analysed using a fluorescent microscope. In vitro cellular uptake showed that there was uptake of the drug from 24 h into the cells and the release study using fluorescently tagged nanocomposite demonstrated that release and accumulation were observed at 24 h and 48 h. Moreover, the migration ability of tumor cells is a key step in tumor progression which was observed 48 h after treatment. The GOP serves as a potential nanocarrier system which is capable of improving the therapeutic efficacy of drugs and biomolecules in medical as well as pharmaceutical applications through the enhanced intracellular release and accumulation of the encapsulated drugs. Nonetheless, it is essential to analyse the translocation of our newly developed GOP-PCA-FA, and its efficiency for drug delivery, effective cellular uptake, and abundant intracellular accumulation would be compromised by possible untoward side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydroxybenzoates/chemistry
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