Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/stearate Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites were prepared via solution casting intercalation method. Coprecipitation method was used to prepare the anionic clay Mg-Al LDH from nitrate salt solution. Modification of nitrate anions by stearate anions between the LDH layers via ion exchange reaction. FTIR spectra showed the presence of carboxylic acid (COOH) group which indicates that stearate anions were successfully intercalated into the Mg-Al LDH. The formation of nanocomposites only involves physical interaction as there are no new functional groups or new bonding formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the mixtures of nanocomposites are intercalated and exfoliated types. XRD results showed increasing of basal spacing from 8.66 to 32.97 Å in modified stearate Mg-Al LDH, and TEM results revealed that the stearate Mg-Al LDH layers are homogeneously distributed in the PHB/PCL polymer blends matrix. Enhancement in 300% elongation at break and 66% tensile strength in the presence of 1.0 wt % of the stearate Mg-Al LDH as compare with PHB/PCL blends. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that clay improves compatibility between polymer matrix and the best ratio 80PHB/20PCL/1stearate Mg-Al LDH surface is well dispersed and stretched before it breaks.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components. This is evidenced by a drastic increase of PHA content from 28 wt% to 63 wt% and PHA concentration from 3.1 g/L to 6.5 g/L but accompanied by the reduction of residual biomass from 8.0 g/L to 3.8 g/L. Besides, fermentations at lower agitation and aeration have resulted in reduced molecular weight and mechanical strength of the copolymer, suggesting the role of sufficient oxygen supply efficiency in improving the properties of the resulting copolymers. The KLa-based scale-up fermentation was performed successfully in maintaining the yield and the quality of the copolymers produced without a drastic fluctuation. This suggests that the scale-up based on the KLa values supported the fermentation system of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer production in single-stage using mixed-substrate cultivation strategy.
Long carbon chain alkanediols are used in the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)], however these substrates possess high toxicity towards bacterial cells. This study demonstrated the effective utilisation of a long carbon chain alkanediol, namely 1,8-octanediol, to enhance the yield and production of a copolymer with a high molecular weight of over 1000 kDa, which is desirable for novel applications in medical and biopharmaceuticals. The increased PHA content (47-61 wt%) and concentration (1.7-4.5 g/L) was achieved by additional feeding of a combination of C4 substrates at C/N 10, with 1,8-octanediol + γ-butyrolactone producing P(3HB-co-22 mol% 4HB) with a high molecular weight (1060 kDa) and elongation at break of 970%. The DO-stat feeding strategy of C/N 10 has shown an increment of PHA concentration for both carbon combination, 0.45-4.27 g/L and 0.32-3.36 g/L for 1,8-octanediol + sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB-Na) and 1,8-octanediol + γ-butyrolactone, but with a slight reduction on molecular weight and mechanical strength. Nonetheless, further study revealed that a nitrogen-absence feeding strategy could retain the high molecular weight and elongation at break of the copolymer, and simultaneously improving the overall P(3HB-co-4HB) production.
Two-stage fermentation was normally employed to achieve a high poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] productivity with higher 4HB molar fraction. Here, we demonstrated single-stage fermentation method which is more industrial feasible by implementing mixed-substrate cultivation strategy. Studies on bioreactor scale show a remarkably high PHA accumulation of 73 wt%, contributing to a high PHA concentration and product yield of 8.6 g/L and 2.7 g/g, respectively. This fermentation strategy has resulted in copolymers with wider range of 4HB monomer composition, which ranges from 12 to 55 mol%. These copolymers show a broad range of weight average molecular weight (M w ) from 119.5 to 407.0 kDa. The copolymer characteristics were found to be predominantly affected by the nature of the substrates and the mixture strategies, regardless of the 4HB monomer compositions. This was supported by the determination of copolymer randomness using (13)C-NMR analysis. The study warrants significantly in the copolymer scale-up and modeling at industrial level.
Copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) were produced by Cupriavidus sp. (USMAA2-4) (DSM 19379) from carbon sources of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone. The composition of copolyesters produced varied from 0 to 45 mol% 4HB, depending on the combination of carbon sources supplied. The P(3HB-co-4HB) films containing Mitragyna speciosa crude extract were prepared with the ratio varying from 10 to 40% (w/w). The in vitro crude extract release of the films was studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. Although the release rate was slow, it was maintained at a constant rate. This suggests that the crude extract release was due to the polymer degradation because the amount of crude extract released was consistent. The amount of degradation was based on the films' dry weight loss, decrease in molecular weight and surface morphology changes. The degradation rate increased with the 4HB content. This showed that the polymer degradation is dependant on the molecular weight, crystallinity, thermal properties and water permeability. The different drug loading ratio which led to surface morphology changes also gave an effect on polymer degradation.
A halophilic bacterium isolated from mangrove soil sample in Northern Vietnam, Yangia sp. ND199 was found capable of producing homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)], and copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] from different carbon sources. The presence of 3HB, 3HV, and 4HB monomers were confirmed by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Only P(3HB) was produced using carbon sources such as fructose or by a combination of fructose with 1,5-pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, sodium hexanoate, or sodium octanoate. The biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV) was achieved by adding cosubstrates such as sodium valerate and sodium heptanoate. When 1,4-butanediol, γ-butyrolactone or sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate was added to the culture medium, P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 4.0-7.1mol% 4HB fraction was accumulated. The molecular weights and thermal properties of polyesters were determined by gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively. The results showed that Yangia sp. ND199 is able to produce polyester with high weight average molecular weight ranging from 1.3×10(6) to 2.2×10(6) Dalton and number average molecular weight ranging from 4.2×10(5) to 6.9×10(5) Dalton. The molecular weights, glass transition temperature as well as melting temperature of homopolymer P(3HB) are higher than those of copolymer P(3HB-co-3HV) or P(3HB-co-4HB).
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], a polymer belonging to the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family, is accumulated by numerous bacteria as carbon and energy storage material. The mobilization of accumulated P(3HB) is associated with increased stress and starvation tolerance. However, the potential function of accumulated copolymer such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] remained unknown. In this study, Delftia acidovorans DS 17 was used to evaluate the contributions of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV) granules during simulated exogenous carbon deprivation on cell survival by transferring cells with PHAs to carbon-free mineral salt medium supplemented with 1% (w/v) nitrogen source. By mobilizing the intracellular P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV) at 11 and 40 mol% 3HV compositions, the cells survived starvation. Surprisingly, D. acidovorans containing P(3HB-co-94 mol% 3HV) also survived although the mobilization was not as effective. Similarly, recombinant Escherichia coli pGEM-T::phbCAB(Cn) (harboring the PHA biosynthesis genes of Cupriavidus necator) containing P(3HB) granules had a higher viable cell counts compared to those without P(3HB) granules but without any P(3HB) mobilization when exposed to oxidative stress by photoactivated titanium dioxide. This study provided strong evidence that enhancement of stress tolerance in PHA producers can be achieved without mobilization of the previously accumulated granules. Instead, PHA biosynthesis may improve bacterial survival via multiple mechanisms.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are hydrophobic biodegradable thermoplastics that have received considerable attention in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, the degradation rate was regulated by optimizing the interaction of parameters that influence the enzymatic degradation of P(3HB) film using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM model was experimentally validated yielding a maximum 21 % weight loss, which represents onefold increment in percentage weight loss in comparison with the conventional method. By using the optimized condition, the enzymatic degradation by an extracellular PHA depolymerase from Acidovorax sp. DP5 was studied at 37 °C and pH 9.0 on different types of PHA films with various monomer compositions. Surface modification of scaffold was employed using enzymatic technique to create highly porous scaffold with a large surface to volume ratio, which makes them attractive as potential tissue scaffold in biomedical field. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of salt-leached films was more porous compared with the solvent-cast films, and hence, increased the degradation rate of salt-leached films. Apparently, enzymatic degradation behaviors of PHA films were determined by several factors such as monomer composition, crystallinity, molecular weight, porosity, and roughness of the surface. The hydrophilicity and water uptake of degraded salt-leached film of P(3HB-co-70%4HB) were enhanced by incorporating chitosan or alginate. Salt-leached technique followed by partial enzymatic degradation would enhance the cell attachment and suitable for biomedical as a scaffold.
Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are perceived to be a suitable alternative to petrochemical plastics because they have similar material properties, are environmentally degradable, and are produced from renewable resources. In this study, the in situ degradation of medium-chain-length PHA (PHAMCL) films in tropical forest and mangrove soils was assessed. The PHAMCL was produced by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO) as the carbon source. After 112 d of burial, there was 16.7% reduction in gross weight of the films buried in acidic forest soil (FS), 3.0% in the ones buried in alkaline forest soil by the side of a stream (FSst) and 4.5% in those buried in mangrove soil (MS). There was a slight decrease in molecular weight for the films buried in FS but not for the films buried in FSst and in MS. However, no changes were observed for the melting temperature, glass transition temperature, monomer compositions, structure, and functional group analyses of the films from any of the burial sites during the test period. This means that the integral properties of the films were maintained during that period and degradation was by surface erosion. Scanning electron microscopy of the films from the three sites revealed holes on the film surfaces which could be attributed to attack by microorganisms and bigger organisms such as detritivores. For comparison purposes, films of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a short-chain-length PHA, and polyethylene (PE) were buried together with the PHAMCL films in all three sites. The PHB films disintegrated completely in MS and lost 73.5% of their initial weight in FSst, but only 4.6% in FS suggesting that water movement played a major role in breaking up the brittle PHB films. The PE films did not register any weight loss in any of the test sites.
This study reports the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) [Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)] in possession of high molecular weight and elastomeric properties by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 in single-stage mixed-substrate cultivation system. 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol are found to be efficient substrate mixture that has resulted in high copolymer yield, occupying a maximum of 70wt% of the total biomass and producing higher 4HB monomer composition ranging from 31mol% to 41mol%. In substrate mixtures involving 1,6-hexanediol, cleavage of the 6-hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA produces Acetyl-CoA and 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is instrumental in initiating the cell growth in the single-stage fermentation system, preventing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from being utilized via β-oxidation and retained the 4HB monomer at higher ratios. Macroscopic kinetic models of the bioprocesses have revealed that the P(3HB-co-4HB) formation appears to be in the nature of mixed-growth associated with higher formation rate during exponential growth phase; evidenced by higher growth associated constants, α, from 0.0690g/g to 0.4615g/g compared to non-growth associated constants, β, from 0.0092g/g/h to 0.0459g/g/h. The P(3HB-co-31mol% 4HB) produced from the substrate mixture exhibited high weight-average molecular weight, Mwof 927kDa approaching a million Dalton, and possessed elongation at break of 1637% upon cultivation at 0.56wt% C. This is the first report on such properties for the P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer. The copolymer is highly resistant to polymer deformation after being stretched.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer is noted for its high biocompatibility, which makes it an excellent candidate for biopharmaceutical applications. The wild-type Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 strain is able to synthesize P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers with different 4HB monomer compositions (up to 70mol%) in shaken flask cultures. Combinations of 4HB carbon precursors consisting of 1,6-hexanediol and γ-butyrolactone were applied for the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) with different 4HB molar fraction. A sharp increase in 4HB monomer composition was attained by introducing additional copies of PHA synthase gene (phaC), responsible for P(3HB-co-4HB) polymerization. The phaC of Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 and Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 were cloned and heterologously introduced into host, wild-type Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020. The gene dosage treatment resulted in the accumulation of 93mol% 4HB by the transformant strains when grown in similar conditions as the wild-type USMAA1020. The PHA synthase activities for both transformants were almost two-fold higher than the wild-type. The ability of the transformants to produce copolymers with high 4HB monomer composition was also tested in large scale production system using 5L and 30L bioreactors with a constant oxygen mass transfer rate. The 4HB monomer composition could be maintained at a range of 83-89mol%. The mechanical and thermal properties of copolymers improved with increasing 4HB monomer composition. The copolymers produced could be tailored for specific biopharmaceutical applications based on their properties.
Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer, synthesized as carbon and energy reserve by bacteria and archaea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on PHB production by a rare actinomycete species, Rhodococcus pyridinivorans BSRT1-1. Response surface methodology (RSM) employing central composite design, was applied to enhance PHB production in a flask scale. A maximum yield of 3.6 ± 0.5 g/L in biomass and 43.1 ± 0.5 wt% of dry cell weight (DCW) of PHB were obtained when using RSM optimized medium, which was improved the production of biomass and PHB content by 2.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively. The optimized medium was applied to upscale PHB production in a 10 L stirred-tank bioreactor, maximum biomass of 5.2 ± 0.5 g/L, and PHB content of 46.8 ± 2 wt% DCW were achieved. Furthermore, the FTIR and 1H NMR results confirmed the polymer as PHB. DSC and TGA analysis results revealed the melting, glass transition, and thermal decomposition temperature of 171.8, 4.03, and 288 °C, respectively. In conclusion, RSM can be a promising technique to improve PHB production by a newly isolated strain of R. pyridinivorans BSRT1-1 and the properties of produced PHB possessed similar properties compared to commercial PHB.
This work aims to shed light in the fabrication of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-44%-4-hydroxybutyrate)[P(3HB-co-44%4HB)]/chitosan-based silver nanocomposite material using different contents of silver nanoparticle (SNP); 1-9 wt%. Two approaches were applied in the fabrication; namely solvent casting and chemical crosslinking via glutaraldehyde (GA). A detailed characterization was conducted in order to yield information regarding the nanocomposite material. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the nature of the three components that exist in the nanocomposite films: P(3HB-co-4HB), chitosan, and SNP. In term of mechanical properties, tensile strength, and elongation at break were significantly improved up to 125% and 22%, respectively with the impregnation of the SNP. The melting temperature of the nanocomposite materials was increased whereas their thermal stability was slightly changed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that incorporation of 9 wt% of SNP caused agglomeration but the surface roughness of the material was significantly improved with the loading. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were completely inhibited by the nanocomposite films with 7 and 9 wt% of SNP, respectively. On the other hand, degradation of the nanocomposite materials outweighed the degradation of the pure copolymer. These bioactive and biodegradable materials stand a good chance to serve the vast need of biomedical applications namely management and care of wound as wound dressing.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
Three strains of Spirulina platensis isolated from different locations showed capability of synthesizing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] under nitrogen-starved conditions with a maximum accumulation of up to 10 wt.% of the cell dry weight (CDW) under mixotrophic culture conditions. Intracellular degradation (mobilization) of P(3HB) granules by S. platensis was initiated by the restoration of nitrogen source. This mobilization process was affected by both illumination and culture pH. The mobilization of P(3HB) was better under illumination (80% degradation) than in dark conditions (40% degradation) over a period of 4 days. Alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) were optimal for both biosynthesis and mobilization of P(3HB) at which 90% of the accumulated P(3HB) was mobilized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the mobilization of P(3HB) involved changes in granule quantity and morphology. The P(3HB) granules became irregular in shape and the boundary region was less defined. In contrast to bacteria, in S. platensis the intracellular mobilization of P(3HB) seems to be faster than the biosynthesis process. This is because in cyanobacteria chlorosis delays the P(3HB) accumulation process.
The osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) co-cultured with human osteoblasts (HOBs) using selected HADSCs/HOBs ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively, is evaluated. The HADSCs/HOBs were seeded on electrospun three-dimensional poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) blended with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Monocultures of HADSCs and HOBs were used as control groups. The effects of PHB-BHA scaffold on cell proliferation and cell morphology were assessed by AlamarBlue assay and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic-related gene expression of co-culture HADSCs/HOBs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin Red S assay, and quantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that co-culture of HADSCs/HOBs, 1:1 grown into PHB-BHA promoted better cell adhesion, displayed a significant higher cell proliferation, higher production of ALP, extracellular mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression of run-related transcription factor, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin compared to other co-culture groups. This result also suggests that the use of electrospun PHB-BHA in a co-culture HADSCs/HOBs system may serve as promising approach to facilitate osteogenic differentiation activity of HADSCs through direct cell-to-cell contact with HOBs.
The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020, a local isolate was able to biosynthesis poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer with various 4HB precursors as the sole carbon source. Manipulation of the culture conditions such as cell concentration, phosphate ratio and culture aeration significantly affected the synthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and 4HB composition. P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer with 4HB compositions ranging from 23 to 75 mol% 4HB with various mechanical and thermal properties were successfully produced by varying the medium aeration. The physical and mechanical properties of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, tensile test, and differential scanning calorimetry. The number-average molecular weights (M (n)) of copolymers ranged from 260 x 10(3) to 590 x 10(3)Da, and the polydispersities (M (w)/M (n)) were between 1.8 and 3.0. Increases in the 4HB composition lowered the molecular weight of these copolymers. In addition, the increase in 4HB composition affected the randomness of copolymer, melting temperature (T (m)), glass transition temperature (T (g)), tensile strength, and elongation to break. Enzymatic degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with an extracellular depolymerase from Ochrobactrum sp. DP5 showed that the degradation rate increased proportionally with time as the 4HB fraction increased from 17 to 50 mol% but were much lower with higher 4HB fraction. Degradation of P(3HB-co-4HB) films with lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum exhibited highest degradation rate at 75 mol% 4HB. The biocompatibility of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers were evaluated and these copolymers have been shown to support the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
Electrospun polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) fibers were dip-coated by polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid, poly(MMA-co-MAA), which was synthesized in different molar ratios of the monomers via free-radical polymerization. Fabricated platfrom was employed for immobilization of the dengue antibody and subsequent detection of dengue enveloped virus in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There is a major advantage for combination of electrospun fibers and copolymers. Fiber structre of electrospun PHB provides large specific surface area available for biomolecular interaction. In addition, polymer coated parts of the platform inherited the premanent presence of surface carboxyl (-COOH) groups from MAA segments of the copolymer which can be effectively used for covalent and physical protein immobilization. By tuning the concentration of MAA monomers in polymerization reaction the concentration of surface -COOH groups can be carefully controlled. Therefore two different techniques have been used for immobilization of the dengue antibody aimed for dengue detection: physical attachment of dengue antibodies to the surface and covalent immobilization of antibodies through carbodiimide chemistry. In that perspective, several different characterization techniques were employed to investigate the new polymeric fiber platform such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement and UV-vis titration. Regardless of the immobilization techniques, substantially higher signal intensity was recorded from developed platform in comparison to the conventional ELISA assay.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a microbial polymer that has been at the forefront of many attempts at tissue engineering. However, the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)) is hydrophobic with few recognition sites for cell attachment. Various concentrations of fish-scale collagen peptides (FSCPs) were incorporated into P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer by aminolysis. Later, FSCPs were introduced onto the aminolyzed P(3HB-co-4HB) scaffolds. Introduction of the FSCP groups was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the ninhydrin method. The effect of the incorporation of FSCPs on hydrophilicity was investigated using the water contact angle. As the concentration of FSCPs increased, the water contact angle decreased. In vitro study demonstrated that P(3HB-co-4HB)/FSCP scaffolds provided better cell attachment and growth of L929 mouse fibroblast cells and better cell proliferation. In vivo study showed that P(3HB-co-4HB)/1.5 wt% FSCPs had a significant effect on wound contractions, with the highest percentage of wound closure (61%) in 7 d.