Cytochrome c is a small water-soluble protein that is abundantly found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space of microorganism, plants and mammalians. Ionic liquids (ILs)-based aqueous two-phase electrophoresis system (ATPES) was introduced in this study to investigate the partition efficiency of cytochrome c to facilitate subsequent development of two-phase electrophoresis for the separation of cytochrome c from microbial fermentation. The 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, (C6mim)Br and potassium citrate salt were selected as the phase-forming components. Effects of phase composition; position of electrodes; pH and addition of neutral salt on the partition efficiency of cytochrome c in the ATPES were evaluated. Highest partition coefficient (K = 179.12 ± 0.82) and yield of cytochrome c in top phase (YT = 99.63% ± 0.00) were recorded with IL/salt ATPES composed of 30% (w/w) (C6mim)Br and 20% (w/w) potassium citrate salt of pH 7 and 3.0% (w/w) NaCl addition with anode at the bottom phase and cathode at the top phase. The SDS-PAGE profile revealed that cytochrome c with a molecular weight of 12 kDa was preferably partitioned to the IL-rich top phase. Present findings suggested that the single-step ATPES is a potential separation approach for the recovery of cytochrome c from microbial fermentation. Graphical Abstract.
Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) method was developed for simultaneous enantioseparation of three imidazole drugs namely tioconazole, isoconazole and fenticonazole. Three easily available and inexpensive cyclodextrins namely 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD) and heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) were evaluated to discriminate the six stereoisomers of the drugs. However, none of the three CDs gave a complete enantioseparation of the drugs. Effective enantioseparation of tioconazole, isoconazole and fenticonazole was achieved using a combination of 35 mM HP-γ-CD and 10 mM DM-β-CD as chiral selectors. The best separation using both HP-γ-CD and DM-β-CD (35 mM:10 mM) as chiral selectors were accomplished in background electrolyte (BGE) containing 35 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 15% (v/v) acetonitrile at 27 kV and 30 °C with all peaks resolved in less than 15 min with resolutions, Rs 1.90-27.22 and peak efficiencies, N > 180 000. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 25-200 mg l(-1) (r(2) > 0.998) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the three imidazole drugs were found to be 2.7-7.7 mg l(-1). The CD-MEKC method was successfully applied to the determination of the three imidazole drugs in spiked human urine sample and commercial cream formulation of tioconazole and isoconazole with good recovery (93.6-106.2%) and good RSDs ranging from 2.30-6.8%.
A series of surfactants combining carbohydrate and imidazolium head groups were prepared and investigated on their assembly behavior. The presence of the imidazolium group dominated the interactions of the surfactants, leading to high CMCs and large molecular surface areas, reflected in curved rather than lamellar surfactant assemblies. The carbohydrate, on the other hand, stabilized molecular assemblies slightly and reduced the surface tension of surfactant solutions considerably. A comparative emulsion study discourages the use of pure alkyl imidazolium glycosides owing to reduced assembly stabilities compared with APGs. However, the surfactants are believed to have potential as component in carbohydrate based surfactant mixtures.
The formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was investigated using a kinetic study approach as described by first-order, Arrhenius, and Eyring equations. Chemical model systems with different amino acid precursors (proline, phenylalanine, and glycine) were examined at different times (4, 8, 12, and 16 min) and temperatures (150, 180, 210, 240, and 270 °C). PhIP was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The good fit in first-order suggested that PhIP formation was influenced by the types of amino acids and PhIP concentration significantly increased with time and temperature (up to 240 °C). PhIP was detected in proline and phenylalanine model systems but not in the glycine model system. The phenylalanine model system demonstrated low activation energy (Ea) of 95.36 kJ/mol that resulted in a high rate of PhIP formation (great amount of PhIP formed). Based on the ∆S‡ values both proline and phenylalanine demonstrated bimolecular rate-limiting steps for PhIP formation. Altogether these kinetic results could provide valuable information in predicting the PhIP formation pathway.
Rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is a primary insect pest of cultivated rice, and effective control is essential for economical crop production. Resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides, in particular imidacloprid, has been reported as an increasing constraint in recent years. In order to investigate the extent of resistance, 24 samples of N. lugens were collected from China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam during 2005 and 2006. Their responses to two diagnostic doses of imidacloprid (corresponding approximately to the LC(95) and 5 x LC(95) of a susceptible strain) were examined.
Biomimetic supramolecular dual networks: By mimicking the structure/function model of titin, integration of dynamic cucurbituril mediated host-guest interactions with a trace amount of covalent cross-linking leads to hierarchical dual networks with intriguing toughness, strength, elasticity, and energy dissipation properties. Dynamic host-guest interactions can be dissociated as sacrificial bonds and their facile reformation results in self-recovery of the dual network structure as well as its mechanical properties.
The efficacy of a 2.15% imidacloprid gel bait against laboratory strain Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica
was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The susceptibility trend of both species towards imidacloprid was: adult male
< adult female < nymphs. All stages of both species were dead within 10 days in primary poisoning testing. Periplaneta
americana adult male (LT50 = 0.47 h; LT95 = 5.24 h) died fastest, while nymphs of B. germanica took the longest time to
reach 95% mortality (LT95 = 43.84 h). In indirect exposure via secondary poisoning, only adult males of P. americana (LT50
= 100.63 h) and B. germanica (LT50 = 54.66 h) obtained 50% mortality before the testing ended. No complete mortalities
were achieved in any stages of both species within 10 days of secondary poisoning testing. Therefore, imidacloprid gel
bait used in this study was able to cause complete mortalities within less than 2 days of 10-day primary poisoning testing
but less effective in the 10-day secondary poisoning testing.
The binding of imidazolium salts to cucurbituril, CB, triggers a stepwise self-assembly process with semiflexible polymer chains and crystalline nanostructures as early- and late-stage species, respectively. In such a process, which involves the crystallization of the host-guest complexes, the guest plays a critical role in directing self-assembly toward desirable morphologies. These include platelet-like aggregates and two-dimensional (2D) fibers, which, moreover, exhibit viscoelastic and lyotropic properties. Our observations provide a deeper understanding of the self-assembly of CB complexes, with fundamental implications in the design of functional 2D systems and crystalline materials.
The crystal and mol-ecular structures of the title CuII complex, isolated as a dihydrate, [Cu(C21H14N3O3)2]·2H2O, reveals a highly distorted coordination geometry inter-mediate between square-planar and tetra-hedral defined by an N2O2 donor set derived from two mono-anionic bidentate ligands. Furthermore, each six-membered chelate ring adopts an envelope conformation with the Cu atom being the flap. In the crystal, imidazolyl-amine-N-H⋯O(water), water-O-H⋯O(coordinated, nitro and water), phenyl-C-H⋯O(nitro) and π(imidazol-yl)-π(nitro-benzene) [inter-centroid distances = 3.7452 (14) and 3.6647 (13) Å] contacts link the components into a supra-molecular layer lying parallel to (101). The connections between layers forming a three-dimensional architecture are of the types nitro-benzene-C-H⋯O(nitro) and phenyl-C-H⋯π(phen-yl). The distorted coordination geometry for the CuII atom is highlighted in an analysis of the Hirshfeld surface calculated for the metal centre alone. The significance of the inter-molecular contacts is also revealed in a study of the calculated Hirshfeld surfaces; the dominant contacts in the crystal are H⋯H (41.0%), O⋯H/H⋯O (27.1%) and C⋯H/H⋯C (19.6%).
The restoration of mechanical properties is desired for creating the self-healing coatings with no corrosion capabilities. The encapsulation of epoxy resins is limited by various factors in urea and melamine formaldehyde microcapsules. An improved method was developed, where epoxy resin was encapsulated by individual wrapping of poly(melamine-formaldehyde) and poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell around emulsified epoxy droplets via oil-in-water emulsion polymerization method. The synthesized materials were characterized analytically. The curing of the epoxy was achieved by adding the [Ni/Co(2-MI)6].2NO3 as a latent hardener and iron acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3] as a latent accelerator. Isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric analysis revealed lower curing temperature (Tonset = 116 °C) and lower activation energies (Ea ≈ 69-75 kJ/mol). The addition of microcapsules and complexes did not adversely alter the flexural strength and flexural modulus of the epoxy coatings. The adhesion strength of neat coating decreased from 6310.8 ± 31 to 4720.9 ± 60 kPa and percent healing increased from 50.83 to 67.45% in the presence of acetylacetonate complex at 10 wt% of microcapsules.
Addition of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)-mim) cations 3-5 to a mixture of bis-phosphonium cation 2 and sodium p-sulfonatocalixarene (1) in the presence of lanthanide ions results in the selective binding of an imidazolium cation into the cavity of the calixarene. The result is a multi-layered solid material with an inherently flexible interplay of the components. Incorporating ethyl-, n-butyl- or n-hexyl-mim cations into the multi-layers results in significant perturbation of the structure, the most striking effect is the tilting of the plane of the bowl-shaped calixarene relative to the plane of the multi-layer, with tilt angles of 7.2, 28.9 and 65.5 degrees , respectively. The lanthanide ions facilitate complexation, but are not incorporated into the structures and, in all cases, the calixarene takes on a 5- charge, with one of the lower-rim phenolic groups deprotonated. ROESY NMR experiments and other (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies establish the formation of 1:1 supermolecules of C(n)-mim and calixarene, regardless of the ratio of the two components, and indicate that the supermolecules undergo rapid exchange on the NMR spectroscopy timescale.
The microwave-assisted three-component reactions of 3,5-bis(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones, acenaphthenequinone and cyclic α-amino acids in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, occurred through a domino sequence affording structurally intriguing diazaheptacyclic cage-like compounds in excellent yields.
An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) with ionic liquids (ILs) was used for the isolate of C-phycocyanin (CPC) from Spirulina platensis microalga. Various imidazolium ILs and potassium salts were studied. The effect of ILs-ATPS on the extraction efficiency of CPC was also studied. The experimental parameters like pH, loading volume, algae concentration, temperature, and alkyl chain length of IL were well-covered in this report. The experimental results showed that the extraction efficiency, the partition coefficient, and the separation factor for CPC were 99%, 36.6, and 5.8, respectively, for an optimal pH value of 7 and a temperature of 308 K. The order of extraction efficiency for CPC using IL-ATPS was: 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C8MIM-Br) > 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C6MIM-Br) > 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C4MIM-Br). The isolation process followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the thermodynamic results were obviously spontaneous.
Particular attention has been paid to capillary electrophoresis as versatile and environmentally friendly approach for enantioseparations of a wide spectrum of compounds. Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) is a method of choice to provide effective separation toward hydrophobic and uncharged stereoisomers. The chiral discrimination of the solutes relies upon the partitioning between a given CD in the aqueous phase and micelles formed from a surfactant. Synergistic combinations of chiral selectors, surfactant, and modifier contribute to successful enantioseparations of the enantiomers. In this chapter, an application of CD-MEKC for the enantioseparation of selected imidazole drugs employing a dual CDs system is described.
Current study is based on the biology-oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) of 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl aryl carboxylate derivatives 1-26, by treating metronidazole with different aryl and hetero-aryl carboxylic acids in the presence of 1,1'-carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) as a coupling agent. Structures of all synthetic derivatives were confirmed with the help of various spectroscopic techniques such as EI-MS, (1)H -NMR and (13)C NMR. CHN elemental analyses were also found in agreement with the calculated values. Synthetic derivatives were evaluated to check their β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity which revealed that except few derivatives, all demonstrated good inhibition in the range of IC50 = 1.20 ± 0.01-60.30 ± 1.40 μM as compared to the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50 = 48.38 ± 1.05 μM). Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, 9-19, and 21-24 were found to be potent analogs and showed superior activity than standard. Limited structure-activity relationship is suggested that the molecules having electron withdrawing groups like NO2, F, Cl, and Br, were displayed better activity than the compounds with electron donating groups such as Me, OMe and BuO. To verify these interpretations, in silico study was also performed, a good correlation was observed between bioactivities and docking studies.
Herein we propose an alternative way to distinguish ionic liquids from Coulombic-dominated salts, based not on their upper limit melting temperature (100 °C), but on the trend of their phase-forming abilities to create aqueous biphasic systems as a function of temperature, in which a wider plethora of interactions can be appraised.
A new library of 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl aryl ether derivatives (1-23) were synthesized and characterized by EI-MS and 1H NMR, and screened for their α-amylase inhibitory activity. Out of twenty-three derivatives, two molecules 19 (IC50=0.38±0.82µM) and 23 (IC50=1.66±0.14µM), showed excellent activity whereas the remaining compounds, except 10 and 17, showed good to moderate inhibition in the range of IC50=1.77-2.98µM when compared with the standard acarbose (IC50=1.66±0.1µM). A plausible structure-activity relationship has also been presented. In addition, in silico studies was carried out in order to rationalize the binding interaction of compounds with the active site of enzyme.
Imidazolinones are a family of herbicides that are used to control a broad range of weeds. Their high persistence and leaching potential make them probable risk to the ecosystems. In this study, biochar, the biomass-derived solid material, was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and rice husk (RH) through pyrolysis process. Feedstock and pyrolysis variables can control biochar sorption capacity. Therefore, the present study attempts to evaluate effects of three pyrolysis variables (temperature, heating rate and retention time) on abilities of biochars for removal of imazapic and imazapyr herbicides from soil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing the variables to achieve maximum sorption performance of the biochars. Experimental data were interpreted accurately by quadratic models. Based on the results, sorption capacities of both biochars raised when temperature decreased to 300 °C, mainly because of increased biochars effective functionality in sorption of polar molecules. Heating rate of 3°C/min provided optimum conditions to maximize the sorption capacities of both biochars. Retention time of about 1 h and 3 h were found to be the best for EFB and RH biochars, respectively. EFB biochar was more efficient in removal of the herbicides, especially imazapyr due to its chemical composition and higher polarity index (0.42) rather than RH biochar (0.39). Besides, higher cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of EFB biochar (83.90 cmolc/kg) in comparison with RH biochar (70.73 cmolc/kg) represented its higher surface polarity effective in sorption of the polar herbicides.
Several new substituted sulfonamide compounds were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, FT-IR, and mass spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities of the synthesized compounds were screened against standard strains of six Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria using the microbroth dilution assay. Most of the compounds studied showed promising activities against both types of bacteria.
A preliminary report on the short-term use of Tioconazole for vaginal candidiasis is presented. The cure rate was found to be approximately 90% in mild degrees of the disease, with good patient compliance and minimal side effects. However no conclusion can be drawn for moderate or severe cases of the condition.