A dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) was used to determine the levels of antibody to dengue 3 virus in the acute and convalescent sera of febrile patients with a clinical diagnosis of dengue fever or dengue haemorrhagic fever. The antibody titres were compared with titres determined by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results of the study showed that, besides being more simple to perform, the DEIA is in order of magnitude more sensitive than the HI test. Furthermore, the data suggest that it is possible to use a single dilution as a cutoff point to predict with reasonable accuracy, if a patient has had a recent dengue infection. The DEIA test for antibodies to dengue virus is an appropriate technology highly suitable for rapid diagnosis and surveillance in developing countries.
Bahagian aktif bagi enzim toksin bakteria daripada Burkholderia pseudomallei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan difteria merupakan domain ADP-ribosilasi. Domain ini didapati terpelihara di antara ketiga-tiga mikroorganisme. Di dalam kajian ini, domain ADP-ribosilasi Burkholderia pseudomallei telah diamplifikasi daripada genom B. pseudomallei virulen dengan menggunakan pencetus-pencetus yang dibina berdasarkan kepada jujukan domain ADP ribosilasi Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hasil DNA amplifikasi ditulenkan dan digunakan sebagai prob (HPCR2) untuk menyaring DNA selitan daripada B. pseudomallei yang diklonkan ke dalam vektor pengekspresan pSport-I. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menyaring lapan klon yang positif hasil daripada penyaringan awal melalui pendekatan immunoblot menggunakan antitoksin daripada arnab. Penyaringan ini juga melibatkan tiga klon yang tidak memberikan isyarat positif semasa penyaringan secara immunoblot. Keputusan menunjukkan hanya satu klon (L31) daripada lapan klon immunoblot positif mempunyai domain ADP-ribosilasi. Penjujukan DNA separa klon L31 secara manual melibatkan dua pencetus menghasilkan jujukan sepanjang 450pb. Analisis selanjutnya mendapati daripada enam kemungkinan translasi kepada polipeptida hanya satu polipeptida wujud yang tidak mempunyai sebarang kodon penamat pada jujukan kodonnya.
An IgM dot-immunobinding assay (IgM-DIA) was developed for the diagnosis of scrub typhus infection. The whole cell antigens of Karp, Kato and Gilliam strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were immobilized onto nitrocellulose paper and reacted with patients sera. The presence of IgM R. tsutsugamushi specific antibody in the patient sera could be detected by the observation of a visible brown dot on the nitrocellulose paper. The IgM-DIA has a sensitivity of 90.4% and specificity of 81.4% as compared to the indirect immunoperoxidase test. The IgM-DIA is rapid, simple, cost-effective, does not require microscope or incubator. It is recommended as a rapid screening test for the diagnosis of scrub typhus infection in the field or rural area within the hyperendemic region.
Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood.
A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was compared with a direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) for the detection of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection in Leptotrombidium fletcheri (Womersley & Heaslip). Laboratory colonies of infected and noninfected chiggers were examined. The relative proportions of positive, negative, and indeterminate results were significantly different between DIBA and DFAT for infected but not for noninfected chiggers. DIBA was more sensitive and had a better negative predictive value and a lower false negative percentage than DFAT. It was concluded that DIBA is a suitable alternative to DFAT for detecting scrub typhus infection in chiggers.
This study describes the use of an IgM capture ELISA using cell culture derived antigens and a polyclonal rabbit antiflavivirus antisera for the detection of dengue positive cases. The IgM capture ELISA is compared with the dot enzyme immunoassay and the results are discussed in the context of dengue endemicity.
A rapid dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) was adopted for specific immunodiagnosis of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis, using purified 31-kDa glycoprotein specific to Angiostrongylus cantonensis as diagnostic antigen and protein A colloidal gold conjugate as antigen-antibody detector. A total of 59 serum samples were assayed - 11 samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable A. cantonensis-specific antibody in immunoblotting; 23 samples from patients with other related parasitic diseases, i.e. gnathostomiasis (n= 8), cysticercosis (n= 5), toxocariasis (n= 2), filariasis (n= 4), paragonimiasis (n= 2) and malaria (n= 2); and 25 samples from normal healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of DIGFA to detect anti-A. cantonensis specific antibodies in serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases, were both 100%. No positive DIGFA was observed in cases with other parasitic diseases, and the healthy control subjects. The 3-min DIGFA is as sensitive and specific as the 3-h immunoblot test in angiostrongyliasis confirmed cases that revealed a 31-kDa reactive band. The gold-based DIGFA is more rapid and easier to perform than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The test utilizing purified A. cantonensis antigen is reliable and reproducible for specific immunodiagnosis of human infection with A. cantonensis - thus can be applied as an additional routine test for clinical diagnostic support. Large-scale sero-epidemiological studies in endemic communities in north-east Thailand are under way to evaluate its usefulness under field conditions.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains can be classified as virulent or avirulent based upon the severity of the disease. Differentiation of the virus into virulent and avirulent is necessary for effective control of the disease. Biopanning experiments were performed using a disulfide constrained phage displayed heptapeptide library against three pathotypes of NDV strains: velogenic (highly virulent), mesogenic (moderately virulent) and lentogenic (avirulent). A phage clone bearing the peptide sequence SWGEYDM capable of distinguishing virulent from avirulent NDV strains was isolated. This phage clone was employed as a diagnostic reagent in a dot blot assay and it successfully detected only virulent NDV strains.
IgE-mediated allergic reaction to squid is one of the most frequent molluscan shellfish allergies. Previously, we have detected a 36 kDa protein as the major allergen of Loligo edulis (white squid) by immunoblotting using sera from patients with squid allergy. The aim of this present study was to further identify this major allergen using a proteomics approach. The major allergen was identified by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. The 2-DE gel fractionated the cooked white squid proteins to more than 50 different protein spots between 10 to 38 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 3.0 to 10.0. A highly reactive protein spot of a molecular mass of 36 kDa and pI of 4.55 was observed in all of the patients' serum samples tested. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of this allergen as tropomyosin. This finding can contribute to advancement in component-based diagnosis, management of squid allergic patients, to the development of immunotherapy and to the standardization of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.
The objective of this study was to determine the Immunoglobulin E-binding proteins (IgE) and major allergens of Scomberomorus commerson Lacepede (Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel). Allergen extracts were obtained from uncooked and cooked fish by homogenization in phosphate-buffered saline followed by continuous extraction at 4oC or on ice. Protein profiles and IgEbinding patterns were then detected by means of sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from patients sensitized to the fish. SDS-PAGE of the uncooked fish extracts revealed 26 protein bands in the range of about 11 to >175 kD, while the cooked extracts produced fewer protein bands. Immunoblotting demonstrated 17 IgE-binding bands, ranging in molecular weight from 11 to 151 kD. Two components with molecular weight of about ~50 and 42 kD showed the highest frequency of IgE-binding (62.2 and 51.4% respectively) and were identified as the major allergens of this fish allergy. Other IgE-binding proteins including a protein at ~12 kD which was equivalent in size to parvalbumin were identified as the minor allergens.
Crab meat is widely consumed in several countries around the world. However, when consumed, crab meat are frequent cause of allergic reactions throughout the world. Scylla serrata is among the most common mud crab in Malaysia. In a previous study two major allergens of mud crab at 36 and 41 kDa was identified. Thus, the aim of this study is to further identify these major allergens by a proteomic approach. Protein extract was prepared and resolved by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Immunoblotting was then performed using reactive sera from patients with crab allergy. Major allergenic spots were then excised from the 2-DE gel and analysed by mass spectrometry. The 2-DE profile of the extract revealed approximately >100 protein spots between pH of 4.00 to 8.00. Mass spectrometry analysis has identified the 36 and 41 kDa proteins as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively. Our findings indicated that tropomyosin and arginine kinase play a major role in allergic reaction to mud crab meat among local patients with crab meat allergy, and should be included in diagnostics and therapeutic strategies of this allergy.
Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding 772 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.97. The CpSUB1 gene is composed of nine exons and eight introns. The amino acid sequence encoded by CpSUB1 shared high identity (>60%) with the amino acid sequence of other plant subtilisin-like proteases. Sequence analysis of CpSUB1 revealed the presence of a possible signal peptide (25 amino acid residues) and an NH(2)-terminal prosequence (88 amino acid residues). In addition, papaya subtilase possesses the characteristic subtilisin catalytic triad amino acids namely Asp, His and Ser, together with the substrate-binding site, Asn. DNA hybridization analysis showed that subtilase gene exists as a single copy in the papaya genome. RNA hybridization analyses showed that expression of the subtilase transcripts was only detected in mesocarp but not in non-fruit tissues. Gene expression in fruit tissues reached the highest level during the ripening stage at which the fruits undergo dramatic softening process. Subsequently, pro-subtilase ( approximately 80kDa) was expressed as recombinant pro-enzyme ( approximately 97kDa), which was used to generate antiserum against papaya subtilase, anti-sub. Protein gel blot analysis using anti-sub towards total protein extracted from all ripening stages revealed that a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 70kDa reacted with the antiserum. Hence both RNA hybridization and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the presence of subtilase during papaya fruit ripening, pointing to its possible involvement in this important process.
The frequency distribution for serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentrations in healthy Japanese was highly skewed, with a mean +/- S.D. of 14.6 +/- 13.6 mg/dl and a median of 11.0 mg/dl. The present study provides the first evidence on the frequencies of Lp(a) phenotypes and alleles in healthy Japanese subjects. There was a strong inverse relationship between the apparent molecular weights of apo(a) isoforms and plasma Lp(a) concentrations, as reported previously. However, because of the considerable overlap between the Lp(a) concentrations of the different phenotypes, it was impossible to predict Lp(a) concentration from Lp(a) phenotypes, or vice versa. The present results suggest that the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations, mean and median values and Lp(a) phenotype and allele frequencies in healthy Japanese are not significantly different from the results for Europeans, whereas they are significantly different from other Asian populations, i.e. Chinese, Indians and Malaysians.
We compared a commercially available dot-blot immunoassay system with the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in tests of known negative and known positive sera from scrub typhus cases. Using a panel of 100 sera from patients with various rickettsial and nonrickettsial infections, we observed that the IFA was 99% specific and the dipstick assay was 98% specific. In tests of 91 sera (30 negative and 61 positive for scrub typhus antibodies) from a study of febrile patients in Malaysia, using the standard of an IFA titer < 1:64 as negative, an IFA titer > 1:128 as positive, and an IFA titer = 1:64 as either positive or negative (supported by clinical records), dipsticks were 83% specific and 90% sensitive. The quantitative correlation of the dipsticks to IFA titers was confirmed by significant differences in geometric means of inverse IFA titers corresponding to the number of positive dipstick spots (no dots = 8.5, one dot = 43.3, two dots = 206.7, and three dots = 676.9). The assay would enable physicians and public health workers who deal with patients to quickly diagnose and appropriately treat most cases of the disease, especially in areas of high prevalence where the proportion of false-positive results to true-positive results would be low.
A dot-blot ELISA was compared with a previously performed sandwich ELISA for the detection of Parastrongylus cantonensis antigens in sera from patients. Using the same monoclonal antibody and the same sera, 6 of 10 sera (60%) from parastronglyiasis patients were positive in dot-blot ELISA, whereas with sandwich ELISA, 5 of the same patient sera (50%) were positive. The specificity in both assays was 100% using 50 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases; of these, 10 each were from patients with cysticercosis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, malaria and toxocariasis. The control group consisted of 53 sera from normal health Thais and Malaysians. The sensitivity of the assays was, however, slightly better with dot-blot ELISA and because it is simple, quick and cost-effective, it may be a test of choice for specific diagnosis of human parastrongyliasis.
In this study we have cloned unreported gene fragments of Toxoplasma gondii GRA7 and SAG1 and expressed the corresponding recombinant proteins, followed by evaluation of their usefulness for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Both recombinant proteins were expressed efficiently in insoluble form, purified by single step Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and their antigenicity to detect toxoplasma specific IgG antibodies were determined by immunoblotting. A total of 60 serum samples from three groups of individuals based on their anti-toxoplasma antibody profiles were tested, namely (I) IgM+, IgG+ (n=20), (II) IgM-, IgG+ (n=20) and (III) IgM-, IgG- (n=20). Both recombinant proteins exhibited high sensitivity (100%) with sera from Group I. rGRA7 and rSAG1 reacted 40% and 80% respectively with Group II sera. The specificity of the recombinant proteins based on reactivities with Group III sera were 100% and 80% with rGRA7 and rSAG1 respectively. Thus rGRA7 was found to be better at discriminating probable acute from chronic phases of toxoplasmosis, and it also showed higher specificity.
The hemolysin (HlyE) protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was reported to be antigenic. This work describes the cloning, expression, and purification of a hexahistidine-tagged HlyE protein under native conditions. Immunoblot analysis and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sera from typhoid patients showed the presence of HlyE-specific antibodies in circulation.
Rice tungro disease (RTD) is one of the most destructive diseases of rice in South and Southeast Asia. RTD is routinely detected based on visual observation of the plant. However, it is not always easy to identify the disease in the field as it is often confused with other diseases or physiological disorders. Here we report the development of two serological based assays for ease of detection of RTD. In this study we had developed and optimized an indirect ELISA and dot-blot assay for detection of RTD. The efficiency of both assays was evaluated by comparing the specificity and sensitivity of the assays to PCR assay using established primer sets. The indirect ELISA showed 97.5% and 96.6%, while the dot-blot assay showed 97.5% and 86.4% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, when compared to established PCR method. The high sensitivity and specificity of the two assays merit the use of both assays as alternative methods to diagnose RTD. Furthermore, the dot-blot assay is a simple, robust, and rapid diagnostic assay that is suitable for field test for it does not require any specialized equipment. This is a great advantage for diagnosing RTD in paddy fields, especially in the rural areas.
Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth species identified to cause malaria in humans and is often misdiagnosed as Plasmodium malariae due to morphological similarities. The development of an inexpensive, serological detection method utilizing antibodies specific to P. knowlesi would be a valuable tool for diagnosis. However, the identification of specific antigens for these parasites remains a major challenge for generating such assays. In this study, surface protein containing an altered thrombospondin repeat domain (SPATR) was selected as a potentially specific antigen from P. knowlesi. Its multistage expression by sporozoites, asexual erythrocytic forms and gametocytes, along with its possible role in liver cell invasion, suggests that SPATR could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis of P. knowlesi.
This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway in the anti-inflammatory effects of zinc carnosine (ZnC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with ZnC (0-100 μM) for 2 h prior to the addition of LPS (1 μg/ml). Following 24 h of treatment, ZnC was found not to be cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells up to the concentration of 100 μM. Our current findings showed that ZnC did not protect RAW 264.7 cells from LPS-induced "respiratory burst". Significant increment in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration can only be observed in cell pretreated with high doses of ZnC only (50 and 100 μM for GSH and 100 μM only for TBARS). On the other hand, pretreatment of cells with ZnC was able to inhibit LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression significantly. Furthermore, results from immunoblotting showed that ZnC was able to suppress nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, and highest suppression can be observed at 100 μM of ZnC pretreatment. However, pretreatment of ZnC did not inhibit the early activation of MAPKs. In conclusion, pretreatment with ZnC was able to inhibit the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, mainly via suppression of NF-κB activation, and is independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway.