Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 105 in total

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  1. Ng BHK, Kho GS, Sim SK, Liew DNS, Tang IP
    Br J Neurosurg, 2017 Jun 09.
    PMID: 28597698 DOI: 10.1080/02688697.2017.1335857
    Intracranial fungal infection of the cavernous sinus is a condition that usually affects immunocompromised individuals and is rarely seen in immunocompetent individuals. It is a potentially life threatening condition which requires prompt treatment. Here we present a case of an immunocompetent patient with a fungal infection of the cavernous sinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  2. Gan GG, Kamarulzaman A, Goh KY, Ng KP, Na SL, Soo-Hoo TS
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Mar;57(1):118-22.
    PMID: 14569730
    We report a case of an invasive infection with non-sporulating Chrysosporium species in a patient who was treated with chemotherapy for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This patient presented with a persistent lobar pneumonia, skin lesions, and possible involvement of the central nervous system. The patient responded to treatment with amphotericin B and oral itraconazole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  3. Chin PW, Koh CK, Wong KT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):44-5.
    PMID: 10361486
    A 28-year-old lady suffering from systemic lupus erythomatosus (SLE) with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) and who was on oral cyclophosphamide and prednisolone presented with left lower limb 'cellulitis'. The 'cellulitis' of the left lower limb failed to respond to usual antibiotics which prompted evaluation of the clinical diagnosis. The diagnosis is made based on the presence of granulomas, multinucleated giant cells and acid fast bacilli on the skin biopsy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  4. Lim VK
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1997 May;26(3):331-5.
    PMID: 9285028
    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The high risk of infection is not only the consequence of the underlying disease but also the result of the diagnostic, monitoring and therapeutic procedures performed on these patients. Infections may be exogenous or endogenous in origin. The prevention of exogenous infections requires a high standard of hygiene. As many infections are acquired in hospitals, an effective control of nosocomial infection programme is crucial in preventing infections in the immunocompromised. Prevention of endogenous infections involves suppression of the aerobic bacterial flora (selective decontamination) and measures to maintain gastrointestinal epithelial integrity to reduce risk of translocation of intestinal flora. Boosting the host immunity through passive and active immunisation should also be considered. Prevention of infection in the immunocompromised is no easy task and requires a multidisciplinary approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  5. Chan KS, Looi LM, Chan SP
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Dec;15(2):155-8.
    PMID: 8065179
    A 35-year-old Chinese man who was known to have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was admitted for fever and weight loss. During his hospital stay, he fell to his death from his ward at the twelfth floor. The clinical features, radiological findings and gross organ changes at autopsy closely simulated miliary tuberculosis. Histology, however, revealed extensive necrosis of the adrenal glands, lungs, spleen, kidneys and thyroid associated with the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum organisms. This case highlights the similarity both clinically and pathologically between histoplasmosis and tuberculosis and emphasizes the need to be aware of this infection in a nonendemic area among patients with a compromised immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  6. Ding CH, Yusoff H, Muttaqillah NAS, Tang YL, Tan TL, Periyasamy P, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):69-72.
    PMID: 29704387 MyJurnal
    Pneumocystis pneumonia is an important human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infection, and especially so in pregnant HIV-positive patients. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in her first trimester of pregnancy who initially presented with acute gastroenteritis symptoms but due to a history of high-risk behaviour and the observation of oral thrush, she was worked up for HIV infection. Her retroviral status was positive and her CD4+ T cell count was only 8 cells/µL. She was also worked up for pneumocystis pneumonia due to the presence of mild resting tachypnoea and a notable drop in oxygen saturation (from 100% to 88%) following brief ambulation. Her chest radiograph revealed bilaterally symmetrical lower zone reticular opacities and Giemsa staining of her bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was negative for Pneumocystis jirovecii cysts. However, real-time P. jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the same BAL specimen revealed the presence of the organism. A course of oral co-trimoxazole plus prednisolone was commenced and her clinical condition improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  7. Nurul Yaqeen Esa, Mohammad Hanafiah, Marymol Koshy, Hilmi Abdullah, Ahmad Izuanuddin Ismail, Mohamed Fauzi Abdul Rani
    MyJurnal
    Tuberculous prostatitis is an uncommon form of tuberculosis infection. It is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and in those of middle or advanced age. The diagnosis is often not straight forward due to the nature of its presentation. We report a case of tuberculous prostatitis in a young, healthy and immunocompetent patient, who initially presented with respiratory features, followed by episodes of seizures and testicular swelling. He was finally diagnosed with tuberculous prostatitis after prostatic biopsy. This case illustrates that in a high TB prevalence environment, when symptoms warrant, there should be a high clinical suspicion coupled with a thorough approach in order to arrive at a correct diagnosis of TB prostatitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  8. Nurul Yaqeen Esa, Mohammad Hanafiah, Marymol Koshy, Hilmi Abdullah, Ahmad Izuanuddin Ismail, Mohamed Fauzi Abdul Rani
    Tuberculous prostatitis is an uncommon form of tuberculosis infection. It is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and in those of middle or advanced age. The diagnosis is often not straight forward due to the nature of its presentation. We report a case of tuberculous prostatitis in a young, healthy and immunocompetent patient, who initially presented with respiratory features, followed by episodes of seizures and testicular swelling. He was finally diagnosed with tuberculous prostatitis after prostatic biopsy. This case illustrates that in a high TB prevalence environment, when symptoms warrant, there should be a high clinical suspicion coupled with a thorough approach in order to arrive at a correct diagnosis of TB prostatitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  9. Er, L.Z., Johar, M.J.
    Medicine & Health, 2019;14(2):266-270.
    MyJurnal

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the orbital soft tissue that could possibly lead to serious complications if treatment is delayed. It is important to differentiate this condition from a less life-threatening condition like preseptal cellulitis as orbital cellulitis would require a more aggressive treatment than the former condition. The present case discusses about a patient who was diagnosed with orbital cellulitis and developed complications from the disease. The delayed administration of the appropriate antibiotic subsequently led to the patient’s death. The delay was because of the reason that the patient belonged to the immunocompromised group who harbour different causative organism than the normal population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  10. Tan R, Ng KP, Gan GG, Na SL
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Dec;68(6):479-80.
    PMID: 24632920 MyJurnal
    In the past two decades, Fusarium species have been increasingly recognized as serious pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The outcome of fusariosis in the context of severe persistent neutropaenia has been almost universally fatal. The treatment of fusariosis in immunocompromised patients remains a challenge and the prognosis of systemic fusariosis in this population remains poor. This report presents a case of fatal fusariosis in a 37- year-old patient who was diagnosed with precursor-B cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  11. Gani, A.N., Abdullah, A., Hazim, M.Y.S., Rozman, Z.
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(2):158-163.
    MyJurnal
    Parapharyngeal abscess is a serious medical condition that may lead to life-threatening complications. Its incidence has dramatically decreased since the advent of antibiotics. We report two cases of parapharyngeal abscesses in immunocompromised patients. We believe that early diagnosis, broad-spectrum antibiotics, surgery and pus drainage can prevent serious complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  12. Mohammad Hanafiah, Mohd Farhan Hamdan, Azura Mohamed Mukhari Shahizon, Wong, Sau Wei, Yoganathan Kanaheswari
    Neurology Asia, 2018;23(2):179-184.
    MyJurnal
    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba is a rare entity mainly affecting
    immunocompromised patients. We reported a case of Acanthamoeba encephalitis of a 1-year-old
    immunocompetent child and described the CT and MRI findings of the brain, while reviewing the
    relevant literatures. The imaging findings of Acanthamoeba meningoencepalitis in immunocompetent
    patients are non-specific and pose a diagnostic challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  13. Hanafy NA, Badr MS, Nasr GM
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 2018 Sep 25;6(9):1577-1580.
    PMID: 30337968 DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.400
    BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasitic infection of humans. Infection is usually mild. Serious complications can occur in pregnant and immunocompromised patients.

    AIM: The present study aims to investigate the performance of 2 different PCR protocols; real-time quantitative molecular assays (qPCR) and conventional molecular assays (cPCR), using 2 different sets of primers and by using cloned purified Toxoplasma genomic substances to be evaluated as reference samples.

    METHODS: The target DNA was provided in 8 different quantities.

    RESULTS: Amplification failure was reported only with the cPCR in samples of low concentrations using both primer sets. Quantitative PCR detected the 8 different dilutions of the purified Toxoplasma gondii using the 2 sets of primers while cPCR was sensitive to detect only 6 different dilutions.

    CONCLUSION: Generally real-time quantitative molecular assays, is easy to use method compared to conventional PCR assay and produces more reliable results within only one hour time but still the possible application of qPCRs in routine diagnosis necessitates analysis of a large number of clinical samples in further studies to make the proper choice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  14. Azira NMS, Zeehaida M, Nazli Z, Suraiya S
    MyJurnal
    A 36-year-old man with underlying chronic lymphocytic leukemia had left arm swelling for a duration of 3 months. Clinically, the affected arm was swollen, erythematous and tender. Epicoccum nigrum was isolated from the culture of the tissue that was obtained intraoperatively. He was treated and responded to voriconazole therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intramuscular abscess as a result of E. nigrum infection in an immunocompromised patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  15. Azira NMS, Zeehaida M, Nazli Z, Suraiya S
    A 36-year-old man with underlying chronic lymphocytic leukemia had left arm swelling for a duration of 3 months. Clinically, the affected arm was swollen, erythematous and tender. Epicoccum nigrum was isolated from the culture of the tissue that was obtained intraoperatively. He was treated and responded to voriconazole therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intramuscular abscess as a result of E. nigrum infection in an immunocompromised patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  16. Anandpara KM, Aswani Y, Hira P
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):114-118.
    PMID: 29599641 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.13
    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening mycosis typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis generally presents as multiple or solitary nodular opacities. Cryptococcal infection presenting as a destructing cavernoma (cryptococcoma) without diffuse infiltration of the lung is an extremely rare presentation, even in immunocompromised patients. This report presents a healthy, HIV negative, immunocompetent patient who presented with a large solitary lung mass provisionally diagnosed as a lung malignancy on radiological imaging that proved to be a large cryptococcoma after biopsy. The patient was treated with liposomal Amphotericin B and fluconazole, and the lesion showed regression on serial imaging. This case report thus highlights an unconventional presentation of pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent individual.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  17. Mohd Sazlly Lim S, Sinnollareddy M, Sime FB
    J Clin Med, 2020 Sep 06;9(9).
    PMID: 32899911 DOI: 10.3390/jcm9092878
    Diabetic patients have an increased propensity to Candida sp. infections due to disease-related immunosuppression and various other physiological alterations. The incidence of candidiasis has increased in number over the years and is linked to significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill and immunosuppressed patients. Treatment of infection in diabetic patients may be complicated due to the various disease-related changes to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of a drug, including antifungal agents. Application of PK/PD principles may be a sensible option to optimise antifungal dosing regimens in this group of patients. Further studies on PK/PD of antifungals in patients with diabetes mellitus are needed as current data is limited or unavailable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host
  18. Jalalonmuhali M, Lee YY, Lee CK, Ismail R, Chandran PA
    Int J Dermatol, 2014 Feb;53(2):234-7.
    PMID: 22913324 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05463.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  19. Nissapatorn V, Kuppusamy I, Josephine FP, Jamaiah I, Rohela M, Khairul Anuar A
    PMID: 17547073
    A total of 136 patients, 67 HIV, 69 diabetes mellitus (DM) with or without (+/-) end-stage renal disease (ESRD), were registered for tuberculosis treatment at the National Tuberculosis Center (NTBC) from May to December, 2003. Ages ranged from 21-78 years (median 57.7 years) in TB/DM patients, and 21-62 (mean 37.6 +/- 8.3 years) in TB/HIV patients. TB was significantly found in younger and single HIV patients, but in older and married DM patients (p<0.05). Male patients in both groups were strongly associated with TB, while females more commonly had TB with DM (p<0.05). The majority of these patients were Malays, unemployed, and resided in Kuala Lumpur territory; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups. Smoking, IVDUs and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were more significantly found in TB/HIV patients and further analysis showed that pulmonary TB was strongly associated with HCV infection in these patients (p<0.05). Pulmonary TB (62; 89.9%) was the most common type found in both groups and was a markedly more common disease location in TB/DM patients, while extrapulmonary TB (21; 31.3%) and miliary TB (14; 21%) were significantly higher in TB/HIV patients. Cough with or without sputum, fever and loss of appetite and/or weight were common clinical presentations in both groups. Nevertheless, fever (54; 80.6%) and lymphadenopathy (17; 25.4%) were significantly related to TB/HIV patients (p<0.05). Interestingly, the presence of BCG vaccination and positive tuberculin skin test were stronger in TB/HIV (27; 40.3%) and TB/DM (20; 29%) patients, respectively (p<0.05). Overall, regular 6-, 9- and 12-months' anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) were routine practice, and EHRZ+B6 was the most common regimen used. The highest percentage of patients with treatment success were in both groups with 6 months' ATT; however, a significantly higher percentage was found in TB/DM (24; 34.8%) than TB/HIV (13; 19.4%) (p<0.05). A success rate of 15 (21.7%) was noted for TB/DM patients with 9 months' ATT, which was similar to both groups with the 12-month regimen. A higher percentage failure rate (lost to follow-up) was seen in TB/HIV (19; 28.4%) patients. Nine patients were reported to have anti-tubercular-drug side-effects, such as drug-induced hepatitis, blurred vision, and skin rash. No cases of drug resistance or death were notified among these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
  20. Subha ST, Raman R
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):688-9.
    PMID: 15889577
    A rare case of Nocardia infection of mastoid is presented in an immunocompromised patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunocompromised Host*
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