Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

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  1. Yadav A, Naidu R
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), 2013 Nov-Dec;41(6):364-8.
    PMID: 23276420 DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2012.08.007
    Cord IgE and ECP levels are major atopic markers implicated in early childhood allergy development. Most epidemiological studies to date have not utilised current technology to establish baseline cord IgE levels, further aggravated by lack of data in this region. This study also attempts to identify a relationship between cord IgE and ECP levels as a mean to improve sensitivity for early prediction of atopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  2. Goh JC, Juliana J, Malina O, Ngah ZU, Norhafizalena O
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Jun;24(1):37-46.
    PMID: 17568376 MyJurnal
    Indoor fungal reservoirs, particularly airborne Penicillium species, were identified throughout the ventilation system of the building and dissemination of fungi from those reservoirs was found to be occurring all the time. The objectives of this study were to determine the association between air concentration of indoor mould (Penicillium) and allergy symptoms among office workers. The study design used in this research was a cross-sectional study. Risk factors were identified through the questionnaire survey. Office workers were selected based on the proximity of their workstations to the microbiological air sampler used for the mould sampling. Results from the current study suggests that individual susceptibility of exposed subjects might be influenced by several factors associated with mould exposure; for example, inhaled mycotoxins or volatile organic compounds, which may, in some complex way, affect the immune response. This study provides the much needed preliminary baseline data for developing guidelines with validated findings that will be of use for policy decisions in Malaysia regarding indoor air quality. Results from this study are recommended for use in planning and implementing control measures in order to reduce the exposure to indoor mould and promote healthy working environment among the workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  3. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  4. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 21710860
    The aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of wildflower honey in local patients with atopic disease. SDS-PAGE revealed ten protein bands of 25 to 110 kDa, with a heavy cluster in region of 40-75 kDa. Immunoblotting demonstrated seven IgE-binding bands of 39 to 110 kDa. The 60 kDa protein had the highest frequency of IgE-binding (100%) followed by 54 kDa protein (95%), thus identified as the major allergens of wildflowerhoney. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of honey allergy contains both the 54 kDa and 60 kDa proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  5. Kurup VP, Kelly KJ, Turjanmaa K, Alenius H, Reunala T, Palosuo T, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1993 Jun;91(6):1128-34.
    PMID: 8509575
    BACKGROUND: Patients with latex sensitivity and latex antigens from the United States and Finland, two countries where allergic reactions to latex have been widely reported, were evaluated to determine the spectrum of immune responses.

    METHODS: Sera from 27 patients from Finland and 18 from the United States with latex allergy and control sera from nonsensitive individuals were studied for latex-specific IgE antibodies. Four antigen preparations were used: two extracted from gloves and one each extracted from rubber tree sap from Malaysia and India. All 45 patients had skin prick test results that were positive to latex antigens, and all sera were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the various antigens.

    RESULTS: There were considerable differences in the reactivity of patient sera with the different antigens. Only 50% of the sera from patients with latex allergy from Finland demonstrated significant levels of IgE to latex as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These patients showed more reactivity with rubber tree sap antigens than with glove antigens. However, 72% of the patients from the United States demonstrated antibodies to latex, and no marked differences were noted between the antigen extracts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that reagents such as rubber tree sap, which contain multiple clinically significant antigenic components, should be included in evaluation of latex allergy and that differences in patient populations may result in serologic variances.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  6. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2014 Aug;13(4):240-6.
    PMID: 24659159
    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced with the aim to improve diagnosis of allergy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of this allergen microarray to those of an established extract-based skin prick testing (SPT).45 patients with allergic rhinitis were studied (16 children and 29 adults). SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts and allergen microarray ImmunoCAP ISAC were carried out for all patients. Forty out of 45 patients demonstrated positive SPT to all mite extracts tested. These 40 patients were considered to be mite-allergic based on the positive SPT results. The remaining 5 patients with negative SPT to any mite extracts were classified as non-mite allergic. Comparatively, based on the microarray results, only 34 mite-allergic patients had detectable serum IgE to at least one of the mite allergen components tested whereas 6 patients with positive SPT to mite extracts showed no detectable IgE reactivity to any of the components tested. One non-mite allergic patient had a positive test- Blo t 5. Der p 10-positive patients also reacted to other cross-reactive tropomyosin from anisakis (Ani s 3) (25%), cockroach (Bla g 7) (50%) and shrimp (Pen m 1) (75%). CRD is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of allergy to mites. Der p 10 might be a useful indicator to identify a subset of mite-allergic patient that have additional sensitization due to cross-reactivity and thus allows selection of patients for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  7. Misnan R, Murad S, Jones M, Taylor G, Rahman D, Arip M, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2008 Dec;26(4):191-8.
    PMID: 19317337
    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to < 6.5 kDa. Three protein fractions with molecular weights of approximately 51, 46 and 12 kDa were identified as the major allergens of this fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  8. Chong KT, Wong SF, Mak JW, Loh LC, Ho TM
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):524-39.
    PMID: 26695214 MyJurnal
    Allergens of Dermatophagoides and Blomia species are well-characterized but not for other species. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of allergic sensitization to house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM). One hundred adult subjects (aged ≥ 18) were recruited. The mite specific IgE of all allergic subjects were higher compared with healthy subjetcs despite being not statistically significant except for D. farinae and G. malaysiensis. The mean serum IgE levels against HDM and SM for allergic subjects were significantly higher compared with those in healthy subjects. They were mainly sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae (35%) and Glycycometus malaysiensis (37%). Immunoblots revealed not all allergic subjects showed positive immuno-reactivity against the mites tested. Single or multiple bands were observed for different species. The subjects were commonly sensitized to Group 2 (9-12 kDa), 10 (38 kDa) and 18 (40-48 kDa) allergens. Twenty-one out of 60 allergic subjects were sensitized to either one or more species. The majority of them (71%) were sensitized to single species. The allergic subjects were mainly sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, followed by Tyrophagus putrecentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Seven were solely sensitized to HDM while 10 were solely sensitized to SM. Four subjects were sensitized to both. Pre-adsorption study revealed no cross-reactivity. There was difference between the prevalence and reactivity to allergens of HDM and SM in these subjects. Both ELISA and immunoblot did not correlate well but can complement each other in improving the detection of mite allergens to the species level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  9. Norsyahida A, Riazi M, Sadjjadi SM, Muhammad Hafiznur Y, Low HC, Zeehaida M, et al.
    Parasite Immunol., 2013 May-Jun;35(5-6):174-9.
    PMID: 23448095 DOI: 10.1111/pim.12029
    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for the detection of IgG, IgG4 and IgE antibodies against Strongyloides stercoralis. A commercial ELISA (IVD Research, USA) was also used, and the sensitivities and specificities of the four assays were determined. Serum samples from 26 patients with S. stercoralis infection and 55 patients with other infections or no infection were analysed. Sensitivities of the IgG4 , IgG, IgE and IgG (IVD) assays were 76.9%, 84.6%, 7.7% and 84.6%, respectively, while the specificities were 92.7%, 81.8%, 100% and 83.6%, respectively. If filariasis samples were excluded, the specificities of the IgG4 -ELISA and both IgG-ELISAs increased to 100% and 98%, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between IgG- and IgG4 -ELISAs (r = 0.4828; P = 0.0125). IgG- and IgG- (IVD) ELISAs (r = 0.309) were positively correlated, but was not significant (P = 0.124). Meanwhile there was no correlation between IgG4 - and IgG- (IVD) ELISAs (r = 0.0042; P = 0.8294). Sera from brugian filariasis patients showed weak, positive correlation between the titres of antifilarial IgG4 and the optical densities of anti-Strongyloides IgG4 -ELISA (r = 0.4544, P = 0.0294). In conclusion, the detection of both anti-Strongyloides IgG4 and IgG antibodies could improve the serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Furthermore, patients from lymphatic filariasis endemic areas who are serologically diagnosed with strongyloidiasis should also be tested for filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  10. Rosmilah M, Shahnaz M, Meinir J, Masita A, Noormalin A, Jamaluddin M
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2013;162(4):299-309.
    PMID: 24193115 DOI: 10.1159/000354544
    The longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol) is widely consumed in Asia. Parvalbumin, the main major allergen of fish, has been well identified in multiple fish species, yet little is known about the allergenic proteins in T. tonggol. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the major allergens of T. tonggol using a proteomics approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  11. Misnan R, Murad S, Yadzir ZH, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2012 Dec;30(4):285-93.
    PMID: 23393908
    Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  12. Asha'ari ZA, Suhaimi Y, Yusof RA, Rushdan I, Maraina CH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):202-6.
    PMID: 22111441 MyJurnal
    We compared a newer serum specific IgE (SSIgE) test with skin prick testing (SPT) in the diagnosis of allergy in Malaysia. Ninety newly diagnosed allergic patients were enrolled for both tests. Using SPT as a clinical gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for SSIgE for each of the common allergens tested. The highest positive results for both SPT and SSIgE were for house dust mite and cat. Compared to SPT, SSIgE showed better sensitivity but poorer specificity, low PPV and good NPV in all the allergens tested. Significant positive correlation was seen between the diameter of wheal and flare of SPT and the SSIgE results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  13. Yeang HY, Chow KS, Yusof F, Arif SA, Chew NP, Loke YH
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, 2000 Jul-Aug;10(4):215-22.
    PMID: 11039838
    Six Hevea brasiliensis latex protein allergens, Hevb 1, Hev b 2, Hev b 3, Hev b 4, and two variants of Hev b 7 (7b and 7c), were purified from Hevea latex, while a seventh protein, Hev b 5, was prepared in recombinant form. The presence of these proteins in glove extracts was indicated by their respective antibodies in the serum of rabbits immunized against the extracts. The relative propensities of IgE binding to the individual latex allergens were compared using sera from latex-allergic patients. IgE recognition of Hev b 4, Hev b 7b, Hev b 5 and Hev b 2 was most frequently encountered, with 75, 61, 31 and 28%, respectively, of the patient sera reacting. Sensitivity to multiple latex proteins was common, and out of the 31 seropositive patients, 23 (74%/ ) had IgE against at least two latex allergens, while 12 (39%) had IgE specific for at least three allergens. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that many patients might have acquired sensitivity to Hev b 2, Hev b 4 and Hev b 7b from a common source. (e.g., from latex products). On the other hand, sensitivity to Hev b 5 and to Hev b 7c were interrelated. It is plausible that sensitivity to these two proteins might have been acquired from sources other than latex products (e.g., from certain foods).
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  14. Choon-Kook S, Teck-Soong SL
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 1995 Jun;13(1):23-7.
    PMID: 7488340
    The specific serum IgE levels to 20 allergens were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 90 Malaysian patients with allergic rhinitis. Ninety-two percent of patients had elevated IgE to at least 1 of the allergens. The housedust mites D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were the major allergens, elevated IgE to either allergen being present in 86% of the patients. Prick skin tests were carried out in some of the patients, housedust mites, cat fur, dog hair and shrimp were the allergens used. Close correspondence was found between IgE and prick skin tests to the mites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  15. Kuo IC, Cheong N, Trakultivakorn M, Lee BW, Chua KY
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2003 Mar;111(3):603-9.
    PMID: 12642844
    BACKGROUND: Dual sensitization by Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites is common in tropical and subtropical countries. The human IgE cross-reactivity between clinical important group 5 allergens, Blo t 5 and Der p 5, remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of the IgE cross-reactivity between Blo t 5 and Der p 5 by using sera from a large cohort of asthmatic children in subtropical and tropical countries.

    METHODS: Purified recombinant Blo t 5 and Der p 5 were produced in Pichia pastoris and tested against sera from 195 asthmatic children. The IgE cross-reactivity was examined by direct, inhibitory and competitive human IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as skin prick tests.

    RESULTS: The Blo t 5 IgE responses were 91.8% (134 of 146) and 73.5% (36 of 49) for Taiwanese and Malaysian sera, respectively. The Blo t 5 specific IgE titers were significantly higher than those of Der p 5 (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  16. Chan WY, Selvarajah GT, Ajat M, Suzuki R, Tsukui T
    Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 2019 Jun;212:43-49.
    PMID: 31213251 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.05.002
    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease in dogs. House dust mites such as Dermatophagoides farinae are one of the known causative agents for the induction of canine AD worldwide. D. farinae protein Der f 2 is known as an important allergen involved in canine AD and recently, Zen-1 has also been identified as an allergenic protein. There is limited information on the prevalence and role of allergen sensitization to crude D. farinae extract (CDF), Der f 2 and Zen-1 among dogs diagnosed with AD in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific reactive sera among dogs diagnosed with AD in Malaysia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples were collected from dogs diagnosed with AD from several veterinary clinics in Malaysia. The canine case records were retrieved and information on signalment, dermatological and non-dermatological histories, clinical presentation, food allergies, and exclusion of ectoparasitic, microbial and fungal skin infections were obtained through a survey form. All serum samples were evaluated to quantify the CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. A total of 24.6%, 48.4% and 29.8% of dogs diagnosed with AD were positive for CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific IgE, respectively. These results suggest that CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1 are important allergens that can contribute to AD in dogs in Malaysia, and serological testing can be performed to provide additional treatment options involving specific immunotherapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood*
  17. Amini P, Abdullah M, Seng LS, Karunakaran T, Hani N, Bakar SA, et al.
    Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, 2016 Jun;6(6):624-30.
    PMID: 26919193 DOI: 10.1002/alr.21442
    BACKGROUND: The number of available reports regarding the influence of ethnicity on clinical features of allergic rhinitis (AR), especially disease severity in tropical climates, is limited. We aimed to compare clinical parameters and disease severity in AR patients of different ethnicities.

    METHODS: Malay, Chinese, and Indian AR patients (n = 138) with confirmed sensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dematophagoides farinae, and Blomia tropicalis were tested for mite-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect data on nasal symptom score (NSS), ocular symptom score (OSS), sum of symptoms score (SSS), quality of life score (QLS), symptomatic control score (SCS), and total sum of scores (TSS) and correlate the derived data with patients' demography, mite-polysensitivity, and sIgE levels.

    RESULTS: AR-related symptoms were most severe in Malays and least in Chinese (p < 0.01). Age (r = 0.516 to 0.673, p < 0.05) and duration of AR (r = 0.635 to 0.726, p < 0.01) correlated positively with severity domains (NSS, SSS, QLS, and TSS) in Chinese. Duration of concurrent allergies was highest in Malays (p < 0.05). Polysensitivity predicted increased sIgE levels in Malays (r = 0.464 to 0.551, p < 0.01) and Indians (r = 0.541 to 0.645, p < 0.05) but affected NSS, SSS, and TSS only in Indians (r = 0.216 to 0.376, p < 0.05). sIgE levels were lowest among Chinese but correlated strongly with NSS, OSS, SSS, and TSS (r = 0408 to 0.898, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Clinical parameters in AR may be influenced by race. Symptoms were most severe among Malays but did not correlate with other variables examined. Although Indian ethnicity did not impact disease severity, duration of concurrent allergies and mite-polysensitivity was associated with more severe disease. Age, duration of disease, and sIgE levels may be useful indicators of disease severity in Chinese.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  18. Zueter AM, Mohamed Z, Abdullah AD, Mohamad N, Arifin N, Othman N, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2014 Jul;55(7):367-71.
    PMID: 25091885
    INTRODUCTION: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital.

    METHODS: A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area.

    RESULTS: Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  19. Manuel AM, Kuljit S, Gopalakrishnan G, Suresh KG, Balraj P
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):360-5.
    PMID: 23018498 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study is to determine the relevance of the hygiene hypothesis; that is to determine if worm infestation has a protective role against the development of allergic rhinitis. A prospective case controlled study was conducted. Specific IgG levels to Toxocara were studied in 85 patients confirmed to have allergic rhinitis and were compared to levels in another 85 controls, with no form of allergy. The IgG assay was done using ELISA technique. There was a higher incidence of positive specific IgG to Toxocara in the controls as compared to allergic patients. The values were statistically significant [Chi square test (p=0.002)]. This negative association between worm infestation and allergic rhinitis suggests that a previous worm infestation could protect against the development of allergic rhinitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
  20. Nathan AM, de Bruyne J, Khalid F, Arumugam K
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2012 Sep;30(3):204-8.
    PMID: 23156850
    Birth cohort studies in some countries have shown a link between caesarean section and asthma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin E/blood
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