An outbreak of rubella occurred amongst 303 newly recruited residential Form IV students in a military vocational training school in Malaysia. Of the 303 Form IV students, 77 gave a history of acute illness. Rubella specific IgM was detected in the sera of 46.5% (141/303) whereas rubella specific IgG was detected in 100% of all Form IV students. Sixty five students with no clinical history of acute illness during the outbreak period had detectable rubella IgM in their sera and rubella specific IgM was detected in the sera of all symptomatic students except one. Maculopapular rash was the commonest presenting clinical feature among students with acute rubella infection in this outbreak (97.4%) followed by fever (88.2%). The duration of rash ranged from one to nine days with a mean of 4.6 days. Of the 65 students that had both fever and rash, 56 (85.2%) students had maculopapular skin eruption on the same day as the date of onset of fever, six (9.2%) developed the rash a day after the onset of fever and three (4.6%) had the rash after two days of fever. The duration of fever ranged from one to eight days with a mean of 3.5 days. The duration of conjunctivitis ranged from one to four days with a mean of 2.3 days, and all those who developed conjunctivitis had mild eye-discharge without photophobia. The duration of arthralgia ranged from one to three days with a mean of 2.1 days. The commonest type of joints affected was knee joints (66.7%, 12/18), followed by elbow and shoulder joints (27.8%, 5/18) and wrist joints (5.6%, 1/18). A good clinical history of the temporal relationship between the occurrence of rash and fever during the outbreak could easily differentiate rubella illness from that of measles.
This was a retrospective study of patients with dengue infection in pregnancy from year 2000 till 2004. Data were analyzed by looking at the presentation, complications of patient and fetus, and pregnancy outcomes. There was a total of 16 cases with an increasing trend (0.12% in 2003 vs 0.25% in 2004). The mean age of patients was 30.19+/-6.85 years. Fifty percent of patients were multiparae and in their third trimester. The average gestation was 24.44 weeks with 7.5 days being the average duration of ward admission. Tourniquet test was positive in 62.5% of patients. Dengue serology IgM was positive in 50% whereas dengue serology IgG were positive in 68.8% of patients. There were three cases of maternal death. One patient presented as missed abortion. Preterm deliveries happened in 50.0% of the women. There were 4 premature babies, one in-utero fetal death, and two fetuses which suffered acute fetal distress. Three babies required intensive care. One unrelated fetal anomaly resulted in early neonatal death.
A natural biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), was adjuvanted with a vaccine seed to observe the biomaterial's ability in enhancing an immune response in rats. The adjuvant potential of PHA was tested using the whole-killed Pasteurella multocida B:2 (PMB2) vaccine in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to detect changes in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses. A common PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], from Bacillus megaterium UMTKB-1 was constructed into microparticles using the solvent evaporation method. Twelve SD rats were divided into four treatment groups: 1) non-treatment as negative control, 2) P(3HB) adjuvant, 3) PMB2 vaccine, and 4) adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine groups, which were intramuscularly vaccinated twice. Immunoglobulins IgG and IgM levels were used as markers of the immune response induced by the adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine and analysed over an eight-week study period. The group vaccinated specifically with adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine had higher concentrations of immunoglobulins compared to other treatment groups, hence demonstrating the potential of the adjuvant to enhance immune response. Findings showed a need to delay the delivery of the second booster dose to determine the appropriate regime for the adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine.
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.
Dengue is a major public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Vascular leakage and shock are identified as the major causes of deaths in patients with severe dengue. Studies have suggested the potential role of Fc gamma receptors I (FcγRI) in the pathogenesis of dengue. We hypothesized that the circulating level of Fcγ receptor I could potentially be used as an indicator in assisting early diagnosis of severe dengue.
The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation.
A serologic study of Toxoplasma antibodies among 501 foreign migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted in a plantation and detention camp. The highest prevalence rate of 46.2% was among Nepalese workers. Statistical analysis indicated the IgG positivity rate among local residents was significantly higher than the migrants studied (p < 0.05). The IgM positivity rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). No significant difference in the prevalence rate was noted between the migrants and the local workers when grouped by agricultural and non-agricultural occupations (p > 0.05). The continuous introduction of these infections may influence the epidemiology and further compromise efforts in control and prevention. It is therefore important to monitor of non-notifiable diseases.
Diagnosis of human toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, normally relies on a combination of the presence of clinical signs and symptoms backed by positive serology. The use of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TES) in ELISA assays increases the test specificity. However, in tropical countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic, cross-reactivity from antibodies to these intestinal parasites poses a significant limitation for Toxocara serodiagnosis. To increase the specificity of serodiagnosis, we compared the use of IgG-ELISA to the use of IgG4-ELISA using commercially manufactured TES-coated plates. The sensitivity of the IgG-ELISA was 97.1%, while that of the IgG4-ELISA was 45.7%; the specificities were 36.0 and 78.6%, respectively. The study shows that employing both assays can improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. An IgG4 immunoassay would also be useful in the secondary screening of antigen clones in the effort to develop improved serological tests for toxocariasis.
A 39-year-old patient developed a disseminated rash with scattered petechiae, fever, malaise and arthralgia after a trip to Malaysia. The patient displayed increasing dengue IgG titers and borderline dengue IgM titers. Dengue fever with a hemorrhagic course is a rare condition in adult patients. Patients who have previously had dengue fever and retained non-neutralizing heterotypic antibodies are more likely to develop this complication via the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement.
An in-house prepared M. furfur antigen was used to carry out a seroprevalence study in an urban population in Malaysia by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 800 serum samples from all ages screened, 738 samples were positive for M. furfur specific IgG, giving an overall seropositive rate of 92.3%. There was no significant difference in the seropositive rates among the different gender group and races. However, there was a statistical significant difference in the seropositive rate among different age groups with a lower rate (73%) for the age group 5 years old and below, which increased rapidly to 99% for the 16 to 20 years old age group but declined slightly for the oldest age group. The degree of seropositivity, which semi-quantitatively reflect the anti-M. furfur specific IgG titre, did not show any significant difference among the gender and racial groups. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the degree of seropositivity among the various age groups, with the 16 to 20 years old age group having the highest antibody titre and the extreme of age groups having the lower antibody titre.
The enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard clinical diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of protein biomarkers. However, conventional ELISA tests have drawbacks in their requirement of time, expensive equipment and expertise for operation. Hence, for the purpose of rapid, high throughput screening and point-of-care diagnosis, researchers are miniaturizing sandwich ELISA procedures on Lab-on-a-Chip and Lab-on-Compact Disc (LOCD) platforms. This paper presents a novel integrated device to detect and interpret the ELISA test results on a LOCD platform. The system applies absorption spectrophotometry to measure the absorbance (optical density) of the sample using a monochromatic light source and optical sensor. The device performs automated analysis of the results and presents absorbance values and diagnostic test results via a graphical display or via Bluetooth to a smartphone platform which also acts as controller of the device. The efficacy of the device was evaluated by performing dengue antibody IgG ELISA on 64 hospitalized patients suspected of dengue. The results demonstrate high accuracy of the device, with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detection when compared with gold standard commercial ELISA microplate readers. This sensor platform represents a significant step towards establishing ELISA as a rapid, inexpensive and automatic testing method for the purpose of point-of-care-testing (POCT) in resource-limited settings.
Nipah virus is a newly discovered paramyxovirus transmitted directly from pigs to humans. During a large encephalitis outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-9, most patients presented acutely. A 12 year old child is described who developed encephalitis 4 months after exposure to the virus. She was diagnosed by a new indirect IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which is also described. The late presentation and IgG subclass responses had similarities to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Nipah virus should be considered in patients with encephalitis even months after their possible exposure.
Rapid diagnosis of dengue infection is essential to patient management and disease control. The development of a rapid (5 min) immunochromatographic test and a 2 h commercial capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies may lead to more rapid and accurate testing in peripheral health settings and diagnostic laboratories.
C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with different doses of cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to produce groups of acutely and chronically infected mice. Sera were obtained at different periods post-infection. SDS-PAGE was ran with excretory/secretory antigens of ME49 and RH strains of T. gondii, followed by Western blot analyses using the above sera and anti- IgA, IgM, IgG as conjugates. The SDS-PAGE profiles of the two antigens were similar. However the antigenic bands showed variations in all blots, most evidently in IgA blots of chronic sera. IgG blots showed greatest similarities in reactive bands. In IgM blots, more common bands were shown in chronic sera than in acute sera. Variations and similarities in prominence of some bands and time of their appearance were also noted, especially in IgM and IgG blots of chronic sera. Thus antigenic variations and similarities are present in excretory/secretory products of different strains of T. gondii.
Western blot analyses were performed on 444 serum specimens: 40 sera from microfilaraemic individuals, 10 sera from elephantiasis patients, 24 treated individuals, 50 sera from residents of endemic areas without anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (endemic normals), 20 sera from amicrofilaraemic individuals with high anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, 200 sera from healthy city-dwellers (non-endemic samples), and 100 sera from soil-transmitted helminth-infected individuals. Phast electrophoresis system was used to electrophorese Brugia malayi soluble adult worm antigen on 10-15% SDS-PAGE gradient gels followed by electrophoretic transfer onto PVDF membranes. Membrane strips were then successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, and monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP, with adequate washings done in between each incubation step. Luminol chemiluminescence detection was then used to develop the blots. An antigenic band with the MW of approximately 37 kDa was found to be consistently present in the Western blots of all microfilaraemic sera, all amicrofilaraemic sera with high titres of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, some treated patients, and some elephantiasis patients. The antigen did not occur in immunoblots of individuals with other helminthic infections, normal endemic individuals, and city dwellers. Therefore the B. malayi antigen of with the MW of approximately 37 kDa demonstrated specific reactions with sera of B. malayi-infected individuals and thus may be useful for diagnostic application.
BACKGROUND: Dengue has been recognized as a potential hazard to tourists. A prospective, controlled study in the outpatient clinic of a German infectious disease clinic was conducted to assess the prevalence of dengue virus infection among international travelers.
METHODS: Serum samples from 130 patients with signs or recent history clinically compatible with dengue (fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, or rash), 95 matched controls with diarrhea, and 26 patients who never visited a country endemic for dengue were investigated.
RESULTS: Nine (6.9%) of the 130 patients with compatible symptoms and 1 (1%) of the 95 controls with diarrhea developed rising antibody titers against dengue virus. Of these 10 patients with probable dengue infection, 6 had been to Thailand, 2 to Malaysia, and 1 each to Indonesia and Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: Infection with dengue virus appears to be a realistic threat to travelers to Southeast Asia. Symptoms commonly associated with dengue, such as fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and vomiting, can be helpful for diagnosis when present, but the absence of typical symptoms does not exclude infection.
Brugia malayi infection is endemic in several Asian countries. Filaria-specific IgG4 antibody detection based on BmR1 recombinant antigen has been shown to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of brugian filariasis. Two formats of the test has been reported ie indirect ELISA (BE) and rapid dipstick test (BR). Since different test formats use different amounts of sample and reagents which may affect its sensitivity and specificity, this study was performed to compare these two test formats in the detection of B. malayi. A total of 264 blinded serum samples from India and Malaysia were employed. Group 1 comprised 164 samples from actively infected individuals and group 2 comprised 100 samples from filaria non-endemic areas. Sensitivity was 96.3% (158/164) and 90.8% (149/164) for rapid test and ELISA respectively; chi-square p=0.00. Both test formats demonstrated 100% specificity. Therefore the rapid test format was equally specific but more sensitive than the ELISA format. The ELISA format would be able to demonstrate decline in IgG4 titer post-treatment while the rapid test would be very useful for screening and diagnosis in the field.
Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital infection. The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of recombinant (r) GRA-7 cloned from nucleotides (n) 39-711 in discriminating between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. First, commercial IgM, IgG and IgG avidity ELISAs were used to determine the serological profile of the sera. Serum samples were from 20 symptomatic patients with acute infection (low IgG avidity, IgM positive), 10 with chronic infection (high IgG avidity, IgM negative) and 10 with indeterminate IgG avidity (IgM positive) which were tested for IgG avidity status with an in-house developed IgG avidity Western blot using the rGRA-7 recombinant antigen. All 20 sera from cases of probable acute infection showed bands which either faded out completely or reduced significantly in intensity after treatment with 8 M urea, whereas the band intensities of the 10 serum samples from chronic cases remained the same. Of the 10 sera with indeterminate IgG avidity status, after treatment with 8 M urea the band intensities with six sera remained the same, two sera had completely faded bands and another two sera had significantly reduced band intensities. Discrimination between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was successfully performed by the in-house IgG avidity Western blot.