Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Al-Herz W
    J Clin Immunol, 2008 Mar;28(2):186-93.
    PMID: 18008151
    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are heterogeneous group of illnesses that predispose patients to serious complications. Registries for these disorders have provided important epidemiological data and shown both racial and geographical variations. The clinical features of 76 patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders registered in Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry from 2004 to 2006 were recorded. Ninety-eight percent of the patients presented in childhood. The prevalence of these disorders in children was 11.98 in 100,000 children with an incidence of 10.06 in 100,000 children. The distribution of these patients according to each primary immunodeficiency category is: combined T and B cell immunodeficiencies (21%), predominantly antibody immunodeficiency (30%), other well defined immunodeficiencies (30%), diseases of immune dysregulation (7%), congenital defects of phagocyte number, function or both (8%), and complement deficiencies (4%). The consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 77%. The patients had a wide range of clinical features affecting different body systems. Primary immunodeficiency disorders are prevalent in Kuwait and have a significant impact into the health system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/diagnosis; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology*
  2. Noh LM, Nasuruddin BA, Abdul Latiff AH, Noah RM, Kamarul Azahar MR, Norzila MZ, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):13-7.
    PMID: 23466760
    To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients seen with primary immunodeficiencies referred at four Malaysian Hospitals between 1987 to 2007.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  3. Al-Herz W, Chou J, Delmonte OM, Massaad MJ, Bainter W, Castagnoli R, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:3146.
    PMID: 30697212 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03146
    Objective: To present the genetic causes of patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) in Kuwait between 2004 and 2017. Methods: The data was obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry. Genomic DNA from patients with clinical and immunological features of PID was sequenced using Sanger sequencing (SS), next generation sequencing (NGS) of targeted genes, whole exome sequencing (WES), and/or whole genome sequencing (WGS). Functional assays were utilized to assess the biologic effect of identified variants. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 22q11.2 deletion and genomic hybridizations arrays were performed when thymic defects were suspected. Results: A total of 264 patients were registered during the study period with predominance of patients with immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity (35.2%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features (24%). Parental consanguinity and family history suggestive of PID were reported in 213 (81%) and 145 patients (55%), respectively. Genetic testing of 206 patients resulted in a diagnostic yield of 70%. Mutations were identified in 46 different genes and more than 90% of the reported genetic defects were transmitted by in an autosomal recessive pattern. The majority of the mutations were missense mutations (57%) followed by deletions and frame shift mutations. Five novel disease-causing genes were discovered. Conclusions: Genetic testing should be an integral part in the management of primary immunodeficiency patients. This will help the delivery of precision medicine and facilitate proper genetic counseling. Studying inbred populations using sophisticated diagnostic methods can allow better understanding of the genetics of primary immunodeficiency disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/diagnosis; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics*; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology*
  4. Noh LM, Hussein SH, Sukumaran KD, Rose I, Abdullah N
    J Clin Lab Immunol, 1991 Jun;35(2):89-93.
    PMID: 1688166
    A case of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in a Malaysian child who subsequently developed disseminated tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis is described. The phenotype of her peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed discordance for her T cell markers. The presence of a subpopulation of CD2-/CD3+ mononuclear cells leading to an immunodeficiency state is consistent with failure of activation of CD2-mediated alternative pathway resulting in immunodeficiency. Such abnormal CD2-/CD3+ subpopulations have been described in lepromatous leprosy and foetal abortuses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications*; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology
  5. Abd Hamid IJ, Azman NA, Gennery AR, Mangantig E, Hashim IF, Zainudeen ZT
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:1923.
    PMID: 32983118 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01923
    Introduction: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are under-reported in Malaysia. The actual disease frequency of PID in this country is unknown due to the absence of a national patient registry for PID. Objective: This systematic review aimed to determine the prevalence rates of PID cases diagnosed and published in Malaysia from 1st of January 1979 until 1st of March 2020. It also aimed to describe the various types of PIDs reported in Malaysia. Method: Following the development of a comprehensive search strategy, all published literature of PID cases from Malaysia was identified and collated. All cases that fulfilled the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) classification diagnosis were included in the systematic review. Data were retrieved and collated into a proforma. Results: A total of 4,838 articles were identified and screened, with 34 publications and 119 patients fulfilling the criteria and being included in the systematic review. The prevalence rate was 0.37 per 100,000 population. In accordance with the IUIS, the distribution of diagnostic classifications was immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunities (36 patients, 30.3%), combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (21 patients, 17.6%), predominant antibody deficiencies (24 patients, 20.2%), diseases of immune dysregulation (13 patients, 10.9%), congenital defects in phagocyte number or function (20 patients, 16.8%), defects in intrinsic and innate immunity (4 patients, 3.4%), and autoinflammatory disorders (1 patient, 0.8%). Parental consanguinity was 2.5%. Thirteen different gene mutations were available in 21.8% of the cases. Conclusion: PIDs are underdiagnosed and under-reported in Malaysia. Developing PID healthcare and a national patient registry is much needed to enhance the outcome of PID patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  6. Arseculeratne SN, Hussein FN, Atapattu DN, Pathmanathan R
    Med Mycol, 2000 Oct;38(5):393-5.
    PMID: 11092388
    Congenitally T and B cell-deficient SCID mice and T cell-deficient NUDE mice, with BALB/c mice as immunologically normal controls, were inoculated with Rhinosporidium seeberi. At 3 and 16 weeks after inoculation, no evidence of rhinosporidiosis was detected. The reasons for the failure to establish rhinosporidiosis in immunodeficient or normal mice remain obscure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/microbiology*
  7. Faiz NM, Cortes AL, Guy JS, Reddy SM, Gimeno IM
    J Gen Virol, 2018 07;99(7):927-936.
    PMID: 29767614 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001076
    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and a variety of non-neoplastic syndromes in chickens. Furthermore, very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs induce a form of immunosuppression (late-MDV-IS) that might involve both neoplastic and non-neoplastic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the attenuation of MDV-induced tumours and late-MDV-IS occurs simultaneously or can be dissociated. The immunosuppressive ability of three viruses derived from vv+ MDV strain 686 (wild-type 686, the somewhat attenuated molecular clone 686-BAC, and the nononcogenic molecular clone lacking the two copies of the oncogene meq 686-BACΔMEQ) was evaluated. Late-MDV-IS was evaluated indirectly by assessing the negative effect of MDV strains on the protection conferred by infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccines. Our results showed that the ability to induce late-MDV-IS was attenuated before the ability to induce tumours. Strain 686 induced both tumours and late-MDV-IS, 686-BAC induced tumours but did not induce late-MDV-IS and 686-BACΔMEQ did not induce either tumours or late-MDV-IS. Further comparison of strains 686 and 686-BAC revealed that strain 686 reduced the humoral immune responses to ILTV (1132 vs 2167) more severely, showed higher levels of meq transcripts (2.1E+09 vs 4.98E+8) and higher expression of MDV microRNAs (mdv1-miR-M4-5p and mdv1-miR-M2-3p) in the spleen, and further reduced the percentage of CD45+-MHC-I+splenocytes (13 vs32 %) compared to molecular clone 686-BAC. This study suggests that the immunosuppressive ability of MDV might follow a continuous spectrum and only the most virulent MDVs can overcome a certain threshold level and induce clinical MDV-IS in the ILT model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/veterinary*; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology
  8. Ngai JJ, Chong KL, Oli Mohamed S
    PMID: 30327738 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8125806
    Introduction: To report an unusual case of CMV retinitis in Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD).

    Case Report: 13-year-old child with combined T and B cell deficiencies was diagnosed of bilateral zone 1 CMV retinitis. Intravitreal injections were unable to be given in a regular and timely manner under general anaesthesia due to her underlying systemic disease. The child was treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 8 weeks until eventual resolution of the retinitis. However, visual acuity deteriorated due to progressive optic nerve involvement.

    Conclusion: Paediatric patients often do not notice subtle symptoms of CMV retinitis. Although ocular manifestations are uncommon in PIDD, recognition and high index of suspicion will allow for timely referral, diagnosis, and treatment to be instituted for better visual outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  9. Huy BV, Teeraananchai S, Oanh LN, Tucker J, Kurniati N, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Journal of virus eradication, 2016 Oct 05;2(4):227-231.
    PMID: 27781105
    An analysis of the impact of orphanhood at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on HIV outcomes in Asia included 4300 children; 51% were male. At ART initiation, 1805 (42%) were non-orphans (median age: 3 years), 1437 (33%) were single orphans (6 years) and 1058 (25%) were double orphans (7 years). Ten-year post-ART survival was 93.4-95.2% across orphan categories. Clinic transfers were higher among single and double orphans than non-orphans (41% vs 11%, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, children ≥3 years at ART initiation (hazard ratio 1.58 vs <3 years, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-2.24) were more likely to be lost to follow-up. Although post-ART mortality and retention did not differ by orphan status, orphans were at greater risk of starting ART at older ages, and with more severe immunosuppression and poorer growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  10. Al-Herz W, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Khabaz A, Husain A, Sadek A, Othman Y
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:1754.
    PMID: 31396239 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01754
    Objective: To present the report from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry between 2004 and 2018. Methods: The patients were followed prospectively between January 2004 and December 2018 and their collected data included sociodemographic, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and treatment. Results: A total of 314 PID patients (165 males and 149 females) were registered during the study period. Most of the patients (n = 287, 91.4%) were Kuwaiti nationals and the prevalence among Kuwaitis was 20.27/100,000 with a cumulative incidence of 24.96/100,000 Kuwaitis. The distribution of the patients according to PID categories was as follow: immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity, 100 patients (31.8%); combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features, 68 patients (21.7%); predominantly antibody deficiencies, 56 patients (17.8%); diseases of immune dysregulation, 47 patients (15%); congenital defects of phagocyte number or function, 20 patients (6.4%); autoinflammatory disorders, 1 patient (0.3%); and complement deficiencies, 22 patients (7%). The mean age of the patients at onset of symptoms was 26 months while the mean age at diagnosis was 53 months and the mean delay in diagnosis was 27 months. Most of the patients (n = 272, 86%) had onset of symptoms before the age of 5 years. Parental consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 78% and a positive family history of PID was noticed in 50% of the patients. Genetic testing was performed in 69% of the patients with an overall diagnostic yield of 90%. Mutations were identified in 46 different genes and more than 90% of the reported genetic defects were transmitted by an autosomal recessive pattern. Intravenous immunoglobulins and stem cell transplantation were used in 58% and 25% of the patients, respectively. There were 81 deaths (26%) among the registered patients with a mean age of death of 25 months. Conclusions: PID is not infrequent in Kuwait and the reported prevalence is the highest in the literature with increased proportion of more severe forms. Collaborative efforts including introduction of newborn screening should be implemented to diagnose such cases earlier and improve the quality of life and prevent premature deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  11. Massaad MJ, Zainal M, Al-Herz W
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:1119.
    PMID: 32582199 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01119
    Objectives: To present a prospective report on the characteristics of autoimmune manifestations in patients with primary immunodeficient children registered in the Kuwait National PIDs Registry (KNPIDR). Methods: The data were obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry during the period of January 2004 to December 2019. Results: A total of 286 PID children were registered in KNPIDR during the study period with a predominance of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features and diseases of immune dysregulation. Fifty-seven (19.9%) patients presented with a total of 107 autoimmune manifestations. There was no significant statistical association between autoimmune manifestations and gender. Patients with autoimmune manifestations were older at onset of PID symptoms compared to those with no such manifestations, but this did not reach level of significance. The diagnosis delay was longer in patients with autoimmune manifestations compared to those with no such manifestations (p = 0.038). Forty-seven percent of these manifestations were among the presenting symptoms while 53% were documented later during the course of the disease. Fifty-seven percent of the patients developed 1 autoimmune manifestation, 30% developed 2 such manifestations, and 16% had ≥3 autoimmune manifestations. The most common autoimmune manifestation was cytopenia, followed by gastrointestinal manifestations and manifestations of the skin, hair, and nails. Autoimmune cytopenia were more common in patients with immune dysregulation syndromes, while gastrointestinal and skin manifestations predominate in patients with immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity and endocrine manifestations were more common in immune dysregulation syndromes. There were significant statistical associations between developing autoimmune manifestations and death as well as PID categories, being more common in patients with immune dysregulation. The frequency of autoimmunity was high among patients with RAG, WAS, STAT5b, NF-κB2, Fas, FasL, LRBA, APECED, IL-10, and C4 deficiencies. Conclusions: Autoimmunity is frequent in patients with PIDs in Kuwait. This should prompt the suspicion of a PID in patients who present initially with autoimmunity, especially autoimmune cytopenia. Such patients should be managed with extra care since they are at a higher risk of death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  12. Putra WE, Rifa'i M
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2020 Jul;31(2):175-185.
    PMID: 32922674 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2020.31.2.9
    Aplastic anemia, life-threatened disease, is a hematologic disorder characterised by bone marrow hypoplasia. Multiple modalities such as bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppression treatment have been proposed to ameliorate this entity, however it remains ineffective. Sambucus, a group of herb plants, possesses a broad spectrum of medicinal properties such as antioxidant, insulin-like activity, anticancer and antiviral. However, the study about its activity toward aplastic anemia incidence is based on limited data. Thus, the research aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of Sambucus javanica in chloramphenicol-induced anemia aplastic mouse model. In this present study, BALB/c mice were administrated with chloramphenicol (CMP) to induce aplastic anemia then followed by S. javanica extracts treatment. Additionally, cellular and molecular aspects were evaluated by flow cytometry and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Further analysis showed that S. javanica extracts could promote the population number of regulatory T-cells and naive cytotoxic T-cells. Moreover, those extract also reduced the inflammation and necrotic incidence in CMP-induced mouse aplastic anemia model. Together, these results suggest that S. javanica has therapeutically effect to aplastic anemia by altering the immune system as an immunomodulatory agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  13. Leung D, Chua GT, Mondragon AV, Zhong Y, Nguyen-Ngoc-Quynh L, Imai K, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:1605.
    PMID: 32903579 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01605
    Background: The Asia Pacific Society for Immunodeficiencies (APSID) conducted nine primary immunodeficiency (PID) Schools in 5 years since inauguration to provide PID care training for early career physicians in Asia Pacific, a region with divergent needs in PID resources and training. Objective: To identify differences in PID patient care resource and training needs across Asia Pacific and propose a corresponding action plan. Methods: The Human Development Index (HDI) indicates the degree of socio-economic development in each country/region. Information related to investigations and learning issues were extracted from the abstracts and personal statements from all Schools and mapped onto resource and training needs. Correlations between HDI and country/region-specific parameters were tested by two-tailed Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 427 abstracts were received in nine Schools between 2015 and 2020, predominantly on immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity. Genetic confirmation was described in 61.8% of abstracts, and its absence negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.696, p = 0.004). Essential immunologic and genetic tests were not available in 25.4 and 29.5% of abstracts, respectively, and their absence negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.788, p < 0.001; r = -0.739, p = 0.002). HDI positively correlated with average testing level (r = 0.742, p = 0.002). Cases from medium-HDI countries/regions focused on learning how to investigate a patient for PIDs in cases of severe or atypical infections, whereas those from very-high-HDI countries/regions, from which most faculty members originated, listed hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy, newborn screening, and research as learning issues more frequently. Conclusion: There are unique HDI-related PID resource and training needs in each country/region. APSID proposes HDI group-specific strategies to improve PID care and education in her member countries/regions. Further quantitative analysis of needs in PID care in Asia Pacific is needed for lobbying governments to increase their support for PID care and research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
  14. Tan AM, Ha C, Li CF, Chan GC, Lee V, Tan PL, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2016 Mar;45(3):106-9.
    PMID: 27146463
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy*
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