Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 535 in total

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  1. Grey JCP
    Malayan Medical Journal, 1936;11:115-6.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  2. Atmaja P. Rosyidi, Tajul Anuar Jamaluddin, Lim CS, Mohd Raihan Taha
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1393-1405.
    Gempa bumi pada 30 September 2009, dengan kekuatan 7.6 MW yang melanda Bandar Padang, Padang Pariaman dan wilayah Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, telah mengorbankan lebih daripada 1200 orang. Ribuan buah rumah, bangunan dan infrastruktur lain telah mengalami kerosakan tahap ringan hingga teruk. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan kesan gempa bumi Padang terhadap kerosakan bangunan dan tanah runtuh yang berlaku pada kawasan Bandar Padang, Padang Pariaman, Pariaman dan Agam. Kesan gempa bumi ini dianalisis berdasarkan data geologi, geoteknik dan impak geo-bencana yang telah dikumpulkan daripada berbagai sumber dan hasil kajian lapangan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa kerosakan di kawasan bandar Padang dan Padang Pariaman lebih disebabkan oleh kualiti bangunan yang tidak memenuhi piawaian bangunan dan pengaruh geologi kawasan, iaitu berlakunya amplifikasi tanah disebabkan oleh endapan aluvium yang tebal. Kerosakan teruk pada bangunan antara lainnya dikaitkan dengan kehadiran jalur-jalur sesar kecil atau ketakselanjaran pada lapisan bawah tanah. Beberapa kejadian tanah runtuh besar yang berlaku di Pariaman dan Agam adalah disebabkan oleh geologi kawasan, geomorfologi dan morfologi cerun yang curam. Kajian lanjut diperlukan bagi mengenal pasti dan menilai risiko bencana untuk persediaan menghadapi bencana gempa bumi di masa hadapan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  3. Zainal Rasyid Mahayuddin, Haslina Arshad, Che Hassan Che Haron
    Kertas kerja ini membincangkan pendekatan dalam mengintegrasikan Java dan persekitaran VRML yang telah diaplikasikan dalam mensimulasi masa nyata bagi proses kisar hujung maya. Pendekatan yang menggunakan Routing ini adalah sangat penting untuk komunikasi dan penghantaran mesej antara VRML dan Java. Dalam pendekatan ini, nod Script digunakan bagi memanggil dan menghubungkan kelas Java dengan entiti-entiti yang sepatutnya di dalam persekitaran VRML. Simulasi bahan termesin bagi proses kisar hujung dalam sistem ini dilaksanakan melalui satu kaedah baru iaitu dengan penggunaan nod penaikan bagi penjanaan objek 3D dan nod PositionInterpolator serta CoordinateInterpolator bagi animasi bahan termesin. Melalui kaedah ini simulasi bagi proses kisar hujung dapat dipaparkan secara maya dan pada masa yang sama graf haus rusuk bagi perkakas pemotong melawan masa pemotongan dapat dijana serentak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  4. Ash A, Scholz T, de Chambrier A, Brabec J, Oros M, Kar PK, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(10):e46421.
    PMID: 23056306 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046421
    Tapeworms of Gangesia Woodland, 1924 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) parasitic in freshwater fishes in the Indomalayan Region were critically reviewed. Evaluation of type specimens and newly collected materials from Bangladesh, Cambodia and India, as well as critical examination of extensive literature have shown that only the following four species, instead of 48 nominal species of Gangesia and Silurotaenia Nybelin, 1942 reported from this region (36 new synonymies proposed), are valid: Gangesia bengalensis (Southwell, 1913), type-species of the genus and most common parasite of Wallago attu (Siluridae), G. macrones Woodland, 1924 typical of Sperata seenghala (Bagridae), both species characterized by the possession of two circles of hooks on the rostellum-like organ and several rows of hooklets on the anterior margins of suckers; G. agraensis Verma, 1928 from W. attu (typical host), which has the scolex with only one circle of hooks and 1-3 incomplete rows of tiny hooklets on the suckers; and G. vachai (Gupta and Parmar, 1988) n. comb. from several catfishes, which possesses 4-6 circles of hooks and 5-11 rows of hooklets on the anterior half of suckers. Scolex morphology, including surface ultrastructure (microtriches), of all but one species (G. vachai) is described for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. A phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences encoding the large nuclear ribosomal subunit RNA gene has shown that three Indomalayan species, namely G. bengalensis, G. macrones and G. vachai, form a monophyletic group within Gangesia, whereas G. agraensis tends to form a clade with the Palaearctic species of the genus. A table with differential characters of all species from the Indomalayan Region is also provided together with a key to identification of genera of the subfamily Gangesiinae. The present study demonstrates that species of Silurotaenia do not occur in the Indomalayan region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  5. Trihandini, Indang, Adiwoso, Adiningrum Wiradidjaja
    MyJurnal
    Perbezaan penjagaan kesihatan di antara orang-orang kurang upaya intelektual dan penduduk umum adalah jelas. Olimpik Khusus Indonesia (SOIna) adalah organisasi NGO yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan olahraga olimpik sedunia yang berkesempatan bekerja dengan warga kurang upaya intelektual. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengukur prevalen pereputan karies dan gingivitis di kalangan atlet-atlet Indonesia yang kurang upaya intelek. Jumlah peserta yang terlibat adalah 1452 atlet daripada 11 wilayah (Jawa Timur, Bali, Selatan Sabah, Utara Sumatera, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Kalimantan tengah, DKI, Jawa Barat, Yogyakarta, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Banten) di Indonesia. Pengumpulan data bermula dari tahun 2004 hingga 2009. Setiap tahun pengambilan data minimum dilakukan di dua wilayah yang berbeza. Purata usia atlet adalah 15.04 ± 4,62 tahun. 77.6% atlet mengalami rasa nyeri di rongga mulut kerana karies yang tidak dirawat. Karies tertinggi dijumpai pada atlet yang tinggal di pulau Jawa (81.5% Yogyakarta; Jawa Barat 83.8%. DKI Jakarta 80.2%, dan Jawa Timur 83.5%) berbanding dengan atlet yang tinggal di luar pulau Jawa. Secara umumnya prevalens inflamasi gusi pada atlet kurang upaya intelektual adalah 29.47%. Atlet dari wilayah DKI Jakarta menunjukkan prevalen inflamasi gusi tertinggi iaitu 51.04% berbanding dengan atlet daripada wilayah Nusa Tenggara Barat dengan 14.84%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, prevalen karies dan gingivitis adalah tinggi. Atlet yang tinggal di pulau Jawa mengalami kerosakan gigi yang tidak dirawat dan inflamasi gusi yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan atlet yang tinggal di luar pulau Jawa.


    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  6. Kamal, Z.Z., Daud, A.H.M., Ashidi, M.I.N., Fadel, J.K.M.
    ASM Science Journal, 2007;1(2):87-100.
    MyJurnal
    Covering as much as 25% to 35% of the development cost, software testing is an integral part of the software development lifecycle. Despite its importance, the current software testing practice is still based on highly manual processes from the generation of test cases (i.e. from specifications) up to the actual execution of the test. These manually generated tests are sometimes executed using ad hoc approaches, typically requiring the construction of a test driver for the particular application under test. In addition, test engineers are also under pressure to test increasing lines of code in order to meet market demands for more software functionalities. While there are significant proliferations of helpful testing tools or research prototypes in the market, much of them do not adequately provide the right level of abstraction and automation as required by test engineers. In order to facilitate and address some of the aforementioned issues, an automated testing tool was developed, called SFIT, based on Java® technology. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of SFIT. Two case studies involving the robustness assessment of an adder module and a Linda-based distributed shared memory implementation are described in order to demonstrate the applicability of SFIT as a helpful automated testing tool.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  7. Nurul Azita Salleh, Kamal Ab Hamid, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Muhammad Nazrin Shah Zakaria, Suzana Abd Mutalib
    MyJurnal
    Medium penyampaian maklumat merupakan media pengajaran utama yang digunakan dalam menyampaikan
    maklumat kepada pekerja tempatan dan juga asing dalam Kursus Induksi Keselamatan dan Kesihatan (KIKK).
    Justeru, kertas kerja ini menumpukan kepada perbincangan mengenai permasalahan serta hasil kajian lepas berkaitan
    penggunaan media penyampaian maklumat sedia ada oleh pekerja asing dalam KIKK. Kesimpulan hasil kajian
    perpustakaan mendapati terdapat beberapa masalah penggunaan media penyampaian maklumat sedia ada ini daripada
    aspek penggunaan bahasa, cara penyampaian dan medium penyampaian. Bahasa Melayu lazimnya digunakan sebagai
    bahasa pengantar semasa penyampaian maklumat dalam KIKK sama ada dalam bentuk teks mahupun penyampaian
    lisan. Namun, penggunaan Bahasa Melayu ini didapati tidak difahami oleh kebanyakan pekerja asing terutamanya
    pekerja asing bukan warga Indonesia. Cara penyampaian maklumat juga dilihat bersifat satu hala dan kurang difahami
    serta medium penyampaian yang digunakan kurang interaktif dan berbentuk presentasi. Malah, medium penyampaian
    maklumat seperti PowerPoint yang digunakan masih belum cukup kemas untuk memenuhi keperluan kerja pekerja
    asing di tapak bina yang mana teks bahasa Melayu terlalu panjang digunakan, susunan teks dan grafik tidak kemas,
    saiz teks tidak konsisten serta penggunaan grafik yang kurang jelas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  8. Rifardi, Chairunisa Rachmani, Elizal
    ASM Science Journal, 2018;11(1):23-31.
    MyJurnal
    The main purpose of this study is to determine shoreline change in Bengkalis Cape, Riau Province, Indonesia using sediment samples analysis, satellite images, and oceanographic parameters. The samples were collected at five stations by using sediment grab and oceanographic observation was also carried out at each station in November 2015. The southern part of Bengkalis Cape is characterised by fine-grain sediments (mud) and high rate of accretion that reaches 29.77 metre/year, and is influenced by weak tidal currents with a velocity of less than 0.06 m/s and low wave energy. In contrast, the northern part is occupied by coarse-grain sediments (sand) which is characterised by high rate of abrasion as shown in the image data for 20 years; 1995-2015 reaches 38.02 metre/year, and is under the influence of strong tidal current (0.16 m/s) and high wave energy. The major contributing factor for the shoreline change is the current system which flowing from Malacca strait to the shore area and sediments deposition in the area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  9. Pieris A
    J Soc Hist, 2011;45(2):453-79.
    PMID: 22299197
    The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/ethnology
  10. Serva M, Petroni F, Volchenkov D, Wichmann S
    J R Soc Interface, 2012 Jan 7;9(66):54-67.
    PMID: 21632612 DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2011.0228
    The origin of Malagasy DNA is half African and half Indonesian, nevertheless the Malagasy language, spoken by the entire population, belongs to the Austronesian family. The language most closely related to Malagasy is Maanyan (Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family), but related languages are also in Sulawesi, Malaysia and Sumatra. For this reason, and because Maanyan is spoken by a population which lives along the Barito river in Kalimantan and which does not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, the ethnic composition of the Indonesian colonizers is still unclear. There is a general consensus that Indonesian sailors reached Madagascar by a maritime trek, but the time, the path and the landing area of the first colonization are all disputed. In this research, we try to answer these problems together with other ones, such as the historical configuration of Malagasy dialects, by types of analysis related to lexicostatistics and glottochronology that draw upon the automated method recently proposed by the authors. The data were collected by the first author at the beginning of 2010 with the invaluable help of Joselinà Soafara Néré and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the island.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/ethnology
  11. Hariman H
    Bone Marrow Transplant., 2008 Aug;42 Suppl 1:S85-S88.
    PMID: 18724313 DOI: 10.1038/bmt.2008.125
    Allogeneic BMT was performed in Indonesia, but had to be stopped prematurely because of the small number of patients. In the beginning, only patients with sufficient financial resources to travel to western countries could undergo transplant procedures. When neighbouring countries (Singapore and Malaysia) began performing transplant, patients were referred to those centres. In both countries, the procedure is more economical and therefore patients come from a broader range of economic classes. The Indonesian hematologist must deal with the post-transplantation side effects, such as GVHD, which are mostly of the chronic type of GVHD. The types of the post-transplant complications do not differ too much from other centres and need the same treatment used in the transplant centres. Hematologists in Indonesia also treat complications of HSCT performed in other countries. When there is no recovery of HSCT development in Indonesia so far, many commercially oriented companies or centres from other countries see Indonesia as a good commercial market and offer services, some of which are not scientifically sound. One of the main problems is umbilical cord blood stem cell banking from foreign countries, which is eagerly offered to parents expecting a baby. Moreover, parents are not fully protected by law. In conclusion, Indonesia needs to revive its own HSCT program to serve and protect its own patients of being used as commercial targets by other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  12. Cannon CH, Peart DR, Leighton M
    Science, 1998 Aug 28;281(5381):1366-8.
    PMID: 9721105
    The effects of commercial logging on tree diversity in tropical rainforest are largely unknown. In this study, selectively logged tropical rainforest in Indonesian Borneo is shown to contain high tree species richness, despite severe structural damage. Plots logged 8 years before sampling contained fewer species of trees greater than 20 centimeters in diameter than did similar-sized unlogged plots. However, in samples of the same numbers of trees (requiring a 50 percent larger area), logged forest contained as many tree species as unlogged forest. These findings warrant reassessment of the conservation potential of large tracts of commercially logged tropical rainforest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  13. Shwter AN, Abdullah NA, Alshawsh MA, El-Seedi HR, Al-Henhena NA, Khalifa SA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 1.
    PMID: 27492327 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.002
    Natural products are important ingredients for pharmaceutical applications specifically new entities for treating cancer and other diseases. Phaleria macrocarpa is native of Indonesia and considered as a prolific source of bioactive substances useful for chemoprevention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  14. Samna Shaik Ahmad Yusoff, Azimon Abdul Aziz, Suzanna Mohamed Isa
    MyJurnal
    Kesatuan Ekonomi ASEAN (AEC) merupakan realisasi matlamat akhir integrasi ekonomi yang diasaskan pada pemusatan keinginan negaranegara ASEAN untuk meluaskan intergrasi ekonomi melalui inisiatif baru dan sedia ada dalam kerangka masa yang telah ditetapkan. Dalam merealisasikan salah satu tindakan AEC yang telah dikenal pasti iaitu memperkasakan perlindungan pengguna ASEAN, pengharmonian undang-undang kontrak pengguna dilihat sebagai salah satu agenda penting ASEAN. Dengan berobjektifkan pengharmonian undang-undang kontrak ASEAN yang mengkhusus kepada penggunaan terma tidak adil dalam pasaran pengguna seterusnya mencadangkan ASEAN Model Law on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts, makalah ini mengadoptasi metodologi analisis kandungan berteraskan literatur undang-undang primer dan sekunder. Mengguna pakai undang-undang kes dan perundangan di enam negara ASEAN terpilih iaitu Malaysia, Singapura, Indonesia, Thailand, Filipina dan Brunei, penyelidikan ini mendapati wujud persamaan dalam mekanisme yang digunakan di negara-negara ASEAN ini dalam menangani permasalahan penggunaan terma tidak adil dalam kontrak pengguna. Namun walaupun perundangan dilihat sebagai mekanisme yang mampu menangani permasalahan ini, wujud perbezaan pendekatan dalam perundangan yang diadaptasi oleh negara-negara ASEAN tersebut. Penggunaan perundangan berorientasikan perlindungan pengguna bagi mengawal penggunaan terma tidak adil dalam kontrak pengguna jelas kelihatan di Malaysia, Singapura, Indonesia, Thailand dan Filipina. Penggunaan perundangan kontrak yang mengkhusus kepada terma tidak adil sebagai instrumen kawalan pula kelihatan di Singapura, Thailand dan Brunei. Dalam aspek ini, keunikan Singapura dan Thailand yang menangani permasalahan terma tidak adil dalam kontrak pengguna dengan mengadakan perlindungan melalui dua jenis perundangan yang berbeza menampakkan korpus perlindungan pengguna yang lebih mapan. Pendekatan yang berbeza yang diamalkan di beberapa negara ASEAN terpilih ini memperlihatkan satu korpus perlindungan pengguna yang unik dalam aspek kontrak pengguna tidak adil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  15. Salleh NA, Ismail S, Ab Halim MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):309-315.
    PMID: 27695274 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.188873
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.
    OBJECTIVE: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM.
    RESULTS: In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59-22.76 μg/mL and 110.71-526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes.
    SUMMARY: Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAM: Complementary and alternative medicine, cDNA: Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid, CDNB: 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CuSO4.5H2O: Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CXEE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract, CXAE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza aqueous extract, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, GSH: Glutathione, GST: Glutathione S-transferase, KCl: Potassium chloride, min: Minutes, MgCl2: Magnesium chloride, mg/mL: Concentration (weight of test substance in milligrams per volume of test concentration), mM: Milimolar, Na2CO3: Sodium carbonate, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, nmol: nanomol, NSAIDs: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, p-NP: para-nitrophenol, RLU: Relative light unit, SEM: Standard error of mean, UDPGA: UDP-glucuronic acid, UGT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.
    KEYWORDS: Curcuma xanthorrhiza; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; glutathione transferase; xanthorrhizol
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  16. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Chen CD, Lau KW, Halim MR, Low VL, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2017 Feb 21;4236(1):zootaxa.4236.1.8.
    PMID: 28264343 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4236.1.8
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lemborense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, representing the most eastern distribution record for the group. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are three to four times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
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