METHODS: Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats received oral VVSME for 28days. MI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol on last two days. Prior to sacrifice, blood was collected and fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and insulin levels were measured. Levels of serum cardiac injury marker (troponin-I and CK-MB) were determined and histopathological changes in the heart were observed following harvesting. Levels of oxidative stress (LPO, SOD, CAT, GPx and RAGE), inflammation (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and cardiac ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase) were determined in heart homogenates. LC-MS was used to identify constituents in the extracts.
RESULTS: Consumption of VVSME by diabetic rats with or without MI improved the metabolic profiles while decreased the cardiac injury marker levels with lesser myocardial damage observed. Additionally, VVSME consumption reduced the levels of LPO, RAGE, TNF-α, Iκκβ, NF-κβ, IL-1β and IL-6 while increased the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the infarcted and non-infarcted heart of diabetic rats (p<0.05). LC-MS analysis revealed 17 major compounds in VVSME which might be responsible for the observed effects.
CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of VVSME by diabetics helps to ameliorate damage to the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiac ATPases dysfunctions.