Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Lee SH, H'ng PS, Peng TL, Lum WC
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Nov 01;16(21):1415-8.
    PMID: 24511759
    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of formaldehyde catcher as termites repellent. Single-layered UF-bonded particleboard was post-treated with formaldehyde catcher and heat respectively. Besides that, some boards were also produced with the formaldehyde catcher was added into the resin during the blending process, called add-in method. Particleboard post-treated with formaldehyde catcher reported the most severe attack. Heat-treated particleboard showed slightly better durability than the control blocks while the add-in catcher showed the best durability among three methods. A valid test was obtained as the termites survived the first week of the test. However, all the termites were found dead at the end of the test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  2. Lee CY, Lee LC
    J. Vector Ecol., 2000 Dec;25(2):218-21.
    PMID: 11217220
    The role of sanitation in performance of insecticidal bait stations containing 0.5% chlorpyrifos against the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), was investigated in residential premises. Test sites were chosen from three locations in Penang Island, Malaysia, and clustered according to their sanitary conditions. Results indicated that at 1-week post-treatment, houses with good sanitary conditions showed a significantly faster reduction (P > 0.05) in the number of cockroaches trapped (> 95%) than those with moderate and poor conditions. At 6 weeks post-treatment, all houses treated with insecticidal baits showed no significant difference in terms of reduction rate of cockroach numbers (P > 0.05), irrespective of sanitary condition. However, the bait performance in houses with poor sanitary conditions could not be sustained up to 12-week post-treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  3. Nazni WA, Ursula MP, Lee HL, Sa'diyah I
    J. Vector Ecol., 1999 Jun;24(1):54-60.
    PMID: 10436878
    Field strains of house flies, Musca domestica L., from three different breeding sites-garbage dump (IMR), poultry farm (Kundang, Selangor), and agricultural farm (Kampung Batu, Kuala Lumpur), were evaluated against five insecticides. Resistance status of adult female flies was determined using the modified WHO bioassay methods. The WHO susceptibility strain was used as a reference strain for comparison. Flies from the garbage dump and poultry farm were more resistant to the insecticides than the strain from the agricultural farm. Results obtained from bioassay tests were confirmed by in-vitro microenzyme assays of non-specific esterases and glutathione-S-transferases. Significant differences between the esterase levels of WHO and field strains were observed. Levels of glutathion-S-transferases were approximately the same, which may indicate that other enzymes are involved in house fly resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  4. Ong SQ, Ahmad H, Ab Majid AH, Jaal Z
    J Med Entomol, 2017 11 07;54(6):1626-1632.
    PMID: 28981905 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx128
    The potential of integrating the mycoinsecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.), into house fly control programs is tremendous. However, the interaction between the fungus and insecticide, when applied at poultry farms, remains poorly understood. This study investigated the interaction between M. anisopliae and two selected insecticides, cyromazine and ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypemethrin), with three objectives: to assess the compatibility of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by measuring fungal vegetative growth and conidia production in the presence of insecticides; to evaluate the effect of M. anisopliae on these insecticides by analyzing insecticidal residue using ultra performance liquid chromatography; and to study the synergistic effects of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by applying sublethal concentrations of insecticides with M. anisopliae to house fly larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae was more tolerant to ChCy than to cyromazine, as M. anisopliae showed significantly more growth when grown with this insecticide. The M. anisopliae + ChCy combination resulted in significantly less chlorpyrifos residues compared to the ChCy plate, and 62-72% house fly larva mortality occurred when M. anisopliae and sublethal concentrations of ChCy were combined, implicating synergistic effects of the fungus with low concentrations of ChCy. Integrating M. anisopliae with compatible chemical at right concentration is crucial for poultry farm house fly control programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  5. Nurita AT, Abu Hassan A, Nur Aida H, Norasmah B
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Aug;25(2):126-33.
    PMID: 18948883
    The efficacy and residual efficacy of commercial baits, Quick Bayt (0.5% w/w imidacloprid) and Agita (10.0% w/w thiamethoxam) against synanthropic flies were evaluated under field conditions. Efficacy was evaluated based on knockdown percentage (KD %). The bait efficacy and residual efficacy evaluation were conducted for a period of 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Baits were applied onto bait targets and placed on fly-count targets to facilitate the counting of flies. All baits were applied according to the manufacturer's recommended application rate. Three replicate treatments for each type of bait were placed at the study site each week. The number of flies feeding on baits and the knocked down flies were counted and collected. The efficacy of Agita and Quick Bayt did not differ significantly (t-test, P>0.05) over the 3-week period, even though Quick Bayt had a slightly higher KD% than Agita. In the residual efficacy evaluation, the (knockdown) KD% of Quick Bayt was consistent at around 36% for the first five weeks but dropped to 33.8 +/- 0.4% on the sixth week. The KD% for Agita on the first week was 33.6 +/- 12.2% and remained relatively consistent for the first 4 weeks at around 31%. KD% dropped to 16.7 +/- 3.3% on week 5 and to 15.7 +/- 1.2% on week 6. The difference in residual efficacy of the two baits was significant (t-test, p < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  6. Nazni WA, Luke H, Wan Rozita WM, Abdullah AG, Sa'diyah I, Azahari AH, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Jun;22(1):53-61.
    PMID: 16880754
    In order to control any pest it is essential to study the life cycle, biology and bionomics of the target pest under control. With this respect, we have studied the flight range of the house fly Musca domestica (L.). The flight range of the house fly from two sites i.e, the poultry farm and a stable farm has been studied. The flight range study was conducted using a mark release technique. The approach we used in this study was that the flies collected from the respective farms were marked and released at different distances from the farms. The flies were then re-captured from the poultry farm and the stable farm. Studies conducted elsewhere use the technique of releasing the insect species at one spot and recapturing the insect species with the help of baited traps placed at various locations from the release point. The advantage of the approach used in this study was that the flight range as well as the homing effect was determined. From this study, the flight range of house flies released at the poultry farm was 7 km whereas flight range for flies release from stable farm was 5 km. The recovery rate of house flies at the poultry and stable farm was 0.05% and 0.016%, In this study, marked specimens has been detected up to 8 days in field conditions indicating that under field condition the life expectancy could be in the range of 1-2 weeks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  7. Lee CC, Lee CY
    J Econ Entomol, 2015 Jun;108(3):1243-50.
    PMID: 26470252 DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov112
    The optimum maintenance conditions of the fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Blattodea: Termitidae), in the laboratory were studied. Termites were kept on a matrix of moist sand and with fungus comb as food. The survival of groups of termites was measured when maintained at different population densities by changing group size and container volume. Larger groups (≥0.6 g) were more vigorous and had significant higher survival rates than smaller groups (≤0.3 g). The population density for optimal survival of M. gilvus is 0.0025 g per container volume (ml) or 0.0169 g per matrix volume (cm(3)), i.e., 1.2 g of termites kept in a 480-ml container filled with 71 cm3 of sand. In termite groups of smaller size (i.e., 0.3 g) or groups maintained in smaller container (i.e., 100 ml) the fungus comb was overgrown with Xylaria spp., and subsequently all termites died within the study period. The insufficient number of workers for regulating the growth of unwanted fungi other than Termitomyces spp. in the fungus comb is the most likely reason. Unlike some other mound-building termite species, M. gilvus showed satisfactory survival when maintained in non-nutritious matrix (i.e., sand). There was no significant difference in the survival rate between different colonies of M. gilvus (n=5), with survival in the range of 78.5-84.4% after 4 wk. Advances in the maintenance of Macrotermes will enable researchers to study with more biological relevance many aspects of the biology, behavior, and management of this species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  8. Ashcroft R, Seko Y, Chan LF, Dere J, Kim J, McKenzie K
    Int J Public Health, 2015 Nov;60(7):827-37.
    PMID: 26298442 DOI: 10.1007/s00038-015-0713-8
    OBJECTIVES: We conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mental health effects associated with bed bugs.

    METHODS: We employed a five-stage scoping review framework, to systematically identify and review eligible articles. Eligibility criteria included a focus on bed bug infestations and reference to mental health impacts. Descriptive information was then extracted from each article, including the specific mental health effects cited.

    RESULTS: An initial search yielded 920 unique articles on the topic of bed bugs. Of these, 261 underwent abstract review, and 167 underwent full-text review. Full-text review and subsequent review of reference lists yielded a final sample of 51 articles. Numerous mental health effects were linked to bed bug infestations, including severe psychiatric symptoms. However, the majority (n = 31) of the articles were commentary papers; only five original research articles were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although significant mental health effects are often linked to bed bugs, such discussions remain largely anecdotal. Despite recognition that the impact of bed bugs constitutes an important public health concern, little empirical evidence currently exists on this topic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods
  9. Tee HS, Saad AR, Lee CY
    J Econ Entomol, 2010 Oct;103(5):1770-4.
    PMID: 21061978
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of heat- and freeze-killed oothecae of Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) as hosts for parasitoid Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). The oothecae were subjected to -20, 45, 48, 50, and 55 degrees C at different exposure times (15, 30, 45, and 60 min). The effects of heat- and freeze-killed oothecae on several biological parameters (e.g., parasitism and emergence rates, developmental times, progeny number, and sex ratio) ofA. hagenowii were determined. Embryonic development of 2-d-old oothecae was terminated by either freezing at -20 degrees C or heating at > or = 48 degrees C for > or =30 min. A. hagenowii parasitized live oothecae as well as both heat- and freeze-killed oothecae. Percentage parasitism, emergence rates, and developmental times ofA. hagenowii in both heat- and freeze-killed oothecae were not significantly different from those of the live oothecae. Both heating and freezing did not influence progeny number (male and female) and sex ratio of A. hagenowii emerged from killed oothecae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods
  10. Aliakbarpour H, Rawi CS
    J Econ Entomol, 2010 Jun;103(3):631-40.
    PMID: 20568607
    Thrips cause considerable economic loss to mango, Mangifera indica L., in Penang, Malaysia. Three nondestructive sampling techniques--shaking mango panicles over a moist plastic tray, washing the panicles with ethanol, and immobilization of thrips by using CO2--were evaluated for their precision to determine the most effective technique to capture mango flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in an orchard located at Balik Pulau, Penang, Malaysia, during two flowering seasons from December 2008 to February 2009 and from August to September 2009. The efficiency of each of the three sampling techniques was compared with absolute population counts on whole panicles as a reference. Diurnal flight activity of thrips species was assessed using yellow sticky traps. All three sampling methods and sticky traps were used at two hourly intervals from 0800 to 1800 hours to get insight into diurnal periodicity of thrips abundance in the orchard. Based on pooled data for the two seasons, the CO2 method was the most efficient procedure extracting 80.7% adults and 74.5% larvae. The CO2 method had the lowest relative variation and was the most accurate procedure compared with the absolute method as shown by regression analysis. All collection techniques showed that the numbers of all thrips species in mango panicles increased after 0800 hours, reaching a peak between 1200 and 1400 hours. Adults thrips captured on the sticky traps were the most abundant between 0800-1000 and 1400-1600 hours. According to results of this study, the CO2 method is recommended for sampling of thrips in the field. It is a nondestructive sampling procedure that neither damages flowers nor diminishes fruit production. Management of thrips populations in mango orchards with insecticides would be more effectively carried out during their peak population abundance on the flower panicles at midday to 1400 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods
  11. Chong KF, Lee CY
    J Econ Entomol, 2009 Aug;102(4):1586-90.
    PMID: 19736772
    An evaluation of several insecticides, namely, 0.01% fipronil, 0.05% indoxacarb, and 2% boric acid in liquid bait formulations were carried out against field populations of the longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The baits were formulated in brown cane sugar solution (50%, wt:wt) and placed in an experimental bait station. Each bait was evaluated against populations of A. gracilipes at four buildings. Fipronil, indoxacarb, and boric acid were effective against A. gracilipes, with > 90% reduction of workers within 3 d posttreatment. Total reduction (100%) was achieved within 7 d for fipronil, 14 d for indoxacarb, and 56 d for boric acid. The performance of fipronil and indoxacarb baits did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in all postbaiting sampling intervals. Reduction of A. gracilipes resulted in an increase in other ant species [Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Tapinoma indicum Forel, Pheidole sp., and Camponotus sp.] at the baited locations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  12. Armstrong JW, Tang J, Wang S
    J Econ Entomol, 2009 Apr;102(2):522-32.
    PMID: 19449631
    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs < or = third instars at 44, 46, and 50 degrees C, third instars < or = eggs at 48 degrees C, and wild third instars < the laboratory-reared third instars. Comparison between Mediterranean fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods
  13. Hafeez F, Abbas M, Zia K, Ali S, Farooq M, Arshad M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(10):e0257952.
    PMID: 34644343 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257952
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production is significantly altered by the infestation of sucking insects, particularly aphids. Chemical sprays are not recommended for the management of aphids as wheat grains are consumed soon after crop harvests. Therefore, determining the susceptibility of different wheat genotypes and selecting the most tolerant genotype could significantly lower aphid infestation. This study evaluated the susceptibility of six different wheat genotypes ('Sehar-2006', 'Shafaq-2006', 'Faisalabad-2008', 'Lasani-2008', 'Millat-2011' and 'Punjab-2011') to three aphid species (Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus, Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Sitobion avenae Fabricius) at various growth stages. Seed dressing with insecticides and plant extracts were also evaluated for their efficacy to reduce the incidence of these aphid species. Afterwards, an economic analysis was performed to compute cost-benefit ratio and assess the economic feasibility for the use of insecticides and plant extracts. Aphids' infestation was recorded from the seedling stage and their population gradually increased as growth progressed towards tillering, stem elongation, heading, dough and ripening stages. The most susceptible growth stage was heading with 21.89 aphids/tiller followed by stem elongation (14.89 aphids/tiller) and dough stage (13.56 aphids/tiller). The genotype 'Punjab-2011' recorded the lower aphid infestation than 'Faisalabad-2008', 'Sehar-2006', 'Lasani-2008' and 'Shafaq-2006'. Rhopalosiphum padi appeared during mid-February, whereas S. graminum and S. avenae appeared during first week of March. Significant differences were recorded for losses in number of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight among tested wheat genotypes. The aphid population had non-significant correlation with yield-related traits. Hicap proved the most effective for the management of aphid species followed by Hombre and Husk among tested seed dressers, while Citrullus colocynthis L. and Moringa oleifera Lam. plant extracts exhibited the highest efficacy among different plant extracts used in the study. Economic analysis depicted that use of Hombre and Hicap resulted in the highest income and benefit cost ratio. Therefore, use of genotype Punjab-2011' and seed dressing with Hombre and Hicap can be successfully used to lower aphid infestation and get higher economic returns for wheat crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  14. Abu Tahir N, Ahmad AH
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Sep;50(5):999-1002.
    PMID: 24180104
    Effects of laterite cover soil with different characteristics on survival of buried eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae of Musca domestica (L.) were studied experimentally. Soil treatments were loose dry soil, loose wet soil, compacted dry soil, and compacted wet soil (CWS). Eggs, third instar larvae, and pupae were buried under 30 cm of the different soil treatments and placed under field conditions until adults emerged. Rearing medium was provided for eggs and larvae, and control treatments of all stages were unburied immatures placed on soil surface. Egg and pupal survival to adult were significantly affected by the cover soil treatments, but third instars were more resilient. Wet soil treatments (loose wet soil and CWS) resulted in significantly reduced pupal survival, but increased survival of eggs. However, CWS significantly reduced adult emergence from buried eggs. Though emergence of house flies buried as eggs was significantly reduced, some were able to hatch and emerging first instar larvae developed to pupation. Although cover soil does not completely prevent fly emergence, it did limit development and emergence of buried house flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  15. Ho TM, Fauziah MK, Saleh I
    PMID: 1523464
    Five pesticides were evaluated against laboratory colonies of Leptotrombidium fletcheri (Womersly and Heaslip) by the Pasteur pipet technique. The pesticides were dieldrin (LC50 = 3.6 ppm, LC99 = 18.2 ppm), bromopropylate (LC50 = 9.2 ppm, LC99 = 239.6 ppm), dicofol (LC50 = 27.8 ppm, LC99 = 118.1 ppm), fenthion (LC50 = 15.4 ppm, LC99 = 29.7 ppm), and malathion (LC50 = 84.7 ppm, LC99 = 313.9 ppm). Dieldrin was the most toxic. Dicofol was recommended for further evaluation in field trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  16. Yap HH, Jahangir K, Chong AS, Adanan CR, Chong NL, Malik YA, et al.
    J. Vector Ecol., 1998 Jun;23(1):62-8.
    PMID: 9673931
    Two new repellent formulations, KBR 3023 10% and 20% from Bayer AG, Germany, were evaluated together with DEET 10% and 20% as standard repellent formulations. Evaluation was based on two separate field studies: a daytime study (0900-1700 hr) in a forested orchard on Penang Island and a nighttime study (2100-0100 hr) in a squatter residential area on the adjacent mainland of peninsular Malaysia. Both studies were carried out by exposing humans with bare arms and legs to mosquitoes landing/biting for an eight hour period. Right arms and legs of the human baits were treated with different repellent formulations (KBR 3023 10%, 20% and DEET 10%, 20%) and the left limbs were left untreated to act as controls. The daytime study indicated that all four formulations were equally effective (P < 0.05) as repellents against the predominant Aedes albopictus with greater than 88.5% reduction in landing/biting in the first four hours and not less than 65.0% in the next four hours of the assessment period. In the night study, all four formulations were also found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) in repelling Culex quinquefasciatus, the predominant species. All four formulations provided complete protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the first two hours of exposure. The percentage reduction values were maintained above 90.0% for the next six hours of the assessment period. In conclusion, both the KBR 3023 and DEET formulations were found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) in providing a long-lasting reduction in human-mosquito contact in both the day and night field studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods
  17. Lim JL, Visvalingam M
    PMID: 2402678
    Two highly active synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, lambdacyhalothrin and cypermethrin, were evaluated as thermal fogs against houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus) and mosquitos (Aedes aegypti Linnaeus). Lambdacyhalothrin (OMS 3021) showed an average of 2.5 times more knockdown activity and over 5 times more adulticidal activity than cypermethrin against Musca domestica and Aedes aegypti. These results demonstrate that lambdacyhalothrin is highly effective at very low rates as a thermal fog against Ae. aegypti and M. domestica. Commercially available formulations of 2.5% and 5% lambdacyhalothrin can be diluted either with water for ULV cold aerosol space-spraying or with diesel/kerosene for thermal fogging at recommended application rates of 0.5-1 g ai/ha for mosquito control and 2 g ai/ha for housefly control. Due to the very low rates of application, formulated products of lambdacyhalothrin are unlikely to present any acute hazards in normal use. The low dosages required to bring about rapid control of houseflies and mosquitos make this new pyrethroid insecticide particularly cost-effective. Coupled with its good residual activity (Jutsum et al, 1984), lambdacyhalothrin can be adopted as a powerful tool in integrated pest management program for the control of medically important pests and vectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  18. Ong SQ, Ahmad H, Jaal Z, Rus A, Fadzlah FH
    J Med Entomol, 2017 Jan;54(1):24-29.
    PMID: 28082628 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjw140
    Determining the control threshold for a pest is common prior to initiating a pest control program; however, previous studies related to the house fly control threshold for a poultry farm are insufficient for determining such a threshold. This study aimed to predict the population changes of house fly population by comparing the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) for different house fly densities in a simulated system. This study first defined the knee points of a known population growth curve as a control threshold by comparing the rm of five densities of house flies in a simulated condition. Later, to understand the interactions between the larval and adult populations, the correlation between larval and adult capacity rate (rc) was studied. The rm values of 300- and 500-fly densities were significantly higher compared with the rm values at densities of 50 and 100 flies. This result indicated their representative indices as candidates for a control threshold. The rc of larval and adult populations were negatively correlated with densities of fewer than 300 flies; this implicated adult populations with fewer than 300 flies as declining while the larval population was growing; therefore, control approaches should focus on the immature stages. The results in the present study suggest a control threshold for house fly populations. Future works should focus on calibrating the threshold indices in field conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
  19. Owen-Smith P, Perry R, Wise J, Jamil RZR, Gut L, Sundin G, et al.
    Pest Manag Sci, 2019 Nov;75(11):3050-3059.
    PMID: 30895726 DOI: 10.1002/ps.5421
    BACKGROUND: Air blast sprayers are not optimized for spraying the short statured trees in modern apple orchards, resulting in off target drift and variable coverage. A solid set canopy delivery system (SSCDS) consisting of a microsprayer array distributed throughout the orchard was investigated as a replacement agrochemical application method in this study. SSCDS's have the potential to optimize coverage, rapidly spray applications, and remove the operator and tractor from the orchard.

    RESULTS: Air blast and SSCDS applications were compared using water sensitive paper, bioassays, and pest damage assessments. Pest management and coverage were compared using application volumes of 700 and 795 L ha-1 , respectively. In 2013, adaxial coverage measurements showed no difference between the treatments, but air blast sprayers had higher coverage levels on the abaxial surfaces. There were no significant differences in coverage in 2014. Bioassays using Choristoneura rosaceana fed on leaf discs treated by the SSCDS displayed 95.8% mortality in 2013 and 94.2% mortality in 2014, and air blast treated larval mortality was 95% in 2013 and 100% in 2014. Damage evaluations in both years generally showed no significant differences between the air blast plots and the SSCDS plots, but significant differences between the treated plots and untreated control.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prototype SSCDS was an effective pest management tool in high density apples, and offered a number of advantages over an air blast. Further engineering and research into coverage optimization would offer producers a novel tool for foliar agrochemical applications. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Control/methods*
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