Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general.
This study was performed to establish the genetic variability of Aedes albopictus within Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, by using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 5 subunit (ND5) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. A total of 90 samples were collected from 9 localities within an area of the Subang Jaya Municipality. Genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the ND5 gene. Eight distinct mtDNA haplotypes were identified. The evolutionary relationship of the local haplotypes alongside 28 reference strains was used to construct a phylogram, the analysis of which revealed low genetic differentiation in terms of both nucleotide and haplotype diversity. Bayesian method was used to infer the phylogenetic tree, revealing a unique relationship between local isolates. The study corroborates the reliability of ND5 to identify distinct lineages for polymorphism-based studies and supplements the existing body of knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. This in turn could potentially aid existing vector control strategies to help mitigate the risk and spread of the dengue virus.
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) is a superfamily of enzymes that is important in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In insects, these enzymes confer resistance to insecticides through its metabolic activities. Members of P450 from family 6 in insects are known to play a role in such function. In this study, we have isolated seven novel family 6 P450 from Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. Induction profile of these seven genes was studied using several insecticides and xenobiotics. It was found that deltamethrin and permethrin did not induce expression of any genes. Another insecticide, temephos, inhibited expression of CYP6P15 for fivefold and twofold for CYP6N29, CYP6Y7, and CYP6Z18. In addition, copper II sulfate induced expression of CYP6M17 and CYP6N28 for up to sixfold. Benzothiazole (BZT), a tire leachate induced the expression of CYP6M17 by fourfold, CYP6N28 by sevenfold, but inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 for threefold and CYP6Y7 for twofold. Meanwhile, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) induced the expression CYP6N28 (twofold), while it inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 (fivefold) and CYP6Y7 (twofold). Remarkably, all seven genes were induced two- to eightfold by acetone in larval stage, but not adult stage. Expression of CYP6N28 was twofold higher, while expression of CYP6P15 was 15-fold lower in adult than larva. The other five P450s were not differentially expressed between the larvae and adult. This finding showed that acetone can be a good inducer of P450 in Ae. albopictus. On the other hand, temephos can act as good suppressor of P450, which may affect its own bioefficacy because it needs to be bioactivated by P450. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on acetone-inducible P450 in insects. Further study is needed to characterize the mechanisms involved in acetone induction in P450.
A nationwide investigation was performed to detect the presence of 1014 mutation(s) in voltage gated sodium channel (kdr) gene of Culex quinquefasciatus from 14 residential areas across 13 states and a federal territory in Malaysia. Molecular genotyping of kdr mutation was performed via a modified three tubes allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) and direct sequencing of kdr gene. Based on the results of AS-PCR, homozygous susceptible (SS) genotype was found in nine out of 14 populations with 38 individuals from a total sample size of 140. Heterozygous (RS) genotype was most predominant (99 individuals) and distributed across all study sites. Homozygous resistance (RR) genotype was detected in Perak (one individual) and Selangor (two individuals). The resistance kdr allele frequencies ranged from 0.1 to 0.55, with the highest being detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus population from Selangor. This study has documented the first field-evolved instance of 1014F mutation in Malaysian mosquitoes and the findings of this study could be utilized in the implementation of strategic measures in vector control programs in Malaysia.
Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717bp, 754 specimens), EF-1α (361bp, 256 specimens) and white (577bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas.
Sandflies vary in their distributions and role in pathogen transmission. Attempts to record distributions of sandflies in Thailand have faced difficulties due to their high abundance and diversity. We aim to provide an insight into the diversity of sandflies in Thailand by (i) conducting a literature review, and (ii) DNA barcoding sandflies collected from Wihan Cave where eight morphologically characterized species were recorded. DNA barcodes generated for 193 sandflies fell into 13 distinct species clusters under four genera (Chinius, Idiophlebotomus, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia). Five of these species could be assigned Linnaean species names unambiguously and two others corresponded to characterized morphospecies. Two species represented a complex under the name Sergentomyia barraudi while the remaining four had not been recognized before in any form. The resulting species checklist and DNA barcode library contribute to a growing set of records for sandflies which is useful for monitoring and vector control.
Simulium feuerborni Edwards is geographically widespread in Southeast Asia. Previous cytogenetic study in Thailand revealed that this species is a species complex composed of two cytoforms (A and B). In this study, we cytologically examined specimens obtained from the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, and Puncak, Java, Indonesia. The results revealed two additional cytoforms (C and D) of S. feuerborni. Specimens from Malaysia represent cytoform C, differentiated from other cytoforms by a fixed chromosome inversion on the long arm of chromosome III (IIIL-5). High frequencies of the B chromosome (33-83%) were also observed in this cytoform. Specimens from Indonesia represent the cytoform D. This cytoform is differentiated from others by a fixed chromosome inversion difference on the long arm of chromosome II (IIL-4). Mitochondrial DNA sequences support genetic differentiation among cytoforms A, B, and C. The pairwise F(ST) values among these cytoforms were highly significantly consistent with the divergent lineages of the cytoforms in a median-joining haplotype network. However, a lack of the sympatric populations prevented us from testing the species status of the cytoforms.
Septins belong to GTPases that are involved in vital cellular activities, including cytokinesis. Although present in many organisms, they are yet to be isolated from Aedes albopictus. This study reports for the first time on a serendipitous isolation of a partial septin sequence from Ae. albopictus and its developmental expression profile. The Ae. albopictus partial septin sequence contains 591 nucleotides encoding 197 amino acids. It shares homology with several insect septin genes and has a close phylogenetic relationship with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus septins. The Ae. albopictus septin fragment was differentially expressed in the mosquito's developmental stages, with an increased expression in the adults.
A multi-locus approach was used to examine the DNA sequences of 10 nominal species of blackfly in the Simulium subgenus Gomphostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Malaysia. Molecular data were acquired from partial DNA sequences of the mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear-encoded 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes. No single gene, nor the concatenated gene set, resolved all species or all relationships. However, all morphologically established species were supported by at least one gene. The multi-locus sequence analysis revealed two distinct evolutionary lineages, conforming to the morphotaxonomically recognized Simulium asakoae and Simulium ceylonicum species groups.
Anopheles balabacensis, the primary vector of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah, Malaysia, is both zoophilic and anthropophilic, feeding on macaques as well as humans. It is the dominant Anopheles species found in Kudat Division where it is responsible for all the cases of P. knowlesi. However there is a paucity of basic biological and ecological information on this vector. We investigated the genetic variation of this species using the sequences of cox1 (1,383 bp) and cox2 (685 bp) to gain an insight into the population genetics and inter-population gene flow in Sabah. A total of 71 An. balabacensis were collected from seven districts constituting 14 subpopulations. A total of 17, 10 and 25 haplotypes were detected in the subpopulations respectively using the cox1, cox2 and the combined sequence. Some of the haplotypes were common among the subpopulations due to gene flow occurring between them. AMOVA showed that the genetic variation was high within subpopulations as compared to between subpopulations. Mantel test results showed that the variation between subpopulations was not due to the geographical distance between them. Furthermore, Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed that An. balabacensis in Sabah is experiencing population expansion and growth. High gene flow between the subpopulations was indicated by the low genetic distance and high gene diversity in the cox1, cox2 and the combined sequence. However the population at Lipasu Lama appeared to be isolated possibly due to its higher altitude at 873 m above sea level.
The emergence of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L.) has limited the success of vector control. Early detection of resistance could assist authorities in deciding well-suited control strategies to minimize operational failures of Ae. aegypti control. Herein, biochemical analysis was performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance in nine populations of Indonesian Ae. aegypti. Enzymes of adult Ae. aegypti such as esterases (ESTs), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and mixed-function oxidases (MFOs) were characterized. Elevated MFO activity was correlated with resistance phenotype, indicating the role of this enzyme in contributing to pyrethroid resistance. No significant correlations were shown between pyrethroid resistance phenotype and α-ESTs, suggesting that marginally exceeded enzyme levels relative to the reference strain in some pyrethroid-susceptible populations were causative factor for insecticide resistance in other groups of insecticides. However, significant correlation was demonstrated between β-ESTs and pyrethroid resistance phenotype. The lowest enzyme levels in GSTs indicated that this enzyme was not predominant in causing pyrethroid resistance, despite the presence of significant correlations. Because metabolic detoxification fails to comprehensively explain the pyrethroid resistance in some Indonesian Ae. aegypti, additional mechanisms such as altered target sites in voltage-gated sodium channel may also contribute to the high pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.
INTRODUCTION: Dengue virus (DENV) is principally transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. To date, mosquito population control remains the key strategy for reducing the continuing spread of DENV. The focus on the development of new vector control strategies through an understanding of the mosquito-virus relationship is essential, especially targeting the midgut, which is the first mosquito organ exposed to DENV infection.
METHODOLOGY: A cDNA library derived from female adult A. aegypti mosquito midgut cells was established using the switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART), in combination with a highly potent recombination machinery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gal4-based yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays were performed against DENV-2 proteins (E, prM, M, and NS1). Mammalian two-hybrid (M2H) and double immunofluorescence assays (IFA) were conducted to validate the authenticity of the three selected interactions.
RESULTS: The cDNA library was of good quality based on its transformation efficiency, cell density, titer, and the percentage of insert size. A total of 36 midgut proteins interacting with DENV-2 proteins were identified, some involved in nucleic acid transcription, oxidoreductase activity, peptidase activity, and ion binding. Positive outcomes were obtained from the three selected interactions validated using M2H and double IFA assays.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins have different biological activities that may aid in the virus replication pathway. Therefore, the midgut cDNA library is a valuable tool for identifying DENV-2 interacting proteins. The positive outcomes of the three selected proteins validated supported the quality of the cDNA library and the robustness of the Y2H mechanisms.
Dragonflies of the genus Orthetrum are members of the suborder Anisoptera, family Libellulidae. There are species pairs whose members are not easily separated from each other by morphological characters. In the present study, the DNA nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes were employed to elucidate the phylogeny and systematics of Orthetrum dragonflies. Phylogenetic analyses could not resolve the various subfamilies of the family Libellulidae unequivocally. The nuclear 28S rRNA gene is highly conserved and could not resolve congeneric species of Orthetrum. Individual mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, and 16S rRNA) and combination of these genes as well as the nuclear ITS1&2 genes clearly differentiate morphologically similar species, such as the reddish species pairs O. chrysis and O. testaceum, and the bluish-coloured species O. glaucum and O. luzonicum. This study also reveals distinct genetic lineages between O. pruinosum schneideri (occurring in Malaysia) and O. pruinosum neglectum (occurring north of Peninsular Malaysia from India to Japan), indicating these taxa are cryptic species.
Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) or the Asian subterranean termite is a serious structural pest in urban settlements in Southeast Asia that has been introduced to other parts of the world through human commerce. Although mitochondrial DNA markers were previously used to shed light on the dispersal history of the Asian subterranean termite, there were limited attempts to analyze or include populations of the termite found in the wild in Southeast Asia. In this study, we analyzed the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes of Asian subterranean termite colonies found in mangrove swamps, beach forests, plantations, and buildings in semi-urban and urban areas to determine the relationship between colonies found in the wild and the urban habitat, and to investigate the possibility of different ecotypes of the termite in Peninsular Malaysia. Our findings show that the 16S rRNA haplotypes recovered from this study clustered into eastern, western, and southern populations of the termite, while the cox1 haplotypes were often specific to an area or site. The 16S rRNA and cox1 genes or haplotypes showed that the most abundant haplotype occupied a wide range of environments or habitats. In addition, the cox1 tree showed evidence of historical biogeography where basal haplotypes inhabited a wide range of habitats, while apical haplotypes were restricted to mangrove swamps and beach forests. Information on the haplotype-habitat association of C. gestroi will enable the prediction of habitats that may harbor or be at risk of invasion in areas where they have been introduced.
The present study explored the intraspecific genetic diversity, dispersal patterns and phylogeographic relationships of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia using reference data available in GenBank in order to reveal this species' phylogenetic relationships. A statistical parsimony network of 70 taxa aligned as 624 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 685 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene revealed three haplotypes (A1-A3) and four haplotypes (B1-B4), respectively. The concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes with a total of 1309 characters revealed seven haplotypes (AB1-AB7). Analysis using tcs indicated that haplotype AB1 was the common ancestor and the most widespread haplotype in Malaysia. The genetic distance based on concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes ranged from 0.00076 to 0.00229. Sequence alignment of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Malaysia and other countries revealed four haplotypes (AA1-AA4) by the COI gene and nine haplotypes (BB1-BB9) by the COII gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Malaysian Cx. quinquefasciatus share the same genetic lineage as East African and Asian Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study has inferred the genetic lineages, dispersal patterns and hypothetical ancestral genotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus.
The male of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) betisi is described from Malayan caves. Several males have been caught in association with P. betisi females. Males and females have been associated by ecology, biogeography, morphology and molecular biology (homology of the ND4 mtDNA sequences).
Given that there is limited available information on the insensitive acetylcholinesterase in insect species in Malaysia, the present study aims to detect the presence of G119S mutation in the acetylcholinesterase gene of Culex quinquefasciatus from 14 residential areas across 13 states and a federal territory in Malaysia.
We access the molecular diversity of the black fly Simulium nobile De Mejiere, using the universal cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene, across its distributional range in Southeast Asia. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered three well-supported mitochondrial lineages of S. nobile, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. Lineage A is composed of a population from Sabah, East Malaysia (Borneo); lineage B represents the type population from Java, Indonesia; and lineage C includes populations from the mainland of Southeast Asia (Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand). The genetic variation of lineage C on the mainland is greater than that of lineages A and B on the islands of Borneo and Java. Our study highlights the value of a molecular approach in assessing species status of simuliids in geographically distinct regions.
The sequences of the mitochondrial ND4 gene (1339 bp) and the ND4L gene (290 bp) were determined for all the 14 extant taxa of the Drosophila nasuta subgroup. The average A + T content of ND4 genes is 76.5% and that of ND4L genes is 83.5%. A total of 114 variable sites were scored. The ND4 gene sequence divergence ranged from 0 to 5.4% within the subgroup. The substitution rate of the ND4 gene is about 1.25% per million years. The base substitution of the genes is strongly transition biased. Neighbor-joining and parsimony were used to construct a phylogeny based on the resultant sequence data set. According to these trees, five distinct mtDNA clades can be identified. D. niveifrons represents the most diverged lineage. D. sulfurigaster bilimbata and D. kepulauana form two independent lineages. The other two clades are the kohkoa complex and the albomicans complex. The kohkoa complex consists of D. sulfurigaster sulfurigaster, D. pulaua, D. kohkoa, and Taxon-F. The albomicans complex can be divided into two groups: D. nasuta, D. sulfurigaster neonasuta, D. sulfurigaster albostrigata, and D. albomicans from Chiangmai form one group; and D. pallidifrons, Taxon-I, Taxon-J, and D. albomicans from China form the other group. High genetic differentiation was found among D. albomicans populations. Based on our phylogenetic results, we hypothesize that D. niveifrons diverged first from the D. nasuta subgroup in Papua New Guinea about 3.5 Mya. The ancestral population spread to the north and when it reached Borneo, it diversified sequentially into the kohkoa complex, D. s. bilimbata, and D. kepulauana. About 1 Mya, another radiation occurred when the ancestral populations reached the Indo-China Peninsula, forming the albomicans complex. Discrepancy between morphological groupings and phylogenetic results suggests that the male morphological traits may not be orthologous.
Consensus on the optimal high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach to examine biodiversity in mixed terrestrial arthropod samples has not been reached. Metatranscriptomics could increase the proportion of taxonomically informative mitochondrial reads in HTS outputs but has not been investigated for terrestrial arthropod samples. We compared the efficiency of 16S rRNA metabarcoding, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics for detecting species in a mixed terrestrial arthropod sample (pooled DNA/RNA from 38 taxa). 16S rRNA metabarcoding and nuclear rRNA-depleted metatranscriptomics had the highest detection rate with 97% of input species detected. Based on cytochrome c oxidase I, metagenomics had the highest detection rate with 82% of input species detected, but metatranscriptomics produced a larger proportion of reads matching (Sanger) reference sequences. Metatranscriptomics with nuclear rRNA depletion may offer advantages over metabarcoding through reducing the number of spurious operational taxonomic units while retaining high detection rates, and offers natural enrichment of mitochondrial sequences which may enable increased species detection rates compared with metagenomics.